Letter Alif Lam Syamsiyah: Definition, Examples, and Differences with Alif Lam Qomariyah

Alif Lam Syamsiyah Letter – Muslims must understand that reading the Al-Quran in a good and correct manner is an obligation that cannot be abandoned. What’s more, reading the Al-Quran is just reciting the hijaiyah letters contained in the Al-Quran, but one must also be able to read it properly and correctly in accordance with the laws of its recitation and its tajwid. Apart from that, You must also understand the meaning of the translation of the Al-Quran to be used as a guide in carrying out his daily life.

In the Science of Tajwid, there is much that is regulated, especially regarding the law of reciting the Al-Quran. Starting from the reading laws of Mad, Izhar, Ikhfa, to Alif Lam Syamsiyah which has its own letters. So, what are the letters included in Alif Lam Syamsiyah? Where is the application of the letters Alif Lam Syamsiyah in the holy book of the Koran? What is the difference between Alif Lam Syamsiyah and Alif Lam Qomariyah? So, so that You understands these things, let’s look at the following review!

What are the letters of Alif Lam Syamsiyah?

Basically, there are 14 hijaiyah letters included in Alif Lam Syamsiyah, namely: ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن

The Alif Lam Syamsiyah letters are actually the letters Alif and Lam ( ال ) which meet the 14 Syamsiyah letters previously mentioned. It is called the Syamsiyah letter because it comes from the word “syamsun” which means the sun. Therefore, the Syamsiyah letters are likened to the sun, while Lam Ta’rif is a star. A star of course will not appear when it meets the sun. That is why, this reading law is also called Idgham Syamsiyah.

The law for reading Alif Lam Syamsiyah is by imagining (inserting) Alif Lam (ال) into the Syamsiyah letters so that the reading becomes melted. Yep, the way to read Alif Lam Syamsiyah is not clear or just vague, that is, with Lam melting into the Syamsiyah letters in front of it.

So, it can be concluded that,

“Alif Lam Syamsiyah reading is a lafadz in the Koran where the letter alif lam ( ال ) does not meet with one of the syamsiyah letters, so it must be read vaguely or not clearly. There are 14 Syamsiyah letters, namely: ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن”

Definition of Lam Ta’rif

Then, what is Lam Ta’rif? The law of reading Lam Ta’rif is when there are letters Alif and Lam ( ال ) which are always accompanied by an isim (noun) so that the isim becomes a certain ma’rifah. So, the existence of Alif Lam Ta’rif can also be an additional letter at the beginning of the word isim. So, in Alif Lam Ta’rif’s reading law, there are 2 types, namely Alif Lam Syamsiyah and Alif Lam Qamariyah.

An example of applying the letters Alif Lam Syamsiyah in the Koran

In fact, the Alif Lam Syamsiyah letters are found in many surahs contained in the holy book of the Al-Quran. Well, here is an example of applying the letter Alif Lam Syamsiyah found in the Al-Quran.

Getting to Know What Alif Lam Qomariyah Is

Since the name is almost the same, of course the definition of Alif Lam Qomariyah will not be much different from Alif Lam Syamsiyah. Alif Lam Qomariyah is when the letter Alif Lam ( ال ) meets one of the letters qamariyah. There are 14 hijaiyah letters included in the Qamariyah letters, namely: أ ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك م و ه ي

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There is one difference between Alif Lam Syamsiyah and Alif Lam Qamariyah, namely when reading Alif Lam Qamariyah’s reading law, the pronunciation must be read clearly. That is why, Alif Lam Qamariyah’s reading is also called Izhar Qamariyah.

Alif Lam Qamariyah’s readings are also widely found in the Koran, some of which are:

The difference between Alif Lam Syamsiyah and Alif Lam Qomariyah

Even though the name is the same because both are “derivatives” of the Lam Ta’rif reading law, they still have differences. Apart from the different way of reading it, there are other things that distinguish this Alif Lam Syamsiyah from Alif Lam Qamariyah, namely:

Alif Lam Syamsiyah Alif Lam Qamariyah
The letter lam (ل ) is read indistinctly and is entered into the next letter. The letter lam (ل) is read clearly and clearly so it is also called Izhar reading.
Does not have a vowel, if there is even then it will be considered not there. Have breadfruit.
It is written using the tasydid sign ( ّ- ) It is written using the breadfruit sign ( ْ- )
Is in front of Alif Lam ( ال ) It is in the letter Lam (ل )

Understanding the Science of Tajweed

Basically, etymologically (according to language) the word “tajwid” means ‘to beautify something’. Meanwhile, according to the term, this Tajwid Science has a definition in the form of ‘knowledge of the rules and ways to read the Al-Quran as well as possible. The main purpose of studying Tajweed is to protect the reading of the Al-Quran from errors and changes and to protect the oral (mouth) from reading errors. In addition, learning recitation is fardlu kifayah, while reading the Koran properly (according to tajwid) is fardhu ‘ain.

Levels of Reading in Tajweed

In the Science of Tajwid, there are 4 levels when reading the Al-Quran which are seen based on the fast or slow aspect of reading the holy verses of the Al-Quran, namely in the form of:

1) At-Tahqiq

At this level, the reading is like tartil, only slower and slower, such as correcting the reading of the letters from the makhraj, and correcting the reading levels of mad (extended reading) and ghunnah (drumming).

This level of reading tahqiq is usually for those who are just learning to read the Koran so that they can train their tongue to pronounce letters and character traits correctly and correctly.

2. Al Hadar

In this second level, it will be read quickly and maintain the laws of tajwid reading. The hadar reading level is also usually carried out for those who have memorized the Al-Quran, so that they can repeat their reading in a short time.

3. At-Tadwir

In this third level, it is carried out between the levels of tartil and hadar reading, as well as maintaining the tajwid laws.

4. At-Tartil

In the fourth level of this last alias, it is done by reading slowly, calmly and pronouncing each letter of the makhraj correctly. Apart from that, this is also done by following the laws of reciting the tajwid perfectly, contemplating its meaning and the law, to the teachings of the verse in everyday life.

This level of tartil reading is usually for those who are familiar with the makhrajs of letters, the characteristics of letters and the laws of tajwid. This level of reading is better and more preferred.

Outline of the Subjects of Tajwid Science

As with other disciplines, the existence of this tajwid science also has a subject matter which is broadly divided into two parts, namely:

  1. Haqqul Letters
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Namely everything that is customary (must exist) in each letter. The right to this letter includes its characteristics (adjectives) and the places where letters appear (makhorijul letters). If the letter rights are abolished, it is impossible for all the sounds that are spoken to contain meaning because the sound becomes unclear.

  1. Mustahaqul Letters

Namely new laws (Aridla) that arise for certain reasons after letter rights are attached to each letter. Mustahaqqul Letters include laws such as Idzhar, Ikhfa’, Iqlab, Idgham, Qalqalah, Ghunnah, Tafkhim, Tarqiq, Mad, Waqaf, etc.

The Purpose of Studying Tajweed

Indeed, basically, the existence of this tajwid science is to guard our tongues, especially when reading the Al-Quran so that we can avoid any mistakes. Remembering that the verses in the Al-Quran are holy verses, so they must be kept pure. As mentioned by Shaykh Mahmud Khalil al-Hushari al-Qari’ in his book Ahkamu Qira’atil Qur’anil Karim , p. 34-35, stated that

1. Al Lahnul Jaliy

Namely mistakes that occur when reading verses in the Koran, whether they can change the meaning or not, so that they violate ‘urf qurro (such as ‘ain being read as hamzah, or changing the vowel fathah to dhommah, etc.). If you make this mistake intentionally, then the law is unlawful.

2. Allahnu Khofiyyu

That is an error that occurs when reading verses in the Koran which actually violates ‘urf qurro, but does not change the meaning. For example, not reading ghunnah (drum), reading mad (long sound), obligatory muttashil, etc. If you make this mistake intentionally, then the law is makruh.

Adab Reading Al-Quran

It should be noted that reading the holy book Al-Quran is different from reading newspapers or books that are human in nature. This is due to reading the Al-Quran which actually contains the words of Allah SWT in the form of words from Allah SWT, as a form of communication between Allah SWT and His servants. Therefore, there are manners and rules that must be observed, adhered to, and maintained when reading the Al-Quran. The adab of reading the Al-Quran is categorized into 2 types, namely Born Adab and Inner Adab.

Birth of Adab

  1. In a state of purification. Especially from small hadas, big hadas, and all unclean things. This is because the holy book Al-Quran contains revelations from Allah SWT, not human words like newspapers or books.
  2. Choose a place that is appropriate and holy. In this case, not all places are appropriate or suitable for reading the Al-Quran, right… There are several places that are not suitable for reading the Koran, one of which is the bathroom. That is why, You must choose a place that is holy and quiet, for example a mosque, mushalla, or prayer room either at home or office.
  3. Face the Qiblah and dress modestly. When you want to read the Koran, it is recommended to face the Qibla and wear modest clothes. This is because the activity of reading the Al-Quran is part of worship to Allah SWT and as if he is in dialogue with Him.
  4. Siwak or cleaning the mouth. Just like when you want to communicate with humans, you have to clean your mouth with Allah SWT first so that it is clean and your breath is fresh.
  5. Read ta’awudz before reading the Al-Quran.
  6. Read with tartil, that is, you have to be calm, slowly, and pay attention to recitation.
  7. Read aloud (jahr).
  8. Beautify sound.

Inner Adab

  1. Tadabbur way. Namely by paying serious attention to the wisdom contained in every fragment of the verses of the Al-Quran.
  2. In khusyu’ and khudhu’. That is, we must humble ourselves before Allah SWT so that the Al-Quran that we read will have an impact on us as readers.
  3. Outright. That is, when you are reading the Al-Quran you have to sincerely and for the sake of seeking the pleasure of Allah SWT.