Mad Farqi – Muslims must understand that the holy book Al-Quran cannot be read carelessly. All the letters in the verses of the Al-Quran have actually been arranged in the Science of Tajwid, namely the science that teaches the skill of sounding or pronouncing the letters in the holy book of the Al-Quran properly and correctly. When studying Tajweed, you don’t just get smart right away, but it requires a process and a sincere intention.
This Tajwid science has regulated several reading laws in the Al-Quran. Starting from the law of mim dead, reading idzhar, to reading mad. All of that, of course, must be understood as well as possible by Muslims as taught by Rasulullah SAW. In the mad reading law, the characteristic that accompanies it is the long sound of the hijaiyah letters, especially those with the vowel hathah meeting the dead alif. In the mad reading law, it also divides several mad readings, one of which is mad farqi. So, what is mad farqi reading? How to read verses of the Koran that contain mad farqi readings? What is the explanation about the law of reading mad in the holy book of the Koran? So, so that You understands these things, let’s look at the following review!
What is Mad Farqi Reading?
According to the language, the word “Mad” means ‘to lengthen’, more precisely, to ‘lengthen the sound when pronouncing the mad letters’. Meanwhile, the word “farqi” means ‘differentiator’. Another name for mad farqi is mad istifham alias mad question, because in the reading there will be the letter hamzah (ء) which means “what” as a question expression. The existence of this mad farqi is included in the branch of the Mad Far’i derivative which has 14 branches.
That is, this mad farqi reading will be used to distinguish between which are interrogative sentences and which are not interrogative sentences. Readings that are read long (mad) are interrogative sentences, while those that are read short (not mad) are not interrogative sentences. Just a little trivia , this mad farqi reading occurs because it separates the Mad Badal law from the Mutsaqqal Kilmi Mad Typical law.
So, since the reading of mad farqi has been arranged in such a way, it is not permissible to read it arbitrarily, especially in terms of length. For the law of reciting mad farqi, it is obligatory to recite it for six vowels or three alifs. That is, by lengthening the istifham hamzah by six vowels, then idghaming it with the next letter.
How to Read Mad Farqi and Examples?
As previously explained, to read mad farqi readings it is enough for six vowels (beats) or three alifs.
For examples of mad farqi readings contained in the holy book of the Koran, there are actually only 3 surahs, namely Surah Al-An’am verses 143-144, Surah Yunus verse 59, and Surah An-Naml verse 59.
Surah Al-An’am verse 143
( Tsamāniyata azwāj, minaḍ-ḍa`niṡnaini wa minal-ma’ziṡnaīn, qul āż-żakaraini ḥarrama amil-unṡayaini ammasytamalat ‘alaihi ar-ḥāmul-unṡayaīn, nabbi`ụnī bi’ilmin ing kuntum ṣādiqīn.)
“…There were eight cattle in pairs (four pairs); a pair of sheep and a pair of goats. Say, “What has Allah forbidden two males or two females or what is in the wombs of the two females? Explain to me based on knowledge if you are truthful.”
Surah Al-An’am Verse 144
( a minal-abiliṡnaini wa minal-baqariṡnaīn, qul āż-żakaraini ḥarrama amil-unṡayaini ammasytamalat ‘alaihi ar-ḥāmul-unṡaya-uniṡaya, am Kuntum Syahadā`a ż waṣākumullāhu bihāżb , innallāha lā yahdil-qaumaẓ-ẓālimīn.)
“…And from a pair of camels and from a pair of cows. Say, “What is unlawful for two males or two females, or what is in the wombs of the two females?” Were you witnesses when Allah decreed this for you? Who is more unjust than those who invent lies against Allah to lead people astray without knowledge?” Surely Allah will not guide the unjust people.”
Surah Yunus Verse 59
( Qul a ra`aitum mā anzalallāhu lakum mir rizqin fa ja’altum min-hu ḥarāmaw wa halālā, qul āllāhu ażina LAkum am ‘alallāhi taftarụn.)
“…Say (Muhammad), “Tell me about the sustenance that Allah has sent down to you, then you make some of it unlawful and some of it lawful.” Say, “Has Allah given permission for you (about this) or are you making this up in the name of Allah?”
Surah Al-Naml Verse 59
( Qulil-ḥamdu lillāhi wa salāmun ‘alā ‘ibādihillażīnaṣṭafā, āllāhu khairun ammā yusyrikụn .)
“…Say (Muhammad), “Praise be to Allah and peace be upon His chosen servants. Is Allah better, or what do they associate (with Him)?”
Get to know Mad Reading Law
Basically, Mad reading is one of the rules for reciting the Al-Quran which has been regulated in the Science of Tajweed. This Mad reading occurs by lengthening the hijaiyah letters because there is a meeting between the hijaiyah letters which have the vowel fathah ( ﹷ ) with dead alif; hijaiyah letters with the vowel dhammah ( ُ- ) with wau dies; and hijaiyah with the vowel kasrah ( ِ- ) which meets ya’ die.
According to the language, the word “mad” means ‘additional’ or ‘long’. Meanwhile, according to the term, the tajwid scholars and qiraat experts have agreed that this Mad reading law will occur by lengthening the sound of the hijaiyah letters in the Al-Quran, but with the rules that apply. Therefore, there are 3 types of mad letters, namely:
- Alif ( ا ), before the letters Alif line fathah
- Wau (ﻭ), before wau march dhammah
- Ya (ﻱ ), before the letters Ya line up in dash
Broadly speaking, this mad reading is divided into 2 namely Mad Thabi’i (original mad) and Mad Far’i (branch or derivative).
Mad Reading Distribution
1. Mad Thabi’i (Mad Original)
That is mad reading which can stand alone because of the mad letter itself. This reading from Mad Thabi’i occurs when the hijaiyah letters are usually extended by one alif or two vowels. Not all hijaiyah letters can be read Mad Thabi’i, yes, there must be the following things:
- If there is an Alif letter ( ا ) it is after the vowel fathah ( ﹷ ). Example: نا, ما, سا, وا, ح
- If there is a Wau letter (ﻭ) it is after the vowel dhammah (ُ-). Example: سو, مو, نو, وو, حو
- If there is a letter Yes (ﻱ ) it is after the vowel kasrah ( ِ- ). Example: مي, سي
2. Mad Far’i (Branch or Derivative)
The existence of Mad Far’i is a branch or derivative of Mad Thabi’i and has 14 branches. Mad Farqi is also included in this branch of Mad Far’i, right… Well, here’s an explanation.
a) Mad Obligatory Muttashil
Namely the mad reading that occurs when Mad Thabi’i meets the letter hamzah (ء) in one word or one sentence . The only way to read it is to extend it up to 4 or 5 vowels. Examples of Mad Obligatory Muttashil readings:
b) Mad Jaiz Munfasil
Namely the mad reading that occurs when Mad Thabi’i meets the letter hamza (ء) in two words . The way to read it is to extend it up to 4 or 5 vowels. Examples of reading Mad Jaiz Munfasil:
c) Mad Layyin
That is, the mad reading that occurs in the hijaiyah letters with the upper vowel (fathah and dhommah) meets the letters yes (ﻱ ) and wau (ﻭ) marked with breadfruit. Meanwhile, in front of it again there is one letter that is turned off because waqaf alias stops. In short, this Layyin reading occurs when there is an italic reading (lin) meets one letter which is turned off due to waqaf (stopping).
What is italics , aka lin? Now, what is included in the italic reading (lin) is reading that has sounds like “Ai” (fathah meets the letter ya) and “Au” (fathah meets the letter wau).
This Mad Layyin reading can be read by lengthening it by about 2, 4, up to 6 vowels. However, you have to be consistent in reading it until the end of the reading. Example reading:
d) Mad Badal
That is what happens when the letters hamza (ء) meet the letters mad. Usually, there will be 2 hamza letters (ء). The first hamzah (ء) letter will be a vowel, while the second hamza (ء) letter will be given death certificate, so that the second hamzah (ء) letter will be replaced with:
- Letter Alif ( ا ), if the first hamza has vowel fathah.
- Letter Wau (ﻭ), if the first hamzah has the vowel kasrah.
- Letter Yes (ﻱ ), if the first hamzah has the vowel dhommah.
If you have met, then it must be read in length as much as 2 vowels. Examples of reading Mad Badal:
e) Mad Tamkin
Namely, if there are 2 letters Ya (ﻱ), both those who have tasydid and those who have a blessing meet breadfruit. The reading must be 1 alif or 2 vowels long with the placement of the reading in the tasydid and Mad Thabi’i. Examples of reading Mad Tamkin:
f) Mad Iwad
That is, if there are hijaiyah letters with the vowel fathah tanwin, then it is read waqaf (stop) at the end of the sentence. The reading must be as long as 1 alif or 2 vowels. Examples of reading Mad Iwad:
g) Mad Arid Lissukun
That is what happens if there is a mad letter meeting with breadfruit which is caused by a waqaf (stopping) especially at the end of the verse. If it is not waqfed, it will become Mad Thabi’i. The length of the reading is around 2, 4, up to 6 vowels. There are three types of reading laws for Mad Arid Lissukun, namely:
- Tul (long), about 3 alif or 6 vowels.
- Tawassuth (medium), about 2 alif or 4 vowels.
- Qasar (short), about 1 alif or 2 vowels.
h) Mad Farqi
As previously explained, mad farqi is reading that occurs because of a meeting between Mad Badal and letters that have tasydid. How to read it must be about 6 vowels long.
i) Mad Silah Qasirah
That is what happens if ha dhamir (pronoun) is between two letters that are vowel but not consonants. How to read it must be about 2 vowels long. Example of reading Mad Silah Qasirah:
j) Mad Silah Tawilah
That is what happens if ha dhamir (pronoun) meets the letter hamzah (ء) which is lined up and the letter before ha dhamir is also lined up. How to read it must also be about 4 to 5 vowels long. Examples of reading Mad Silah Tawilah:
k) Mad Lazim Mutsaqqal Kalimi
That is what happens if the original mad or Mad Thabi’i meets a letter that has tasydid in one word . This reading must be read in length of about 6 vowels. Example of reading Mad Lazim Mutsaqqal Kalimi:
l) Mad Lazim Mukhaffaf Kalimi
That is what happens if the letter mad meets letters that line up breadfruit in one word. There are only 2 examples of this reading in the Al-Quran, namely in Surah Yunus verses 51 and 91.
m) Mad Lazim Mutsaqqal Harfi
Namely, it is a mad reading that is found in certain letters only. Certain letters are usually at the beginning of the sura marked by (~). This reading must be read in length as much as 3 to 6 vowels. Certain letters are usually: ن, ق, ص, ع, ل, ي, ك, م.
n) Mad Lazim Mukhaffaf Harfi
It is a long reading at the beginning of the sura. Unlike the previous one, this one Mad reading has a standing fathah mark so it has to be read lightly along 1 alif or 2 vowels only. The letters included in Mad Lazim Mukhaffaf Harfi are:
So, that’s a review of what the law of reading mad farqi is, along with how to read it and examples of reading it contained in the holy book of the Koran. Has You read Mad’s reading correctly?