Izhar Halqi: Definition, Letters, and How to Pronounce

Izhar Halqi – Basically, izhar halqi is included in the Science of Tajwid which deals with reading nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) and the letter mim mati ( م ) which meets the letters hijaiyah. It should be noted that reading nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) when meeting one of the hijaiyah letters, has 4 reading laws namely Izhar Halqi, Idgham, Iqlab, and Ikhfa’. In the case of izhar, not only izhar halqi but also izhar syafawi.

For Muslims, the existence of the Science of Tajweed is very necessary and important to learn because it contains various “rules” for how to pronounce the letters of the Al-Quran properly and correctly. The existence of izhar halqi is also found in the Al-Quran. So, in this article, we will discuss what izhar halqi is, what are the letters, and how to pronounce it. Of course this is very useful for Muslims. What are you waiting for, let’s look at the following reviews!

What Are the Definitions of Dead Nun and Tanwin?

This nun mati (نْ) can also be referred to as nun sakinah, namely nun which does not line up and only uses the vowel breadfruit so it cannot be sounded, unless it is started with another letter.

While the tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) in question is the dead nun which is placed at the end of the visible noun. When it is read, it can make it a washal alias connected with other words and it disappears when it is written (waqf). So, the existence of nun (نْ) and tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) has similarities as well as differences. The similarity lies in the dead nun. While the difference lies in nun mati (نْ), both when spoken and written it will still appear; and tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) only shows the nun when spoken.

What is Izhar Halqi’s reading?

According to the language, the word “izhar” means ‘bright, clear and visible’. Meanwhile, according to the term, the word “izhar” means ‘to bring out each letter from the place where it comes out without buzzing’, so that when nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) meets one of the halqi letters, then the reading law is clear or firm. Based on this, it can be concluded that in izhar halqi the sound of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًــٍـــٌ) is real or clear, without any buzzing sound at all. So, the izhar letters are also called halqiyah letters, because these letters come from the throat.

What are the letters of Izhar Halqi and where to read them?


How to Pronounce Izhar Halqi Letters?

When you want to recite the izhar halqi reading, if there is nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًــــــٌ) that meets one of the six halqi letters, then it must be read clearly or clearly. However, don’t expect a pressure or a jolt, either in one sentence or another.

A little trivia, this clear way of reading also applies to izhar Syafawi which “regulates” the reading of Mim Mati.

Examples of Izhar Halqi Reading and How to Read It

The following is an example of reading nun mati (نْ) meeting the letters izhar halqi and how to read them in one sentence.

While the following is an example of reading tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) which meets the letters izhar halqi and how to read them in one sentence.

Getting to Know What are the Laws of Nun Mati and Tanwin Readings

As previously explained, in the Science of Tajwid which regulates the law of reading nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًــــــٌ), there is not only izhar halqi, but also idgham, iqlab, and ikhfa’. So, so that Sinaumed’s knows the other three reading laws of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ), let’s look at the following reviews!

1. Idham

Linguistically, idgham means ‘to put something into something’. The point is to include the dead nun (نْ) in idgham. Meanwhile, according to the term, idgham can mean ‘meeting of consonants with vowels so that the two letters become one letter which is tasydid. So in conclusion, this idgham reading is in the form of inserting (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) in the idgham letters and it is as if the two letters are one.

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In this idgham, the distribution of letters depends on the types of the idgham itself, which are 6 letters in total. So if nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) meets one of the six letters, nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) must be entered into it. There are six letters that are read by buzzing, some are not.

Types of Idghams

a) Idgham Bigunnah

The rule for reading idgham bigunnah is that the first letter in the form of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًــــــٌ) will be included in the second letter in the form of idgham bighunnah as well, of course accompanied by a hum. For example:

Little information, the reading rules will be excluded if there is a bigunnah idgham which is included in izhar. “If nun mati (نْ) meets the letter wawu (ﻭ) or yes (ﻱ) in one sentence, then “N” must be read clearly and clearly.

b) Idgham Bilaghunnah

Namely the type of idgham that is not accompanied by a hum (ghunnah) when there is a dead nun (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) that meets the letters of the idgham bilagunnah, namely ل and ر.

In this bilaghunnah idgham, there are certain reading rules, namely the first letter in the form of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) is entered into one of the two letters, so how to read it does not need to be accompanied by a buzzing sound.

2) Iqlab

According to the language, iqlab means ‘change’, ‘reversing’, or ‘exchanging’. Meanwhile, according to the term, iqlab can mean ‘to change the sound of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًــٍـــٌ) to “M”, especially when meeting with ba’ (ب). In this iqlab, the reading rule is “the sound of nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) is replaced or exchanged for the sound of mim, which is accompanied by a hum as it encounters the letter ba’ (ب).

Basically, there is only one iqlab letter, namely ba’ (ب). So, when nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) meets the letter ba’, then nun mati (نْ) or tanwin (ـًـــٍـــٌ) must be read as mim ( م ).

3) Ikhfa’

According to the language, the word “Ikhfa” means ‘covered or closed’. Meanwhile, according to the term, the word “Ikhfa” means ‘pronouncing the letters that are ikhfakan (disguised) with characteristics between izhar and idgham without tasydid while still being accompanied by ghunnah in the first letter’. That is, the sound in this ikhfa must be read in a vague way, namely between clear and resonant, then held for a moment. This reading is called “ikfha” because of the complete loss of the nun (ن).

Ikhfa is due to the existence of tawassuth (middle). That is, when there are letters nun breadfruit ( نْ ) and letters ikhfa that are not too close, like idgham letters and not far away like izhar letters. Ikhfa letters actually number 15, namely:

There are three things that must be considered when reciting the ikhfa’, namely:

  • First: by preparing the mouth for the next letter makhraj, especially after the nun that has been disguised.
  • Second: by pronouncing ghunnah (rumbling) completely from the nostrils.
  • Third: it is also accompanied by sound coming out of the mouth which is caused by the uncovering of the makhraj nun (in the oral part). This can happen except for the letters qaf (ﻕ) and kaf (ﻙ), so it will be completely closed completely. Therefore, the pronunciation of both with pure ghunnah (perfect hum) that is coming from the nasal cavity without the slightest sound from the mouth.

Understanding the Science of Tajweed

Basically, etymologically (according to language) the word “tajwid” means ‘to beautify something’. Meanwhile, according to the term, this Tajwid Science has a definition in the form of ‘knowledge of the rules and ways to read the Al-Quran as well as possible. The main purpose of studying Tajweed is to protect the reading of the Al-Quran from errors and changes and to protect the oral (mouth) from reading errors. In addition, studying recitation is fardlu kifayah, while reading the Koran properly (according to tajwid) is fardlu ‘ain.

The existence of the science of recitation is not merely knowledge, but has also been narrated in the Al-Quran, namely:

  • QS Al-Muzzammil (73: 4)

Meaning: And read the Qur’an slowly / tartil (praying)

  • QS Al-Furqaan (25:32)

Meaning: And We (Allah) have read (the Qur’an) to (Muhammad saw) tartil (praying).

In these two verses it clearly shows that Allah SWT ordered the Prophet to read the Al-Qur’an which was revealed to him with tartil, namely to beautify the pronunciation of each of its letters (magic).

  • Proof of As-Sunnah

In a hadith narrated by Umm Salamah ra (wife of the Prophet SAW). At that time, he was asked about how the Prophet Muhammad read and prayed, then he replied:

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Meaning: “Know that His Majesty prays and then sleeps for the same duration as when he was praying earlier, then His Majesty returns to praying for the same length as when he slept earlier, then sleeps again for the same duration as when he prayed earlier until dawn. Then she (Um Salamah) exemplified the method of reading Rasulullah SAW by showing (one) reading which explained the (pronunciation) of the letters one by one.” (Hadith 2847 Jamik At-Tirmizi)

  • Proof of Ijma’ Ulama

Since the time of Rasulullah SAW until now, the scholars have agreed by stating that reading the Koran in tajwid is something that is fardhu and obligatory. The author of the book Nihayah also states that: “Actually, it has been ijma’ (agreed) by all the priests from among the scholars who believe that tajwid is an obligatory matter from the time of the Prophet SAW until now and no one disputes this obligation.”

Levels of Reading in Tajweed

In the Science of Tajwid, there are 4 levels when reading the Al-Quran which are seen from the aspect of fast or slowly reading the holy verses of the Al-Quran, namely in the form of:

1) At-Tahqiq

At this level, the reading is like tartil only slower and slower, such as correcting the reading of the letters from the makhraj, and correcting the reading levels of mad (extended reading) and ghunnah (reverberation).

This level of reading tahqiq is usually for those who are just learning to read the Koran so that they can train their tongue to pronounce letters and character traits correctly and correctly.

2. Al Hadar

In this second level, it will be read quickly and maintain the laws of tajwid reading. The hadar reading level is also usually done for those who have memorized the Al-Quran, so they can repeat their reading in a short time.

3. At-Tadwir

In this third level, it is carried out between the levels of tartil and hadar reading, as well as maintaining the tajwid laws.

4. At-Tartil

In the fourth level of this last alias, it is done by reading slowly, calmly and pronouncing each letter of the makhraj correctly. Apart from that, this is also done by following the laws of reciting the tajwid perfectly, contemplating its meaning and the law, to the teachings of the verse in everyday life.

This level of tartil reading is usually for those who are familiar with the makhrajs of letters, the characteristics of letters and the laws of tajwid. This level of reading is better and more preferred.

Outline of the Subjects of Tajwid Science

As with other disciplines, the existence of this tajwid science also has a subject matter which is broadly divided into two parts, namely:

  1. Haqqul Letters

Namely everything that is customary (must exist) in each letter. The right to this letter includes its characteristics (adjectives) and the places where letters appear (makhorijul letters). If the letter rights are abolished, it is impossible for all the sounds that are spoken to contain meaning because the sound becomes unclear.

  1. Mustahaqul Letters

Namely new laws (Aridla) that arise for certain reasons after letter rights are attached to each letter. Mustahaqqul Letters include laws such as Idzhar, Ikhfa’, Iqlab, Idgham, Qalqalah, Ghunnah, Tafkhim, Tarqiq, Mad, Waqaf, etc.

The Purpose of Studying Tajweed

Indeed, basically, the existence of this tajwid science is to guard our tongues, especially when reading the Al-Quran so that we can avoid any mistakes. Remembering that the verses in the Al-Quran are holy verses, so they must be kept pure. As mentioned by Shaykh Mahmud Khalil al-Hushari al-Qari’ in his book Ahkamu Qira’atil Qur’anil Karim , p. 34-35, states that:

1. Allahnul Jaliyyu

Namely mistakes that occur when reading verses in the Koran, whether they can change the meaning or not, so that they violate ‘urf qurro (such as ‘ain being read as hamzah, or changing the vowel fathah to dhommah, etc.). If you make this mistake intentionally, then the law is unlawful.

2. Allahnul Khofiyyu

That is an error that occurs when reading verses in the Koran which actually violates ‘urf qurro, but does not change the meaning. For example, not reading ghunnah (drum), reading mad (long sound), obligatory muttashil, etc. If you make this mistake intentionally, then the law is makruh.

Well, that’s a review of what is idzhar halqi and the law of reading nun mati or other tanwin. Has Sinaumed’s applied the law of reading when he was reading the holy Al-Quran?

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