Kinds of Harakat and How to Pronounce Them

Kinds of Harakat – When reading the Koran, Muslims have an obligation to understand the punctuation marks, the goal is to avoid mistakes in meaning when reading the verses of the Koran.

The punctuation marks in the Koran are known as vowels which are used to clarify the pronunciation of hijaiyah letters.

Basically, all kinds of vowels are symbols or punctuation that are written above or below hijaiyah letters. Harakat has several types, including kasrah, tanwin fatah, fathah, dhammah and others.

What are the other kinds of vows? Check out the explanation further in this article!

Harakat or also known as tasykil is a punctuation mark or diacritic placed on Arabic letters or hijaiyah letters which functions as an explanation of the movements and pronunciation of these Arabic letters.

Arabic letters in the Arabic alphabet generally only represent consonants without vowels. So that the vowel is also used as an explanatory pronunciation.

The vowel used is fathah in Arabic, symbolizing the vowel a followed by a marked consonant, kasrah, dhammah, breadfruit, tanwin and modifications to indicate vowels that should be read long.

Harakat is used to make it easier to read Arabic letters for lay people, beginners and students and is usually written in educational books, children’s books to the holy book of the Koran, although in daily writing, Arabic tends not to use vowels.

Because in general, Arabs already understand and understand the writing they read, but sometimes vowels are still used as a form of emphasis on a word, especially words that are less commonly used in everyday life to avoid reading errors.

Kinds of Harakat and How to Pronounce Them

There are nine kinds of vowels that must be learned and understood, especially if Sinaumed’s is a beginner in reading the Koran or is learning Arabic.

The nine vowels include the following, fathah, dhammah, kasrah, fathatain (tanwin fatah), dhammatain (tanwin dhammah), kasratain (tanwin kasrah), tribe, tasydid or syaddah and other long reading marks.

To make it clearer, here is an explanation of the various vowels and how to pronounce each vowel.

1. Fathah ( ﹷ )

Fathah is a vowel that has a shape like a small slash and is placed above an Arabic letter. Harakat fathah makes a vowel sound a.

Every hijaiyah letter that gets a fathah vowel will sound. Therefore, every Arabic letter that gets the vowel fathah will sound a.

Examples as follows.

جَ ثَ تَ بَ

The four letters are pronounced ja, tsa, ta, and ba.

2. Dhamma ( ُ- )

Dhammah is a vowel that has a shape like a small wawu letter and is placed above an Arabic letter. dhammah has the vowel sound u.

Examples as follows.

رُ زُ دُ خُ حُ

The five Arabic letters above are pronounced ru, zu, du, khu and hu.

3. Kasrah ( ِ- )

Kasrah is a vowel that has a shape like a small slash and is placed under the hijaiyah letters. Harakat kasrah will produce the sound of the letter i.

Examples as follows.

طِ ضِ صِ شِ سِ

The five Arabic letters above are pronounced thi, dhi, shi, shi and si.

4. Fathatain or Tanwin Fathah ( ً- )

Fathatain or also known as tanwin fathah is a vowel that has a shape like two small oblique lines and is placed above an Arabic letter. every Arabic letter or hijaiyah letter that has the vowel tanwin fathah or fathatain will sound an.

Examples as follows.

قً فً غً عً ظً

The five hijaiyah letters are pronounced qan, fan, gan, ‘an and zan.

5. Dhammatain or Tanwin Dhammah ( ٌ- )

Dhammatain or also known as tanwin dhammah is a vowel composed of the vowel dhammah and nun mati and is written on an Arabic letter. Every Arabic letter that has the vowel dhammatain or tanwin dhammah will sound or can be read un.

Examples as follows.

وٌ نٌ مٌ لٌ كٌ

The five hijaiyah letters are pronounced wun, nun, mun, lun and kun.

6. Kasratain or Tanwin Kasrah ( ٍٍ- )

Kasratain vowel or also known as tanwin kasrah vowel is a vowel that has a shape like two small oblique lines and is under an Arabic letter. Every Arabic letter that has the vowel kasratain or tanwin kasrah, the letter can read or read in.

Examples as follows.

طٍ اٍ ءٍ يٍ ذٍ

The five hijaiyah letters are read tin, in, in, yin, and dzin.

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7. Breadfruit ( ْ- )

The next vowel is breadfruit, which is a vowel that has a shape like the letter ha in hijaiyah but smaller. The vowel for breadfruit must be placed above the Arabic letters. The vowel of the breadfruit represents a consonant or consonant phoneme of a hijaiyah letter.

Examples as follows.

سْ لْ كْ قْ فْ

The five hijaiyah letters are read s, l, k, q, and f.

8. Tasydid or Syaddah ( ّ- )

Tasydid or also called syaddah is a vowel that has a shape like the head of the letter sin which must be placed above the hijaiyah letter. This syaddah or tasydid vowel symbolizes an emphasis on a consonant letter written with a double consonant symbol.

Examples as follows.

مَدَّ مَرَّ اَ وَّ اَ نَّ اَ مَّ

The five hijaiyah letters are read madda, marra, awwa, anna, and amma.

9. Long punctuation

In addition to the eight punctuation marks above, there are also vowels or punctuation marks which symbolize that the hijaiyah letters must be read long. These long punctuation marks are symbolized by using the letters alif (ا), wawu breadfruit (وْ), and yes breadfruit (يْ).

Examples as follows.

بَتيْ بَجُوْ بُكُوْ بَتَا سَبَا

The five hijaiyah letters are read batii, bajuu, Bukuu, bataa, and sabaa.

Long punctuation marks that have a shape like the letter alif, can also be called alif khanjariah and can also be called mad fathah.

The alif khanjariah symbolizes the vowel a which is read rather long. A hijaiyah letter that has the vowel fathah followed by mad fathah will symbolize the phoneme a which is read long.

For example as follows, (لاَ) which can be read laa.

Other Kinds of Harakat

In addition to the nine vowels that can be said as the main points above, there are also several types of vowels that you will often encounter, but may not be familiar to beginners. Here’s an explanation.

1. Wassal

Wassal or washlat is a vowel that shows diacritics written on hijaiyah letters and is usually written above the alif letter, so this vowel is also commonly referred to as alif wassal. According to the science of tajwid, wasal has the meaning of continuing without waqafing or stopping reading.

The vowel wasal is always at the beginning or beginning of a word and does not need to be pronounced or read when encountering this vowel in the middle of a sentence, however, the vowel wasal will sound like the letter hamza if this vowel is read at the beginning of the sentence.

To make it clearer, here is an example of the vowel alif wassal at the beginning and middle of a sentence.

ٱهدنا ٱلصرط

ih dina s shi raat”

In the reading above, it can be seen that the vowel that is thickened is alif wassal. So that in the reading above there are two alif wasal, the first can be found in the pronunciation of ihdinaa while the second vowel alif wasal can be found in the pronunciation of as shiraat.

If the two pronunciations are wasalkan or strung together when reading them, then ihdinas shiraat must be read by eliminating the reading of the alif wassal in the pronunciation of as shiraat, because the alif wasal is in the middle of the sentence and still read it in the pronunciation of ihdinas because it is at the beginning of the sentence.

Here’s another example of using alif wasal in a sentence.

نستعين ٱهدنا ٱلصرط

“nasta’ii nuh dina s shi raat”

The reading above consists of saying nasta’iin, ihdina and as shiraat. With the alif wasal in the pronunciation of ihdina in the previous pronunciation, it produces the pronunciation of nasta’iinuh dinaa, then by wasalizing the pronunciation of as shiraat with the previous pronunciation, it produces the pronunciation of nasta’iinuh jasa shiraat.

Alif wasal will be found more often by Sinaumed’s together, like the example above. In addition, alif wasal will be found together with the letter lam or also known as alif lam makrifah which in Arabic refers to a word that has an eel isim or name.

2. Waqf

Waqf according to language means holding or stopping, if according to the term tajwid, then waqaf can be interpreted as stopping reading for a moment or briefly by breaking the sound at the end of a word to breathe accompanied by the intention to continue reading again.

There are four waqf that need to be known, along with the explanation.

  1. Taamm (ﺗﺂﻡّ), is a perfect waqaf, taam means to give or stop one reading that is read perfectly, does not break in the middle of a verse or reading and does not affect the meaning or meaning of the reading, because taamm has nothing to do with reading or verses before and after.
  2. Kaaf (ﻛﺎﻒ), or adequate waqaf is to stop or end a reading perfectly, not breaking it in the middle of reading or verse, but the verse still has something to do with the meaning and meaning of the verse after it.
  3. Hasan (ﺣﺴﻦ) or also known as waqf, is a waqf of readings and verses without affecting the meaning or meaning, but the readings are still related to the readings that follow.
  4. Qalbih (ﻗﺒﻴﺢ) or bad waqf means stopping or waqfing readings imperfectly or stopping reading in the middle of a verse, waqf qalbih must be avoided, because the readings that are donated still have a connection with the pronunciation and meanings of other readings.
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Waqf has several signs, here are the signs of waqf.

  • Mim ( مـ ) or also known as common waqaf. If you encounter this sign, Sinaumed’s must stop at the end of the sentence perfectly. This common waqf or meme occurs after a perfect sentence, and has no connection with the sentence that follows it.

The mim sign on this waqf has a shape similar to the iqlab tahwid sign, but has a different function and purpose.

  • Tha’ ( ) is a sign of absolute waqaf which means it must stop.
  • Jim ( ) or the waqaf jaiz sign means it is better to stop immediately, although when you encounter the jaiz waqaf sign it is also permissible not to stop.
  • Dzal ( ) when meeting dzal waqaf, then you should not stop reading.
  • Shad ( ) or also known as waqaf murakhkhas, means that it is more to not stop. However, it is permissible to stop in an emergency without changing the meaning. There is a legal difference between waqaf dzal and waqaf shad, namely in terms of its function, waqaf shad is allowed to stop.
  • Shad lam ya’ ( ﺻﻠﮯ ) this one waqf stands for al wasshlul hall which means wasal or continue reading better. Therefore, when you encounter this sign, it is better to continue reading even though it is permissible to donate it.
  • Shad lam ( ﺼﻞ ) stands for qad yushal which means it is sometimes allowed to be wasted. Therefore, when you encounter this waqf sign, it is better to stop, although sometimes it is permissible to be wasted.
  • Qif ( ﻗﻴﻒ ) means to stop or prioritize to stop. The qif will generally appear at the beginning of a sentence, and usually the reader will continue without stopping.
  • Sin ( س ) or saktah sign ( ﺳﮑﺘﻪ ) means to stop for a moment without taking a breath. That is, the reader must stop with the length of one alif or two vowels without taking a new breath to continue the next reading.
  • Waqfah ( ﻭﻗﻔﻪ ) means the same as waqf saktah ( ﺳﮑﺘﻪ ), meaning that you have to stop longer without taking a breath.
  • La ( ) when encountering this waqaf sign, it means don’t stop. The la sign usually appears at the end or in the middle of the verse. If it appears in the middle of a verse, then it is not permissible to stop reading and if it is at the end of the verse, then the reader may continue reading or may stop.
  • Kaf ( ) is an abbreviation of kadzalik which means similar. So in other words the meaning of this waqf kaf is like the waqaf that previously appeared. For example, if before Waqaf Kaf Sinaumed’s met waqaf la, then the meaning of this waqaf kaf is like waqaf la.
  • The waqf sign with three dots ( . . . . . . ) is the next waqf sign which is a triple dot which is referred to as waqaf muraqabah or waqaf ta’anuq which means bound. This waqf will appear twice anywhere and means that it must stop at one of the three dots.

If you have stopped at the first waqf mark, then the reader does not need to stop at the second three dots and vice versa.

Those are the types of vowels as well as several other vowels apart from the nine main vowels. These types of vowels function so that readers can read more clearly the verses of the Koran and Arabic sentences without changing their meaning.

If Sinaumed’s is still confused about vowels or other punctuation when reading the Koran or Arabic, Sinaumed’s can dig deeper and learn more by reading books related to vowels, how to read the Koran and books related to Arabic.