Ikhfa: Definition, Types, Reading Examples, and Meaning

Ikhfa means – Understanding tajwid certainly makes our reading of the Qur’an avoid mistakes and changes in meaning. Studying the types of legal recitation includes fardhu kifayah, while reading the Qur’an according to the legal recitation is fardlu ain. Therefore, for Muslims when reading the Qur’an it must be in accordance with the tajwid.

If Sinaumed’s reads the Qur’an, he will often hear about the law of reciting the Qur’an and tajwid. In addition, verses in the Qur’an are also recommended to be read correctly because it will have a different meaning if the pronunciation is wrong.

By continuing to diligently learn to read the Qur’an, the reading of the Qur’an can be better. Apart from that, every Muslim must also continue to try to perfect his reading while learning the science of recitation.

The science of recitation is a science whose content is learning how to pronounce the letters contained in the Al-Qur’an. Mastering the science of recitation is necessary so that the reading of the Qur’an that we say will avoid mistakes. Wrong pronunciation of Al-Qur’an verses can cause fatal changes in meaning.

The science of tajwid itself is very much, one of the tajwid sciences that needs to be learned is ikhfa. For some Muslims, they may already know what ikhfa is. However, for those who don’t know, don’t worry, because in this article we will discuss further about ikhfa, the meaning of which is an example of the ikhfa letter.

In order not to be curious, in this article we have summarized all the explanations regarding the meaning of ikhfa, types of ikhfa and how to read ikhfa. The following is an explanation about Ikhfa, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Ikhfa

Ikhfa as one of the tajwid that enters into the law of nun mati and tanwin. Apart from the dead and tanwin laws, there are still a number of tajwid that we need to learn.

Ikhfa means to cover or disguise. In the meaning of ikhfa is to disguise nun breadfruit or tanwin because there is a buzzing sound when it meets the letter ikhfa.

Therefore, to master this law, we must memorize the 15 letters of ikhfa. As much as possible we must recognize the meeting between the letters of ikhfa and nun mati or tanwin in the Qur’an.

The ikhfa letters are 15 in number, namely Ta’, Tsa’, Jim. Dal, Dzal, Zay, Sin, Syin, Sod, Dhod, Tha’, Zha, Fa’, Qof, Kaf. The law of ikhfa can occur when nun breadfruit or tanwin that meets one of the ikhfa letters becomes the law of ikhfa reading, so we have to read it to cover or disguise the ikhfa letter.

The Law of the Dead Nun and Tanwin

Before getting to know more about ikhfa, we need to understand the tajwid of the dead and tanwin laws first. The recitation of the dead nun and tanwin is the law of reading the dead nun and tanwin meeting one of the letters that have been divided into several categories.

There are five categories in the law of nun breadfruit and tanwin, namely izhar halqi, idgham bighunnah, idgham bilaghunnah, iqlab and ikhfa haqiqi.

1. Izhar Halqi

Izhar halqi is the law of reading when nun dies or tanwin meets one of the letters of izhar halqi. The meaning of izhar is clear and halqi itself means throat.

The letters referred to are included in izhar halqi, namely Alif or Hamzah, Kha’, ‘Ain. Ha’, Ghain, Ha. How to read it, namely nun breadfruit or tanwin when you meet one of these letters, then read it clearly, clearly and briefly, and the sound remains clear, not faint and not buzzing.

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2. Iqlab

Iqlab is a law of reciting the Qur’an that occurs when nun dies or tanwin meets only one letter, namely the letter Ba’. In this reading, reading nun mati or tanwin is no longer read as nun or tanwin, it changes to the sound of the letter mim.

3. Ikhfa Haqiqi

The meaning of Ikhfa haqiqi is to disguise. This reading law applies when the letters nun mati or tanwin meet with the letters ikhfa as many as 15 letters, namely Ta’, Tsa’, Jim, Dal, Dzal. Zay, Sin, Syin, Sod, Dhoh, Tha’, Zha, Fa’, Qof, Kaf. When meeting these letters, the nun mati or tanwin must be read in a faint way or between the Izhar and Idgham readings.

4. Idgham Bighunnah

Idgham Bighunnah is a reading that dissolves and is accompanied by a hum or which means inserting one of the dead or tanwin letters into the next letter. The pronunciation of the bighunnah idgham must hum when it meets four letters, namely Nun, Mim, Wau and Ya’.

5. Idgham Bilaghunnah

Idgham bilaghunnah means to melt without buzzing or inserting the letters nun mati or tanwin into the letters Lam and Ra’. However, this law does not apply if nun dies or tanwin and these letters do not appear in one word.

Kinds of Ikhfa

Before discussing how to read the law of ikhfa, we need to know the types of ikhfa. The law of reading ikhfa is divided into several types, including the following:

1. Ikhfa Kubra or Ikhfa Aqrab

Ikhfa Aqrab is nun breadfruit or tanwin which meets the letter ikhfa which is closer to the letter hijaiyah, with the makhraj letter nun. The letters include, Ta’, Dal, Tha’. The sound produced from the ikhfa kubra will then approach the sound of N and a buzzing sound and then hold down two beats.

2. Ikhfa haqiqi

Ikhfa means to disguise. The law of reading ikhfa haqiqi applies if there are dead nun and tanwin letters that meet ikhfa letters, namely Ta’, Tsa’, Jim, Dal, Dzal, Zay, Sin, Syin, Sod, Dhod, Tha’, Zha, Fa’, Qof , caf.

When encountering these letters, the nun mati or tanwin must be read incognito or between the izhar reading and the idgham reading.

3. Ikhfa Sughra or Ikhfa Ab’ad

Ikhfa sughra and ikhfa ab’ad are nun breadfruit or tanwin meeting with the ikhfa letter which is further removed from the hijaiyah letter than the nun letter. The letters of this ikhfa sughra are Qof and Kaf. Ikhfa sughra is read with a buzz, but with a short tone of voice. Ikhfa sughra reading itself will usually lead to the sound “ng”.

4. Ikhfa Wustho or Ikhfa Ausat

Ikhfa wusta if nun breadfruit or tanwin meets the ikhfa letter which is close to and not close to the nun letter. The reading of ikhfa wustho or ikhfa ausath will lead to “n-ng” while the letter fa will lead to the sound “mf”. The letters of the ikhfa wusta are Ta’, Jim, Dzal. Zayn, Sin, Syin, Sod, Dhod, Zha, Fa’.

5. Ikhfa Syafawi

Ikhfa Syafawi is read in a vague way on the lips and also by echoing it. Syafawi’s ikhfa reading can occur because there is a makhraj of the hijaiyah letters Mim and the hijaiyah letters Ba which meet between the lower and upper lips so that they are called ikhfa syafawi.

Syafawi’s ikhfa is different from haqiqi’s ikhfa. The difference is that the ikhfa syafawi is not the nun mati that meets the letter ikhfa but the letter mim mati that meets the letter Ba’.

However, in the Syafawi ikhfa law, it is still obligatory to read with a hum of about 2-3 vowels or 1 ½ alif. Therefore, if the Ikhfa Syafawi law is not echoed, then the law will turn into an izhar law whose reading law is read clearly.

The way to read Ikhfa Syafawi is by reading Mim Mati and the letters are disguised. Apart from that, there is also no strong deep emphasis on the lips, and reading it is accompanied by buzzing or ghunnah.

How to Read Ikhfa

After discussing the law of ikhfa and the types of ikhfa, then we will discuss how to discuss the law of ikhfa. There are several guidelines and examples that need to be underlined when applying ikhfa readings, which are as follows:

  • The tip of the tongue must be kept so that it does not touch the upper front gums. Because there is the place makhraj nun. The sound of nun or tanwin will not be seen clearly if the tip of our tongue touches the upper front gum. Meanwhile, what must be read clearly is for Izhar’s reading.
  • Make sure there are no elements of nun or tanwin combinations with letters after it because ikhfa is located in the middle of the sentence reading.
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Examples of Ikhfa Letters

As for examples of ikhfa reading in the Qur’an that must be read faintly and buzzingly, these examples are taken or summarized from the book Practical & Complete Guide to Tahsin, Tajwid, Tahfiz For Beginners by Raisya Maula Ibnu Rusyd. The following is an example of the law of ikhfa based on its 15 letters.

1. Ikhfa The letter ت in QS. Al-Baqarah verse 64

ٱلْخَٰسِرِينَ مِّنَ لَكُنتُم رَحْمَتُهُAP

The Latin reading: “Tsumma tawallaitum mim ba’di zalika falau la fadlullahi ‘alaikum wa Rahmatuhu lakuntum minal-khasirin.”

Meaning: “Then you turn away after (the existence of the agreement), then if there is no grace of Allah and His mercy upon you, surely you are among the losers,” (QS. Al-Baqarah [2]: 64).

2. Ikhfa Letter ج QS. Abasa Verse 8

يَسْعَىٰ جَآءَكَ مَن وَأَمَّا

Latin reading: “Wa amma man ja aka yas’a”.

Meaning: “And as for those who come to you in haste (to get teaching),” (QS. Abasa [80]: 8).

3. Ikhfa Letter ث in QS. An-Naba Verse 13

وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلْمُعْصِرَٰتِ مَآءً ثَجَّاجًا

Latin reading: “Wa anzalna minal-mus’siratima ‘an tsajjaja”.

Meaning: “And We sent down from the clouds a lot of water pouring out,” (QS. An-Naba [78]: 13).

4. Ikhfa Letter د in QS. An-Naba Verse 34

وَكَأْسًا دِهَاقًا

Latin reading: “Wa ka’san dihaqa”.

Meaning: “And glasses full (filled with drinks),” (QS. An-Naba [78]: 34).

5. Ikhfa Letter ذ in QS. Al-Lahab Verse 3

سَيَصۡلٰى نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ

Latin reading: “Sa yas laa naran zaata lahab”.

Meaning: “Later he will enter into a turbulent fire (hell),” (QS. Al – Lahab [111]: 3).

6. Ikhfa Letter ز in QS. An-Naba Verse 13

وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلْمُعْصِرَٰتِ مَآءً ثَجَّاجًا

Latin reading: “Wa anzalna minal – mu’siratima ‘an tsajjaja”.

Meaning: “And We sent down from the clouds a lot of water pouring out,” (QS. An – Naba [78]: 13).

7. Ikhfa Letter س Abasa Verse 17

قُتِلَ ٱلْإِنسَٰنُ مَآ أَكْفَرَهُ

Latin reading: “Qutilal – insanu ma akfarah”

Meaning: “Human perish; how great is his disbelief?” (QS. Abasa [80]: 17).

8. Ikhfa Letter ش QS. Al-Faraq Verse 2

مِنۡ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَۙ

Latin reading: “Min sharri ma khala”

Meaning: “From the evil (creatures) He created,” (QS. Al – Falaq [113]: 2).

9. Ikhfa Letter ص in QS. Al-Maun Verse 5

الَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَنْ صَلَاتِهِمْ سَاهُوْنَ

Latin reading: “Al laziina hum ‘an salaatihim sahuun”

Meaning: “(That is) people – people who are negligent towards their prayers,” (QS. Al – Maun [107]: 5).

10. Ikhfa Letter ض in QS. Al-Anbiya Verse 84

اتَيْنَٰهُ أَهْلَهُۥ وَمِثْلَهُم مَّعَهُمْ رَحْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَٰبِدِين فَٱسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُۥ فَكَشَفْنَا مَا بِهِۦ مِن ضُرٍّ ۖ وَءَ

Latin reading: “Fastajabna lahu fa kasyafna ma bihi min durriw wa atainahu ahlahu wa mislahum ma’ahum Rahmatam min indina wa zikra lil – abidin”

Meaning: “So We also allowed his call, then We eliminated the disease that was in him and We returned his family to him, and We multiplied their number, as a mercy from Our side and to be a warning to all who worship Allah,” (QS. Al – Anbiya [21]: 84).

11. Ikhfa Letter ط in QS. Al-Maidah Verse 6

God bless you

The Latin reading: “Fa tayammamu sa’idan thayyiban famsahu biwujuhikum wa aidkum min-hu…”

Meaning: “Then do tayammum with good (clean) soil; wipe your face and your hands with it.” (QS. Al – Maidah [5]: 6).

12. Ikhfa Letter ظ in QS. An-Naba Verse 40

تُ تُرَٰبًۢا إِنَّآ أَنذَرْنَٰكُمْ عَذَاب knob

Latin reading: “Inna anzarnakum azabang qaribay yauma yansurul – ma’u mar’u am qodammat yadahu wa yaqulul – kafiru ya laitni kuntu turaba”

Meaning: “Indeed, We have warned you (O disbelievers) the imminent punishment, today humans see what has been done by the two hands and the infidels say:” It would be nice if I used to be the ground. (QS. An – Naba [78]: 40).

13. Ikhfa Letter ك in QS. As–Shaff Verse 4

 ا كَأَنَّهُم بُنْيَٰنٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقَٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلًِفَِهِے

Latin reading: “Innallahu yuhinnullazina yuqatiluna fi sabilihi saffang ke annahum bun yanum marsuss”

Meaning: “Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His way in orderly rows as if they were like a solidly structured building,” (QS. As – Shaff [61]: 4).

14. Ikhfa Letter ف in Al-Baqarah Verse 38

يَحْزَنُونَ هُمْ قُلْنَا ٱهْبِطُوا۟ مِنْهَا جَtery

Latin reading: “Qulnahbitu min – ha jami’a. fa imam ya tiyannakum minni hudan fa man tabi’a hudaya fa la khaufun ‘alaihim wa la hum yahzanun”

Meaning: “We said:” Come down all of you from heaven! Then if My instructions come to you, then whoever follows My instructions, surely there will be no worry for them, nor will they grieve,” (Surah Al-Baqarah [2]: 38).

15. Ikhfa Letter ق in QS. Al-Bayyinah Verse 3

فِيهَا كُتُبٌ قَيِّمَةٌ

Latin reading: “Fiiha Poles qayyimah”

Meaning: “In it are (contents) books – straight books,” (QS. Al – Bayyinah [98]: 3)

That is an explanation of the meaning of ikhfa and the types of ikhfa. This ikhfa letter tends to be more difficult to memorize because there are quite a lot of them. However, if you can understand the concept, it will be easy to memorize yourself later.