The Book of Safinatun Najah – Basically, all Muslims in this world are required to study fiqh which contains knowledge of legal issues that regulate daily life in Islamic law. In the science of jurisprudence, we do not only study how to worship properly, but also with regard to buying and selling systems, and so on. Well, one of the books that contains the science of fiqh is the book Safinatun Najah which was written by a scholar from Yemen based on the Shafi’i school of thought. If You doesn’t know the form and content of the Safinatun Najah book, that’s okay , because we will study it in this article.
The author of the book Safinatun Najah is Sheikh Salim bin Abdullah bin Sa’ad bin Sumair Al Hadhrami who succeeded in summarizing the laws in jurisprudence clearly and of course using language that is easy to understand. That is why, this book is often intended for novice students at Islamic boarding schools. Just a little trivia , Syekh Salim bin Abdullah died in Jakarta in the 13th century H. So, what is the Safinatun Najah book? What are the contents contained in the book? So, so that You understands these things, let’s look at the following review!
What is the Safinatun Najah Book?
The Book of Safinatun Najah or which has the full name as Safinatun Najah Fiima Yajibu ala Abdi li Maulah, which means ‘ The Boat of Safety in Studying the Obligations of a Servant to His Lord ‘. Well, basically, the book of Safinatun Najah is a book that contains the basics of fiqh written according to the Shafi’i school of thought. The author of this book is Sheikh Salim bin Abdullah bin Sa’ad bin Sumair Al Hadhrami who is a scholar from Yemen. He succeeded in writing this book in a language that was easy to understand, so that it is often used as a reference for studying jurisprudence, especially by novice students.
However, even though it is considered concise, the book of Safinatun Najah still covers various kinds of basics of jurisprudence, you know… Starting from the signs of puberty, the correct method of ablution, what are the pillars of Islam, how to take a mandatory bath, how to pray correctly, when to pray prayer, fasting worship, zakat worship, and how to dismantle the body.
There are 3 total divisions in the book of Safinatun Najah. The first part contains the basic Islamic aqidah which includes the pillars of faith, the pillars of Islam, and the creed. Apart from that, it also explains the characteristics of a person who is mature and how to perform ablution to avoid being unclean.
Furthermore, in the second part, it will contain the method of obligatory bathing, the legal requirements for ablution, and what is forbidden for people who have hadada. In this second part, it also explains about tayammum, zakat worship, to the management of the corpse. Then, the third part will contain matters related to fasting, starting from the requirements of fasting, the pillars of fasting, to the pilgrimage.
Contents of the Safinatun Najah Book
Previously, it was explained that in the book of Safinatun Najah there are 3 sections, each of which explains Islamic beliefs. Well, here is a description which is accompanied by no Arabic language, only Latin.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: Pillars of Islam and Pillars of Faith
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
All praise is only for Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and to Him we seek help in all matters of this world and the hereafter. And shalawat and greetings may always be poured out on the great Prophet Muhammad SAW The closing of the prophets, also to family and friends. And there is no effort except with the help of Allah, the Most High, the Most Mighty.
Discussion 1: Pillars of Islam
There are five pillars of Islam, namely:
- Testify that there is no god but Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala and Prophet Muhammad Shollalloohu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam is His messenger.
- Establish prayer (five times).
- Pay zakat.
- Ramadan fasting.
- The pilgrimage to the baitullah is for those who are able to carry it out.
Discussion 2: Pillars of Faith
There are six pillars of faith, namely:
- Believe in Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.
- Believe in all the Angels
- Believe in all the holy books.
- Believe in all the Prophets.
- Believe in doomsday.
- Believe in the provisions of good and bad from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.
Discussion 3: The Meaning of “Laa Ilaaha Illallah”
As for the meaning of “Laa Ilaaha Illallah” namely: There is no God who has the right to be worshiped in reality other than Allah.
CHAPTER II: Discussion of Tahara (Purification of Hadats)
Discussion 1: Signs of Baligh
There are 3 signs of baligh, namely:
- Age has reached 15 years for male or female.
- Dreaming (junub) for boys and girls when they pass the age of nine.
- Menstrual bleeding for women after the age of nine.
Discussion 2: Requirements for Using Stones for Stending
There are 8 conditions for the permissibility of using stones to marry, namely:
- Using three stones.
- Purify the unclean place with the stone.
- The unclean is not dry.
- The unclean does not move.
- The istinja place is not exposed to other objects even though it is not unclean. 6. The uncleanness does not change the location of the istinja (the back of the pubic opening and the front of the pubic head).
- The unclean is not exposed to water.
- The stone used must be sacred.
Discussion 3: Pillars of Wudhu
There are 6 pillars of ablution, namely:
- Wash face.
- Wash both hands up to the elbows.
- Sweep part of the head.
- Wash both feet up to the ankles.
Discussion 4: The intention of ablution
Intention is deliberately in the heart (to do) an action at the same time when doing it.
As for pronouncing this intention, it is sunnah, and the time when you first wash part of your face. The orderliness in question is not giving priority to one member of ablution over another member of ablution.
Discussion 5: Types of Water
There are two kinds of water; A little water and a lot of water. A little water is water that is less than two qullahs and a lot of water is up to two qullahs or more. A little water is unclean if it falls into it, even if it does not change.
As for large amounts of water, it will not become unclean unless the taste, color or smell of the water changes.
Discussion 6: The Reasons That Require Bathing
There are 6 things that require bathing, namely:
- Inserting the genital head (male) into the vagina (female genitalia).
- Semen discharge.
- Menstrual bleeding (menstrual).
- Puerperal bleeding (blood that comes out after giving birth).
- Give birth to.
Discussion 7: Pillars of Bathing
There are two obligations in taking a bath, namely:
- Mandatory bath.
- Evenly distributes water to all parts of the body perfectly.
Discussion 8: Requirements for Valid Wudhu
There are ten conditions for ablution, namely:
- Tamyiz (age and reasonable).
- Holy from menstruation and childbirth.
- Clean of anything that can block water from reaching the skin.
- There is nothing in any of the members of the ablution that changes the authenticity of the water.
- Knowing that the law of ablution is obligatory.
- It is not permissible to give `tiqad (belief) that one of the fardhu-fard wudu` is sunnah (not obligatory).
- The purity of ablution water.
- Enter the prayer time that is done.
These last two conditions are specific to da`im al-hadats.
Discussion 9: Ablution Cancellation
There are four things that invalidate ablution, namely:
- If something comes out of one of the two genitals; front (qubul) back (anal) like wind and others, except semen.
- Loss of mind is like sleeping and so on, except sleeping in a steady sitting position by pressing his seat to the ground.
- Contact between the skin of a man and the skin of an adult woman who is not a muhrim without any barriers.
- Touching the genitals or touching the anus with the palm of the hand or the palm of the finger.
Discussion 10: Actions that cannot be done in a state of hadats
People who cancel their ablution (minor hadats), are prohibited from doing the following four things:
- Tawaf (circle the Kaaba seven times).
- Touching Mushaf Al-Quran.
- Bring a Mushaf of the Koran.
People who are junub (big hadas) are prohibited from doing the following six things:
- Touching Mushaf Al Quran.
- Bring a Mushaf of the Koran.
- Silence (I’tikaf) in the Mosque.
- Reciting Al-Qur’an.
Women who are menstruating should not do the following ten things:
- Touching Mushaf Al-Quran.
- Bring a Mushaf of the Koran.
- Silence (I’tikaf) in the Mosque.
- Reciting Al-Qur’an.
- Walking inside the mosque – if he is afraid that he will defile it.
- Have fun with your wife between the navel and knees.
Discussion 11: Permissible Conditions for Tayammum
There are three reasons for permissible tayammum, namely:
- There is no water for ablution.
- There is a disease that results in not being able to use water.
- There is only water to meet the drinking needs of humans or animals that are muhtaram (respected).
As for besides Muhtaram, there are 6 types of Humans or animals that are not respected there are six types, namely:
- People who leave the obligatory prayer.
- Married people who commit adultery.
- Kafir Harbiy (One who fights the Muslims)
- Stray dogs (like to bite).
Discussion 12: Terms of Tayammum
There are ten conditions for doing tayammum, namely:
- Tayammum with the ground.
- Using holy ground is not unclean.
- The land has never been used before.
- Pure from other mixtures such as flour and such.
- Make tayammum.
- Wipe his face and hands with two different strokes.
- Eliminate all uncleanness in the body first.
- Trying to find the Qibla direction before starting tayammum.
- Tayammum is done after entering the prayer time.
- Do tayammum for every obligatory prayer.
Discussion 13: Obligations in Tayammum
There are five pillars of tayammum, namely:
- Move dust.
- Wiping face.
- Wipe both hands up to the elbows.
- Order between two strokes.
Discussion 14: Abrogation of Tayammum
There are three invalidators of tayammum, namely:
- Everything that breaks ablution.
- Doubtful that there is water, if he does tayammum because there is no water.
Discussion 15: Unclean Can Become Holy
There are three unclean things that can become holy, namely:
- Khamr (water squeezed from wine) which takes another form (eg vinegar) by itself.
- Tanned carcass skin.
- All unclean who has turned into animals.
Discussion 16: Types of Uncleanness
There are three unclean, namely:
- Great uncleanness (Mughallazhah), i.e. dogs, pigs or those born from one of them.
- Light uncleanness (Mukhaffafah), namely the urine of a baby boy who does not eat anything other than his mother’s milk and is not yet two years old.
- Moderate uncleanness (Mutawassithah), that is all unclean except the two unclean ones that have been mentioned.
Discussion 17: How to Clean Up Unclean
Great uncleanness (Mughallazah), purify it by washing it seven times, one of which is using dust, after the impurity is gone.
Light uncleanness (Mukhaffafah), purifies it by sprinkling water thoroughly and removes the unclean substance.
Moderate uncleanness (Mutawassithoh) is divided into two parts, namely:
- ‘Ainiyyah, namely impurity that still shows its color, smell or taste, so the way to purify this uncleanness is by removing its color, smell and taste.
- Hukmiyyah, i.e. impurity that does not see its color, smell and taste, so the way to purify this impurity is simply by pouring water on the object affected by the impurity.
Discussion 18: Menstrual Blood (Menstruation)
The fastest menstrual period is a day and night, but generally for six or seven days, and the longest is 15 days. The earliest sacred period between two menstruations is 15 days, but generally 24 or 23 days, and there is no limit to the maximum period.
The fastest postpartum period is a moment, generally 40 days, and the longest is 60 days.
CHAPTER III: PRAYER
Discussion 1: Udzur Prayer
Discussion 2: Requirements for Valid Prayer
There are eight conditions for the validity of prayer, namely:
- Holy from the big and small hadats.
- Clean clothes, body and place from unclean.
- Close genitals.
- Facing the Qiblah.
- Enter prayer time.
- Know the pillars of prayer.
- Do not believe that among the pillars of prayer as sunnah.
- Stay away from all that invalidates prayer.
Kinds of Hadas
There are two kinds of Hadats, namely: Small Hadats and Big Hadats.
- Minor hadats are hadats that require a person to perform ablution,
- Major hadats are hadats that oblige a person to take a bath.
Limitation of Male and Female Aurat
There are four types of genitalia, namely:
- The genitals of all men (free or slave) and female slaves during prayer are between the navel and the knees.
- Awra women are free when praying, namely the whole body except the face and palms.
- Awra of free women and slaves to men who are ajnabi (not muhrim), that is, the entire body.
- Awra of free women and slaves for muhrimya men and women, which is between the navel and the knees.
Discussion 3: Pillars of Prayer
There are seventeen pillars of prayer, namely:
- Takbiratul ihram (pronounce “ Allahu Akbar ”).
- Stand up for those who are able to pray fardhu.
- Read Surah Al Fatihah.
- Ruku’ .
- Thuma’ninah (pause) during bowing.
- I’tidal (standing after bowing).
- Thuma’ninah (pause during i’tidal).
- Bow down twice.
- Thuma’ninah (pause while prostrating).
- Sit between two prostrations.
- Thuma’ninah (pause while sitting).
- Final Tasyahud (tahiyat).
- Sitting at the final tasyahud time.
- Shalawat to the prophet at the end of tasyahud.
- Order (in order).
Discussion 4: Procedures for Intention
There are three degrees of intention, namely:
- If the prayer is performed fardhu, it is obligatory that the intention is qasdul fi’li (carrying out the prayer), ta’yin (name of the prayer being performed) and fardhiyah (fardhunya).
2. If the prayer is performed as a sunnah that has a time or has a cause, it is obligatory that the intention to perform the prayer and the name of the prayer performed is the sunnah Rawatib (before and after fardhu-fardhu).
3. If the prayer is performed as a sunnah Mutlaq (without a cause), it is obligatory to do only that prayer.
What is meant by qasdul fi’li is “I intend to pray (make up for it)” , and what is meant by ta’yin is like midday or asr, while fardiyah is the intention of fardhu.
Discussion 5: Terms of Takbiratul Ihram
There are sixteen conditions for takbirotul ihrom, namely:
- Performed in a standing state when praying fardhu.
- Spoken in Arabic.
- Using the pronunciation of “Allah”.
- Using the pronunciation of “Akbar”.
- Sequentially between the two pronunciations.
- Do not extend the letter “Hamza” from the pronunciation of “Allah”.
- Do not extend the letter “Ba” from the pronunciation of “Akbar”.
- Do not translate the letter “Ba”.
- Do not add the letters “Waw berharakat” or “wau breadfruit” between the two pronunciations.
- Do not add the letter “Waw” before the pronunciation of “Allah”.
- Do not pause between the two words either long or briefly.
- The words “Allahu Akbar” can be heard by himself.
- Enter the prayer time if the prayer has a certain time.
- Say takbiratul ihram while facing the qibla.
- There is no mistake in pronouncing one of the letters of the sentence.
- Takbiratul ihram makmum must be done after the takbiratul ihram of the priest.
Discussion 6: Legal Requirements for Reading Surah Al-Fatihah
There are ten conditions for reading Surah Al Fatihah, namely:
- Order (according to the order of the verses).
- Continuously (without being interrupted by other actions).
- Pay attention to the letters (makhraj) as well as the tasydid places.
- Pay attention to tasydid-tasydidnya.
- Not long interrupted between the verses of Al Fatihah or interrupted briefly with the intention of ending the reading.
- Read all the verses of Al Fatihah and basmalah including one of the verses of Al Fatihah.
- Do not use language (tone/rhythm of reading) which can change the meaning.
- Read Surah Al Fatihah while standing while praying fardhu.
- Listening to Al Fatihah reading for himself.
- Not distracted by the dhikr of others.
Discussion 17: Tasydid in Surah Al-Fatihah
Tasydid letter “Lam” jalalah in pronunciation ( الله ).
- Tasydid letter “Ra’” in pronunciation ( الرّحمن ).
- Tasydid letter “Ra'” in pronunciation ( الرّحيم ).
- Tasydid “Lam” jalalah on pronunciation ( الحمد لله) .
- Tasydid letter “Ba’” in the sentence (ربّ العالمين ) .
- Tasydid letter “Ra’” in pronunciation ( الرّحمن ).
- Tasydid letter “Ra'” in pronunciation ( الرّحيم ).
- Tasydid letter “Dal” in pronunciation ( الدّين ).
- Tasydid letter “Ya'” in the sentence ( إيّاك نعبد).
- Tasydid letter “Yes” in the sentence ( وإيّاك نستعين ).
- Tasydid letter “Shad” in the sentence ( اهدنا الصّراط المستقيم ).
- Tasydid letter “Lam” in the sentence (صراط الّذين ).
- Tasydid “Dhad” in the sentence ( ولا الضالين).
- Tasydid letter “Lam” in the sentence (ولا الضالين).
Discussion 8: When Do We Raise Hands in Prayer?
There are four places where it is sunnah to raise your hands when praying, namely:
- When takbiratul ihram.
- When bowing.
- When getting up from bowing (I’tidal).
- When rising from the initial tasyahud.
Discussion 9: Legal Requirements for Prostration
There are seven legal requirements for prostration, namely:
- Sujud with seven members of prostration.
- Open forehead (nothing covering the forehead).
- Pressing the weight to the head.
- There is no other purpose except prostration.
- Not prostrating to a moving place of prostration if he is moving.
- Raise the lower part (back) above the top (head).
- Thuma’ninah (pause) in prostration.
Closing (The Problem of Prostration)
There are seven limbs that must be placed at the place of prostration, namely:
- Right palm.
- Left palm.
- Right knee.
- Left knee.
- The sole of the toes of the right foot.
- The soles of the left toes.
Discussion 10: Tasydid in the Final Tasyahud
In the tasyahud sentence there are twenty-one harakah (lines) of tasidid, sixteen of which are located in the sentence of tasyahud which must be read, and the remaining five are in the sentence which completes the tasyahud (which is sunnah to be read), namely:
- “Attahiyyat”: harakah tasydid is located in the letter “Ta’”.
- “Attahiyyat”: the harakah tasydid is located in the letter “Ya’”.
- “Almubarakatusshalawat”: harakah tasydid in the letter “Shad”.
- “Atthayyibaat”: harakah tasydid in the letter “Tha’”.
- “Atthayyibaat”: harakah tasydid in the letters “ya’”.
- “Lillaah”: harakah tasydid in “Lam” jalalah.
- “Assalaam”: in the letters “Sin”.
- “A’laika ayyuhannabiyyu”: in the letters “Ya’”.
- “A’laika ayyuhannabiyyu”: in the letter “Nun”.
- “A’laika ayyuhannabiyyu”: in the letters “Ya’”.
- “Warohmatullahah”: in “Lam” walk.
- “Wabarakatuh, assalaam”: in the letter “Sin”.
- “Alainaa wa’alaa I’baadillah”: in “Lam” jalalah.
- “Asshalihiin”: in shad letters.
- “Ashhaduallaa”: in “Lam alif”.
- “Ilaha Illallaah”: in “Lam alif”.
- “Illallaah”: in “Lam” walk.
- “Waasyhaduanna”: in the letter “Nun”.
- “Muhammadarrasulullaah”: in the letter “mim”.
- “Muhammadarrasulullaah”: in the letter “Ra’”.
- “Muhammadarrasulullaah”: in the letter “Lam” jalalah.
Discussion 11: Tasydid in Saying Shalawat to Tasyahud
At least the sentence of the prophet’s prayer that meets the standard of obligation in the final tasyahud is Alloohumma sholliy ‘alaa Muhammad .
(As for) the vowel tasydid in the sentence of the prophet’s prayer is in the letters “Lam” and “Mim” in the pronunciation of “Allahumma”. And in the letter “Lam” in the pronunciation of “Shalli”; and in the letter “Mim” in Muhammad.
Discussion 12: Reciting Greetings at the Final Tasyahud
The minimum greeting pronunciation at the end of tasyahud is “ Assalamu’alaikum ”. There is a tasydid on the sin letter of the pronunciation ” Assalamu “.
Discussion 13: Obligatory Prayer Times
There are five obligatory prayer times:
- The time for the midday prayer: Starts when the sun goes down (from the middle of the sky to the west) and ends when the length of an object’s shadow is equal to the length of the object.
- Asr prayer time: Begins when the length of an object’s shadow is slightly greater than the length of the object and ends when the sun sets.
- Maghrib prayer time: Begins when the sun sets and ends with the disappearance of the red mega (sunshine of the evening).
- Isha prayer time: Begins with the disappearance of the red megaphone and ends with the rising of the sadiq dawn.
- Fajr prayer time: Starts with the rising of the sadiq dawn and ends with the rising of the sun.
There are three colors of evening sunlight (mega), namely:
- The red mega appears at sunset.
- mega yellow and white appear at Isha time.
It is sunnah to postpone (end) the Isha prayer until the yellow and white light disappears.
Discussion 14: Times Not Allowed For Prayer
One is not allowed to pray sunnah prayers without cause or sunnah muthlaq prayers at the following times:
- When the sun rises to rise it is roughly equal to the size of the pike.
- When the sun is right in the middle of the sky until it shifts slightly except on Friday.
- When the sun is yellowish to sink.
- After Fajr prayer until sunrise.
- After the Asr prayer until sunset.
Discussion 15: Break Times During Prayer
There are six places for saktah (stopping as a pause from one action to another) at the time of prayer, namely:
- Between takbiratul ihram and prayer iftitah.
- Between iftitah and ta’awudz prayers.
- Between ta’awudz and reading Surah Al Fatihah.
- Between the end of Surah Al Fatihah and saying amen.
- Between saying amen and reading the letter of the Qur’an.
- Between reading the letter of the Qur’an and bowing.
Discussion 16: Pillars of Prayer Required by Thuma’ninah
The pillars of prayer that are required to do it with tuma’ninah are four, namely:
- When bowing.
- When i’tidal.
- When prostration.
- When sitting between two prostrations.
Thuma’ninah is a moment of silence after moving (from the previous position) until all limbs remain (not moving) with a time more or less like saying tasbih (subhanallah).
Discussion 17: The Reasons That Require Sajud Sawi
There are four reasons for prostration for forgetfulness, namely:
- Leaving part of the ab’adus namaz (sunnah work in prayer is bad if one leaves it).
- Doing something that cancels (even though he forgot), if done on purpose and does not cancel if he forgets.
- Move the pillars of qauli (which are spoken) to their place.
- Doing the pillars of Fi’li (which is done) with the possibility of excess.
Discussion 18: Actions in Prayer Included in the Sunnah of Ab’adh
Sunnah Ab’adh there are six, namely:
- Early tasyahud.
- Sit tasyahud early.
- Shalawat for the prophet Muhammad during the early tasyahud.
- Blessings to the Prophet’s family at the end of tasyahud.
- Du’a qunut.
- Stand up for qunut prayer.
- Shalawat and greetings to the prophet Muhammad, his family and friends when praying qunut.
Discussion 19: Prayer Cancellation
There are fourteen cases that invalidate prayer, namely:
- Hadats (such as urinating and defecating).
- Exposed unclean, if not removed immediately, without holding the impurity.
- Open nakedness, if not closed instantly.
- Says two letters or one letter that can be understood on purpose.
- Eat (a little) on purpose.
- Even if you eat a lot, you forget.
- Move with three moves in a row even if you forget.
- Jumping that spoils prayer.
- Overreaching hitting.
- Adding pillar fi’li on purpose.
- Faster or slower the two pillars of prayer from the priest without excuse.
- Intend to stop praying.
- Hanging his prayer with something.
- Hesitating in stopping the prayer (between continued or stopped).
Discussion 20: When is it obligatory to make the intention as a prayer leader?
A priest is required to intend to become a priest in four circumstances, namely:
- Be the Imam of Friday prayers.
- Become the priest in the i`aadah prayer (repeated prayer).
- Become an imam for congregational prayer vows.
- Being the priest of the plural taqdim prayer with the cause of rain
Discussion 21: Requirements for the Makmum to Follow the Imam
There are eleven conditions for the congregation to follow the priest, namely:
- Do not know the cancellation of the priest’s prayer because of hadats or something else.
- Do not believe that the priest is obliged to make up (replace) the prayer.
- A priest is not being a mammum.
- An imam is not illiterate (must have good reading of the Qur’an).
- The position of the congregation does not exceed the place where the priest stands.
- Makmum must know the movement of the priest’s prayer movements.
- Being in one mosque (place) or within a distance of approximately three hundred cubits.
- The congregation intends to follow the imam or the congregational intention.
- The prayer of the priest and the congregation must be in the same way and kaifiyat.
- Makmum does not differ between the Imams with sunnah actions that are very different or very different.
- The congregation must follow the priest.
Discussion 22: Legal and Illegal Congregational Models
There are 9 models of congregational prayers. There are 5 valid congregational models, namely:
- Men follow men.
- Women follow men.
- Sissy follows the men.
- Women follow sissy.
- Women follow women.
There are four models of illegitimate congregation, namely:
- Boys follow girls.
- Men follow sissy.
- Sissy follows women.
- Sissy follows sissy.
Discussion 23: Legal Terms for Plural Taqdim
There are four legal conditions for plural taqdim (joining the first two prayers), namely:
- Starting from the earlier prayer time.
- Multiple intentions.
- Udzurnya continuously.
Discussion 24: Final Plural Legal Requirements
There are two final plural legal conditions, namely:
- The intention of ta’khir when there is still time left for the first prayer is simply the length of time to complete the prayer.
- The excuses continued until the time for the second prayer was finished
Discussion 25: Requirements for Qashar (summarizing) Prayer
There are seven conditions for qashar, namely:
- Travel distance reaches two marhala or more (About 80 km).
- The journey undertaken is a permissible journey (not a journey to do immorality).
- Know the law of permissibility of qashar.
- The intention of qashar when takbiratul `ihram.
- The prayers that are recited are the ruba`iyah prayers (prayers that consist of four cycles).
- The journey is carried out continuously until the prayer is finished.
- Do not follow the person who is itmam (a person whose prayer is not qashar) in some of his prayers.
Discussion 26: Legal Requirements for Friday Prayers
There are six conditions for the validity of Friday prayers, namely:
- Friday sermons and prayers are held after the noon time.
- Friday prayers are held within the boundaries of the region.
- Done collectively.
- The Friday congregation is at least forty (40) free male, mature and native of the area.
- There is no other Friday jama’ah that precedes and competes in the same area.
- Friday prayers are held after two Friday sermons.
Discussion 27: Pillars of the Friday Khutbah
There are five pillars of the Friday sermon, namely:
- Praising Allah (saying Alhamdulillah ) in these two sermons.
- Salawat to the Prophet Muhammad in these two sermons.
- Instruct the congregation to fear Allah.
- Read a verse of the Qur’an in one of the sermons.
- Pray for all Muslims at the end of the khutbah.
Discussion 28: Legal Requirements for the Friday Khutbah
There are ten legal conditions for Friday sermons, namely:
- Holy from small hadas and big hadas.
- Clothing, body and place must be clean from all impurity.
- Close genitals.
- The sermon is delivered standing up for those who can afford it.
- The two khutbahs are separated by sitting for a long time like thuma’ninah in prayer but a little longer.
- The two sermons were carried out sequentially.
- The sermon and Friday prayers are held sequentially.
- Both sermons were delivered in Arabic.
- Friday sermons were heard by 40 men (independent, mature and native of the area).
- Everything is carried out after entering the midday prayer time.
CHAPTER IV: Management of the Corpse
Discussion 1: Obligations of Muslims for the bodies of Muslims
The obligation of Muslims towards his brother who died there are four cases, namely:
Discussion 2: How to Bathe the Body
The way to bathe the corpse is at least by wetting the entire body of the body with water. The most perfect way to bathe a corpse is to clean its qubul and anus, clean the dirt from its nose, perform ablution, bathe it while rubbing it with bidara leaf water and douse it with water three (3) times.
Discussion 3: How to shroud a corpse
The shroud is the minimum with a piece of cloth that covers the entire body.
The perfect way for men is to cover their entire body with three pieces of cloth, while for women it is with clothes, khimar (head covering), sarong and 2 pieces of cloth.
Discussion 4: Pillars of the Body Prayer
The pillars of the funeral prayer are seven (7), namely:
- Four times takbir.
- Stand up for those who can.
- Read Surah Al-Fatihah.
- Read shalawat on the Prophet after the second takbir.
- Pray for the deceased after the third takbir.
Discussion 5: How to Bury a Dead Body
The way to bury the corpse is at least in a hole that can cover the smell of the corpse and protect it from wild animals. The most perfect way is to bury it in the ground which is deep enough and wide enough, and the cheek is placed on the ground and it is obligatory to face it towards the Qibla.
Discussion 6: Circumstances Permitted To Dismantle Graves
Dead bodies may be exhumed under four circumstances, namely:
- To be bathed if it has not changed shape.
- To face it towards the Qibla.
- To retrieve buried treasure with corpses.
- The woman whose fetus was buried with him and it is possible that the fetus is still alive.
Discussion 7: The Law of Asking for Help from Others in Ablution (Isti’anah)
There are four isti’anah laws, namely:
- Aula’s mistake (difference to what is more important)
Mubah if only asks to get water. It’s a mistake in the hall if you ask for water to be poured over someone who is performing ablution. Makruh if asked to pour water for people who wash the members of his ablution. It is obligatory to ask for water to be poured on a sick person when he is weak.
CHAPTER V: Zakat
Discussion 1: Assets that are Obligatory to Issue Zakat
There are six types of assets on which zakat is obligatory, namely:
- Gold and silver.
- Grains (which are the staple food).
- Trade treasure. Zakat that must be issued is 4/10 (2.5%) of trading results.
- Hidden treasure.
- Mine results.
CHAPTER VI: Fasting
Discussion 1: How to Determine the Beginning of Ramadan
Ramadan fasting is obligatory with one of the following provisions:
- By completing the month of Sha’ban 30 days.
- By looking at the moon, for those who see it alone, even though he is wicked.
- By establishing it with fair testimony for people who don’t see it firsthand.
- With news from someone whose history is fair, the truth is also believed, whether those who heard the news confirmed it or not, or if the one who brought the news was not believed, but the people who heard confirmed it.
- With berijtihad the entry of the month of Ramadan for those who doubt it.
Discussion 2: Requirements for Valid Fasting
There are four (4) conditions for valid Ramadan fasting, namely:
- Holy from eg menstrual blood.
- Know the time allowed to fast
Discussion 3: Requirements for Obligatory Fasting of Ramadan
There are five conditions for obligatory fasting in Ramadan, namely:
- Taklif (charged for fasting).
- Able to fast.
- Muqim (not traveling).
Discussion 4: Pillars of Ramadan Fasting
There are three pillars of Ramadan fasting, namely:
- intention every night.
- Abstain from anything that breaks the fast while still remembering, being able to choose (no coercion) and not in ignorance that is forgiven.
Discussion 5: Qadha, Kafarat, and Imsak
The punishment for a person who breaks his fast for one day in Ramadan because of sexual intercourse is that he is obligated to make up his fast and is obliged to pay expiation and a strict reprimand for breaking his fast.
It is obligatory to make up the fast and must refrain (from eating and drinking until it is time to break the fast) in six conditions:
- The person who breaks the fast on purpose. This only applies in the month of Ramadan.
- The person who leaves the intention at night for the obligatory fast.
- People who eat sahur because they think it’s still night, even though dawn has already risen.
- People who break their fast because they think the sun has set, even though the sun has not yet set.
- People who believe that it is the thirtieth day of the month of Sha’ban, even though it is already the first day of Ramadan.
- People who already drink water from gargling or from water that is put in the nose.
Discussion 6: Fasting Cancellation
There are 6 invalidators of fasting, namely:
- Give birth to.
- Just a little crazy
- Intentional fainting and drunkenness if it occurs throughout the afternoon.
Discussion 7: The Law of Canceling the Fast and the Punishment
Breaking the fast during the day of Ramadan is divided into four types, namely:
- Mandatory, like women who are menstruating or giving birth.
- Allowed, such as people traveling and people who are sick.
- It’s not obligatory, nor is it allowed, like crazy.
- It is forbidden, like someone who postpones making up up Ramadan, even though in fact he might be able to do it until the time for making up up is up.
Those who break their fast are required to make up for their fast in 4 ways, namely:
- The person who is obliged to make up the qadha and pay the fidyah. There are two types: (a) women who break their fast because they are worried about the condition of their babies and (b) people who delay making up their fasts until the next Ramadan arrives.
- The person who is required to make up the fast without paying the fidyah is like a person who faints.
- People who are required to pay fidyah without making up for it, such as very old people (who are no longer able to fast).
- People who are not required to make up the qadha and do not need to pay fidyah, are like crazy people who are not making it up.
Discussion 8: Eating and Drinking That Does Not Invalidate Fasting
Circumstances which do not break the fast even though (food/drink) has entered the mouth (swallowed) there are seven kinds, namely:
- Do it in a state of forgetting.
- Don’t know the law.
- Forced by someone else.
- When something is put into the oral cavity, it is because of the saliva that flows between the teeth, while it is impossible for him to spit it out.
- When the entry of street dust into the oral cavity.
- When something from the flour sieve enters the oral cavity.
- When the entry of flies that are flying into the oral cavity.
Al Batawiy, Abu Razin. (2011). Matan Safiinatun Najaah Fi Ushulid Diini Wal Fiqhi . Muktabah Ar Razin.