Various Tajwid Laws and Examples

Various Tajweed Laws and Examples – For Muslims, reading the Koran properly and correctly is an obligation. Reading the Al-Quran must be correct and tartil, and must know when to stop and when to continue reading.

Therefore, in order to read the Al-Quran properly and correctly, you must learn the science of recitation. By reading the Koran slowly, it will help to understand and reflect on the meaning of reading the Koran. Below we will explain more about the laws of tajwid science, along with examples.

Meaning of Tajweed

Tajweed is an Arabic term which literally means ‘to do something beautifully or well’. Tajwid comes from the word ‘Jawadda’. Tajweed also means removing letters from their places by giving the properties that exist in each letter. Broadly speaking, the science of tajwid is the study of how to pronounce the letters in the holy book Al-Quran.

The history of recitation of the Qur’an is related to the history of qira’at, as each reciter has their own set of tajwid rules, with a great deal of overlap between them.

Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salam (774 – 838 AD) was the first to develop the science of recitation. He gave the rule of the name tajwid and wrote it in his book entitled al-Qiraat. He wrote about 25 reciters, including 7 mutawatir reciters.

Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (859 – 936 AD) wrote a book entitled Kitab al-Sab’ fil-qirā’āt “Seven Readings”. He was the first to limit the number of readings to the known seven.

Imam Al-Shatibi (1320 – 1388 AD) wrote a poem which outlines the two most famous ways that were passed down from each of the seven powerful Imams, known as Ash-Shatibiyyah. In it, he documents the reading rules of Naafi’, Ibn Katsir, Abu ‘Amr, Ibn ‘Aamir, ‘Aasim, al-Kisaa’i, and Hamza.

Ibn al-Jazari (1350 – 1429 AD) wrote two great poems on Qira’at and tajwid. One of them is Durrat Al-Maa’nia, in the recitation of the three main reciters, added to the seven in Shatibiyyah, making it ten. The other is Tayyibat An-Nasr, which is 1014 lines to the ten main reciters in great detail.

The Law of Studying the Science of Tajweed

Knowledge of the true science of recitation is Fardhu Kifayah, meaning that there is at least one person in every community who can or understands this science. The majority of scholars agree that it is not obligatory to apply the tajwid law.

There are differences of opinion about the law of learning tajwid for each individual. Shadee el-Masry stated that learning the science of recitation is an individual obligation or Fardhu Ain. Sheikh Zakariyya al-Ansari stated that reading by changing the meaning or changing the grammar is a sin. If you do not change these two things, then there is no sin.

As for the argument for studying the science of recitation, as Allah says in Surat Al-Muzzamil verse 4, which reads:

اَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْاٰنَ تَرْتِيْلًاۗ

“or more than half that, and read the Koran slowly.”

This verse clearly shows that Allah SWT told the Prophet Muhammad to read the Koran with tartil, by beautifying the words in each of the letters.

There is also in the letter Al-Baqarah verse 121, Allah says,

اَلَّذِيْنَ اٰتَيْنٰهُمُ الْكِتٰبَ يَتْلُوْنَهٗ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهٖۗ اُولٰۤىِٕكَ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِهٖ ۗ وَمَنْ يَّكْفُرْ بِهٖ فَاُولٰۤىِٕكَ هُمُ الْخٰسِرُوْنَ

“Those to whom We have given the Book, they read it as it should be, they are the ones who believe in it. And whoever disbelieves in them, it is they who are the losers.”

Tajweed Laws and Examples

Here are the tajwid laws along with examples:

1. Breadfruit and Tanwin

a. Idzhar

If nun mati or tanwin meets the letters idzhar, then the way to read it is clear, clear. The letters of the idzhar are read clearly because the place where the letters come out is the mouth, in the esophagus or throat.

Idzhar letters: ا ع غ ح خ ها

Example: مِنْ آَلِ فِرْعَوْنَ   Nun meets أ

  • فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ Nun dies meets ه ـ
  • بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ Nun died to meet ع
  • مِنْ غَفُورٍ رَحِيم Nun died to meet غ
  • أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ Tanwin meets ح
  • كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ Tanwin meets خ

b. Idgham Bigunnah

If nun mati or tanwin meets the letters idgham bigunnah, they read it with a buzz. Idgham means to enter, and bigunnah means to buzz. So how to read it by ditasydid into one of the idham letters with a buzzing sound.

Bigunnah idgham letters: ي ن م و

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Example: مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا Nun died to meet ي

  • إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنْ نَهَارٍ Nun died to meet ن
  • وَأَنْفِقُوا مِنْ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ Nun dies meets م
  • مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَالٍ Nun death meets و
  • بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ Tanwin met with ي
  • حِطَّةٌ نَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ Tanwin meets ن
  • رَقَبَةٍ مِنْ قَبْلِ Tanwin meets م
  • مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ Tanwin meets و

c. Idgham Bilagunnah

If the nun mati or tanwin meets the letters idgham Bilagunnah, it is read by inserting it but not buzzing. Idgham means to enter, and bilagunnah means not to buzz. So how to read it by ditasydid into one of the idham letters in a voice that is not buzzing.

Bigunnah idgham letters: ل ر

Example: 

  • فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكَ Nun Mati meets ر
  • قَالَ لَمْ أَكُنْ لِأَسْجُدَ Nun Mati meets ل
  • لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ Tanwin met with ل
  • سَيَقُولُونَ ثَلَاثَةٌ رَابِعُهُمْ Tanwin meets ر

d. Iqlab

If nun dies or tanwin meets the letter iqlab, then it is read by exchanging it. Iqlab means to melt or more easily how to read it by changing the letters to mim letters.

Iqlab letters: ب

Example:

  • أَنْ تُنْبِتُوا Nun died meets ب
  • كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا Tanwin meets ب

e. Ikhfa Haqiqi

If nun mati or tanwin meets the letters of ikhfa haqiqi, then they read it vaguely. Ikhfa means to disguise or hide while haqiqi means earnestly. So how to read it should be bright with the presence of buzz.

Haqiqi Ikhfa letters: ت ث ج د ذ ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ف ق ك

Example:

  • أَنْتُمْ Nun dies meets ت 
  • مَنْثُورًا Nun died to meet ث 
  • فَأَنْجَيْنَاه Nun died to meet ج
  • عِنْدَهُ Nun died meeting د
  • لِيُنْذِرَكُمْ Nun dies meets ذ
  • أُنْزِلَ Nun died to meet ز
  • نَنْسَخْ Nun died to meet س
  • مَنْشُورً Nun died to meet ش
  • رِيحًا صَرْصَرًا Tanwin met with ص
  • وَكُلًّا ضَرَبْنَا Tanwin meets ض
  • صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا Tanwin meets ط
  • ظِلًّا ظَلِيلً Tanwin meets ظ
  • سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ Tanwin meets ف
  • عَلِيمٌ قَدِيرٌ Tanwin meets ق
  • وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ Tanwin meets ك

2. Mim Breadfruit

a. Ikhfa Syafawi

If Mim dies meets the Ikhfa Syafawi letters, then it is read in a faint way. The trick is to disguise the sound of Mim dying with the accompaniment of a hum. Although the hum is not very clear because the letters mim die and ba have the same exit, namely two lips. Ikhfa Syafawi letter is only one. The letters are the same as iqlab, but how to read them is not merged like iqlab.

Ikhfa Syafawi letters: ب

Example:

  • وَمَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ Mim dies meets the letter ب
  • وَهُمْ بِالْآَخِرَةِ Mim dies meets the letter ب
  • عَلَيْهِمْ بِعِلْمٍ Mim die meets the letter ب

b. Idham Mimi

If the dead mim meets the idgham mimi letters, then the reading merges into one. There is only one idgham Mimi letter, namely Mim. So, idgham mimi is a confluence of two letters meme. The way to pronounce it is the same as saying mim which is tasydid. Because, Mim Tasydid is a combination of dead Mim and living Mim.

Idgham Mimi: م

Example:

  • وَكَمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ Mim died to meet م
  • كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ مَشَوْا فِيهِ Mim died to meet م
  • إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ Mim died meeting with م

c. Idzhar Syafawi

If the dead mim meets the letters of Idzhar Syafawi, then it still has to be read clearly even though the mouth is closed. There are many letters of idzhar syafawi, except for mim and ba, because these two letters belong to ikhfa syafawi and idgham mimi.

Letter idzhar syafawi: ا ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل ن و ه ي

Example:

  • أَأَنْذَرْتَهُمْ أَم Mim died meeting with ا
  • أَنْعَمْتَ Mim died meeting ت
  • ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ Mim died meeting with ث
  • أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ Mim died to meet ج
  • يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا Mim died to meet ح
  • ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ Mim died meeting with خ
  • الْحَمْدُ لِلَّ Mim died meeting with د
  • أَنْفُسَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ Mim died meeting with ذ
  • حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ Mim die meets ر
  • ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ إِلَّا رَمْزًا Mim died meeting with ز
  • وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ Mim died meeting with س
  • وَيَمْشِي فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ Mim died to meet ش
  • إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ Mim die meets ص
  • أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا Mim died meeting with ض
  • وَأَمْطَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ Mim died meeting with ط
  • وَأَنْتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ Mim died to meet ظ
  • بِسَمْعِهِمْ Mim died to meet ع
  • عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوب Mim died meeting with غ 
  • وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ Mim died to meet ف
  • إِلَى شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُوا Mim died meeting with ق
  • مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ Mim died to meet ك
  • وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا Mim died meeting with ل
  • وَيَمْنَعُونَ الْمَاعُونَ Mim died to meet ن
  • عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّين Mim died to meet و
  • أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ Mim died to meet ه
  • هُمْ يُوقِنُون Mim died meeting with ي
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3. Mim Tasydid and Nun Tasydid:

If the mim is tasydid and the nun is tasydid, they are read by echoing it. This is also called gunnah reading. This gunaah is called ghunna ashliyyah. Gunnah in language means a buzzing sound, a light sound coming from the nasal cavity and no use of the tongue at all. How to read extended up to two harokat.

Letters: mim tasydid and nun tasydid

example: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا there is nun tasydid

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُون there is mim tasydid

كَمَا آَمَنَ النَّاس there is nun tasydid

4. Lam ta’rief:

Alif and lam are associated with words or names of things.

a. Idzhar Qamariyah

If there is a lam ta’rief meeting with the letters of idzhar qamariyah, then how to read it must be clear. Qamar in Arabic means month. Meanwhile, lam ta’rief is likened to a star. This is because the stars are still visible even though they meet the moon.

Idzhar Qamariyah letters: ء ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك م و ه ي

Example;

  • لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ ذَلُولً Alif lam meets with ء
  • فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ Alif lam met with ب
  • أَصْحَابَ الْجَنَّةِ Alif lam meets with ج
  • خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَالْحَيَاةَ Alif lam met with ح
  • وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ Alif lam meets with خ
  • وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفُورُ Alif lam meets ع
  • تَكَادُ تَمَيَّزُ مِنَ الْغَيْظِ Alif lam meets with غ
  • وَظَنَّ أَنَّهُ الْفِرَاقُ Alif lam met with ف
  • لِيَوْمِ الْفَصْلِ Alif lam meets with ق
  • إِنِ الْكَافِرُونَ Alif lam meets with ك
  • وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ Alif lam met with م
  • فَيَوْمَئِذٍ وَقَعَتِ الْوَاقِعَةُ Alif lam meets و
  • وَأَنَّا لَمَّا سَمِعْنَا الْهُدَى Alif lam meets with ه
  • وَإِنَّهُ لَحَقُّ الْيَقِينِ Alif lam met with ي

b. Idgham Syamsiyah

If there is a lam ta’rief meeting with other qamariyah letters, besides the qamariyah idzhar letters, then it is called idhgam. Syamsiyah means the sun, so if alif lam, which is like a star, meets the sun, it will not be too visible. Because it is not readable, the alif lam that meets the syamsiyah letters, such as being tasydid, or is entered into the next letter.

syamsiyah idhgam letters: ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن 

Example:

  • وَأَنْزَلَ التَّوْرَاةَ Alif lam met with ت
  • مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ Alif lam met with ث
  • يَوْمِ الدِّينِ Alif lam met with د
  • وَالذَّاكِرِينَ Alif lam met with ذ
  • الرَّحْمَنِ Alif lam met with ر
  • وَالزَّيْتُوْنِ Alif lam meets with ز
  • هُمُ السُّفَهَاءُ Alif lam meets س
  • هَذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ Alif lam met with ش
  • وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ Alif lam met with ص
  • وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ Alif lam met with ض
  • فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ Alif lam meets with ط 
  • مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ Alif lam met with ظ
  • وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ Alif lam met with ل
  • أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ Alif lam met with ن

5. Qalqalah

if there is a dead qalqalah letter, then how to read it must be reversed. There are two kinds of qalqalah, qalqalah sugra and qalqalah kubro. The letters are the same, but the placement is different. Read qalqalah sughra if the letter qalqalah is in the middle of the sentence. Read qalqalah kubro if the letter qalqalah is at the end of the sentence.

Qalqalah sughra is read thinner, like the meaning of sughra itself which means small. As for qalqalah kubro, how to read it is reflected clearer and louder, like the meaning of kubro which means big.

Qalqalah letters: ب ج د ط ق 

Example:

  • ثُمَّ لِيَقْطَعْ فَلْيَنْظُرْ There is a dead letter Qaf in the middle of the word
  • ثَانِيَ عِطْفِهِ   There is a dead letter Tho in the middle of the word
  • وَقَوْمُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ There is a dead letter Ba in the middle of the word
  • فَعَلَيَّ إِجْرَامِي There is a dead letter Ja in the middle of the word
  • يَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ   There is a dead letter Da in the middle of the word
  • بَيْنِ الصُّلْبِ وَالتَّرَائِبِ There is the letter Ba at the end of the sentence
  • وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الْبُرُوجِ There is the letter Ja at the end of the sentence
  • وَالْيَوْمِ الْمَوْعُودِ There is the letter Da at the end of the sentence
  • قَائِمًا بِالْقِسْطِ There is the letter Tho at the end of the sentence
  • وَالسَّمَاءِ وَالطَّارِقِ There is the letter Qaf at the end of the sentence
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