Theoritical review– For students who are writing a thesis or scientific work, of course they are already familiar with theoretical studies. To write a quality and weighty scientific paper, a quality theoretical study is also needed. The theoretical study in question can be an illustration, whether the scientific work made is good or not. Even when compiling a thesis, of course the writer will be faced with various terms related to research. Starting from the background, literature review, problem formulation, theoretical studies, and others. All of these research terms are part of the process of compiling a thesis or other scientific work. Therefore, it is important to understand the intent and purpose and also how to structure it. In this article, we will discuss what is theoretical study, examples, and how to arrange it. Listen until it’s finished.
Qualitative Research Methodology for the Social Sciences: Conventional and Contemporary Perspectives, 2nd Edition
“Research is a series of investigative processes to find facts or answers to an issue. One of the methods used is qualitative research, namely research that aims to understand social reality through understanding activities. This is what distinguishes the quantitative method which aims to “test”. Because it aims to understand, this research method must be supported by complete and valid data sources. Doing qualitative research properly and correctly means having a window to understand the world, including in the field of psychology and social reality. In the context of the dynamic development of the social sciences, this book appears to complement the previous edition with the addition of new chapters and content updates adapted to current social realities. This book helps readers avoid the misunderstanding that these methods are not as scientific as quantitative methods. By consuming time which tends to be longer, qualitative research methods can make the researcher involved in the social activity he is researching, thus making him feel more comfortable and understand it. In qualitative research, the researcher is also a tool. Therefore, this book is here to hone the skills of qualitative research activists or those who are interested in this method so that they are ready to start research and become an objective “tool”. “ so that it makes him feel even more comfortable and understands it. In qualitative research, the researcher is also a tool. Therefore, this book is here to hone the skills of qualitative research activists or those who are interested in this method so that they are ready to start research and become an objective “tool”. “ so that it makes him feel even more comfortable and understands it. In qualitative research, the researcher is also a tool. Therefore, this book is here to hone the skills of qualitative research activists or those who are interested in this method so that they are ready to start research and become an objective “tool”. “
Definition of Theory
Theory is a series of concepts, assumptions, definitions, constructs, and also propositions to explain a social phenomenon systematically by formulating relationships between variables. If based on this understanding, then the theory contains three things.
The first is, theory is a series of propositions between interrelated concepts. The second, namely, the theory explains systematically about a social phenomenon by determining the relationship between concepts. Then the third, namely, the theory explains about certain phenomena by determining a concept that is related to other concepts and also the form of this relationship.
According to Prof. Noeng Muhadjir, in compiling a theoretical framework, the theory section must present a whole or rounded part that is presented holistically. But also not just presenting a fragmented concept. So that the concepts will seem more interesting to study. This is stated in his book entitled “The Process of Constructing Theories and Hypotheses”.
The mindset displayed in compiling the theoretical framework must use reflective logic. This logic means logic that is interrelated between inductive thinking processes and deductive thinking processes and does not matter where to start. Thinking tools are not just about generalizations from individual variability or frequency of occurrence. But it also needs context, pragmatic indications, essence, functionality, and others. Therefore, a theory will appear as a simplification, abstraction, and ideality of a phenomenon. This may be an explanation as well as an interpretation of the empirical. The following are some of the things contained in the theory.
The things contained in a theory include postulates, assumptions, theses, hypotheses, a number of concepts, and also propositions. Not only that, in a theory there is also an idealization related to the order of social life or what is referred to as the order of life of the universe. Validation of a theory for its ability will provide empirical evidence.
Application of Research Methodology in Scientific Work
This book is a guideline for writing scientific papers for students and the Management Study Program Advisory Team. This book contains the basic notions of research, the role of theory in the development of science, the scientific method, the research process and a review of the literature.
Definition of Theory Study
Theory study or theoretical basis is a series of definitions, concepts, and also perspectives on something that is neatly arranged. Theory study is one of the important things in a research. Because, it becomes a foundation or basis of a research. Quality theoretical studies will also determine the quality of a research that is made. Even though the regulations for each university are different, at least theoretical studies can become the composition that dominates number two after the results of the research itself.
Theoretical studies should adopt at least one basic theory that is related to the research topic. A theoretical study must use theory that is still relevant to define the variables found in a study. In addition to this, theoretical studies should also be able to answer hypotheses and also provide temporary answers that have been prepared.
Definition of Theory Studies According to Experts
In order for us to better understand the definition of theoretical study, it would be better if we refer to the opinions of experts regarding the meaning of theoretical study. Here is an explanation.
1. Labovitz & Hagedorn
They argue that the study of theory is a theoretical idea to determine the reasons why variables in a study can be related to statements.
2. Emory Cooper
Meanwhile, Cooper argues that the study of theory is a collection of concepts, variables, propositions, and other concepts that are systematically related and have also drawn similarities to be able to explain and read a fact.
Kneller reveals that theory has two meanings. According to him, the theory has an empirical nature. That means, theory is also a result of hypotheses that have been tested using experiments and observations.
4. Gardner Lindzey
Lindzey prefers that theory is a hypothesis, still in the form of speculation, has not been proven, and the truth of the facts is uncertain.
Meanwhile, Manning argues that theory is a set of opinions or assumptions that have a logical nature. Theories can also generate conjectures that can be juxtaposed with the concepts that have been observed.
Kerlinger revealed that theory is a concept that is well integrated with each other and contains a systematic view of a phenomenon.
So, those were some opinions from experts regarding the definition of theoretical studies. When examined further, we can conclude that all experts express the words definitions, concepts, systematic, logical, facts, variables, and also connected. Therefore, it can be concluded that the notion of theoretical study is a concept that is logical and systematically interconnected in order to test a fact and a variable from a phenomenon.
Pnd Research Methodology Complete Research Easily
Chapter 1 discusses understandings related to science and research, starting from the nature/essence, meaning, differences in paradigms of science and research, ways of thinking, to analytical and synthetic thinking.
Chapter 2 discusses trends in the focus and benefits of research where there are research trends that are discussed up to selecting topics and research methods as well as explanations about deductive and inductive to explaining the objectives and benefits of research.
Chapter 3 discusses the determination of the title and research problems based on situations, conditions, and phenomena that occur so that the formulation of research problems is formed with various considerations that can be studied.
Chapter 4 discusses both scientific and non-scientific research approaches along with explanations of the differences.
Chapter 5 discusses research design and planning in which it also explains the scope of design in research proposals and not only reviews how to review and solidify research proposals, but also how to manage personnel (research team), proposed research budget plans, and schedule for implementing activities study.
Chapter 6 discusses the characteristics of data, benefits and functions of data, classification of data sources and the urgency of data in research.
Chapter 7 discusses the concept and conceptuality of the research, how to create a research conceptual framework, the characteristics of the variables, and explanations of the relationships between variables.
Chapter 8 discusses the characteristics, formulation to the differences between hypotheses and research propositions.
Chapter 9 discusses research procedures where there are differences in procedures between exact research and non-exact research, explanations through flowchat and research flow schemes to an understanding of research standard operating procedures (SOPs).
Chapter 10 discusses the characteristics and role of research theory, how to generate theory through lateral thinking (out of the box), as well as an explanation of the description and characteristics of types related to literature studies.
Chapter 11 discusses the types, formats, and research methods to the considerations in determining research methods, between quantitative and qualitative research methods.
Chapter 12 discusses the scope of the research as well as the objectivity and subjectivity of the research.
Chapter 13 discusses research instruments and the procedural steps for making these research instruments (both quantitative and qualitative) and explains focus group discussions (FGD) and the validity to reliability of a study.
Chapter 14 discusses population, sample, and sampling.
Chapter 15 discusses the types of scales, how to arrange scales, and the principles of measuring scales.
Chapter 16 discusses definitions, functions, objectives, roles, characteristics, and analyzes related to research statistics.
Chapter 17 discusses data collection techniques and data processing techniques both quantitatively and qualitatively.
Chapter 18 discusses the principles of analyzing data to methods of data analysis (quantitative and qualitative).
Chapter 19 discusses the procedure for making research reports systematically with a number of things that need attention, the existence of appropriate delivery targets to reviewing weaknesses in making/compiling research reports.
Chapter 20 discusses the interpretation of research results and relevant theoretical discussions between the theories used and the analysis of research results.
Chapter 21 discusses the characteristics, roles, problems, and ethics of being a researcher in conducting research.
Chapter 22 discusses the procedures for writing reference sources and bibliography.
How to Prepare a Good and Correct Theory Study
According to Priyono (2008) and Priyono (2014) revealed that there are several ways that must be done in making theoretical studies. Below is the full explanation.
1. Determine Research Variables
In a qualitative research, the variable should be the first thing to be collected. The variables that have been collected can be categorized. Then from these categories can be determined the type of method that will be used for analysis. A good variable is a variable that is still relevant to research, can be measured and can be observed.
2. Taking Reference Sources
Then the next step is to take references from various types of sources. For example, taking references from books, scientific publications, research reports, research journals, scientific articles, and also a glossary. All of these reference sources can be used as the main reference sources. Reference sources have a very important role compared to previous research.
3. Sorting Relevant References
If references have been collected, then the next step is to choose which references will be used and are truly relevant to the research topic. For references that are not used, it is better to immediately get rid of them and save all references that will be used. Apart from being relevant, the references used must also be credible and accountable.
4. Finding and Comparing Variables
In a study, variables are the main components that become the point of attention. When making theoretical studies, researchers should compare, seek, and determine the position of the various available variables.
5. Taking and Comparing Variables
Because the position of the variable is very important in a study, researchers must test, retrieve, determine, and compare the position of the variables used. The placement of these variables can be done based on chronology, theory, and also their impact.
6. Read Research Topics
The next step is to read the research topic. Researchers must really have a research topic that fits the variable.
8. Explaining Theory
After that, the researcher needs to explain the theory that has been collected and must sort it as the basis for research. Try to use your own language in carrying out this stage and adapt it to the issues discussed.
9. Include the source of the cited references
Researchers must include reference sources that have been used or cited. This aims to prevent researchers from plagiarism.
Researching is Easy: Social Research Methodology and Language Education
On the world stage, we have witnessed many exhibitions of ideas and research from experts in various fields. More and more national or international journals are publishing their research works. However, survey results always highlight the lag of the Indonesian people in researching and writing articles in scientific journals. While scientists in our neighboring countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have often published their research reports in various scientific media, the Indonesian people are still grappling with the problem of a lack of knowledge about research methods or writing techniques. Research is not difficult. This is the implied message that this book wants to convey. Through sequentially arranged chapters, this book invites readers to explore the main elements of research, be it research for theses and theses, as well as research for various schemes provided by the government and the private sector. Because of its nature which covers general matters in the realm of social research methodology, this book is appropriate for students and lecturers or scientists in the social field, including language and education.
Example of Theory Study in Research 1
2.1 Natural Disasters
Natural disasters are a phenomenon that usually occurs in nature, due to several causes. One of the causes of natural disasters comes from human negligence, as well as natural phenomena themselves. When a disaster occurs, humans will certainly suffer losses, damage the habitat for other living things, and also have an impact on the ecosystem.
2.1.1 Natural Disasters on Land
Natural disasters on land are natural phenomena that are detrimental, and occur on land. Examples include landslides, tornadoes, floods and earthquakes. Each of these disasters can harm the community and other living things in terms of the material from the scene.
Floods are caused by overflowing water from rivers or heavy rains without having catchment areas. Whereas landslides usually occur on slopes, due to the inability of the soil to withstand drought, or water loads. Meanwhile, an earthquake is a disaster that occurs due to a shift in the earth’s plates that are in the bowels of the earth. Then, the existence of a wind flow that has high strength can have an impact on the appearance of a tornado.
2.1.2 Natural Disasters in the Ocean
Not only natural disasters on land, there are also sea natural disasters. For example, namely tsunamis, and also hurricanes. You can feel this stormy event when you are in the ocean. At that time, the captain of the ship must be able to control the ship or boat in order to survive.
Example of Theory Study in Research 2
In order to live on earth, humans need water to drink. The water contained in the earth has a fairly large amount, that is, it reaches ⅔ of the contents of the earth. The water usually comes from rain or soil. This water is very useful for humans, plants, and animals.
2.1.1 Properties of Water
Water has its own properties, including the first that water always flows to lower areas, that’s because water has mass which it uses as gravity. Second, water can evaporate because the heat that can release water makes a steam droplet. Third, water is everywhere, and even 70% of the body is made up of water.
2.1.2 Benefits of Water
The existence of water on earth has considerable benefits for living things that live in it. You can use water as a thirst quencher, a lot of water in the lake area can be used as a tourist spot, while water at home is used for washing dishes, bathing, washing clothes, and so on. The many benefits that water has, makes it impossible for humans to live without water.
Theory Studies in Qualitative Research
This theory can be interpreted as a set of ideas, explanations, and scientific predictions. In qualitative research, the theory is actually not the only material to find out the problem being researched. Because experience, as well as knowledge that previous researchers obtained through a literature reading, scientific discussion activities, lectures, seminars, and others, you can use as additional material in understanding the problem in more depth. (Mudjia Rahardjo: 2011)
Theory can be used as additional information or comparison to see a phenomenon that is being studied as a whole, so that theory can assist researchers in getting inspiration and insight so they can interpret each problem.
The function of theory in a qualitative research is to act as an analytical tool to understand the problems being studied, and to describe the answers to the questions that are in the focus of the research.
If in quantitative research the theory has forms such as definitions or hypotheses, then in qualitative research this theory has the form of patterns or known as patterns, and naturalistic generalizations. For this reason, the review in the theoretical study can cover several main points, including the following:
1. The concept consists of understanding, foundation, purpose, and others.
2. Main theories that can assist researchers in answering the research focus that has been described in the form of research questions.
3. Supporting theories that are in line with the main theories.
4. The researcher’s interpretation of the theories he has cited, among other things, makes an explanation or conclusion that has been adjusted to the understanding of the researcher.
From the four aspects above, it can be seen that theoretical studies can be used as an analytical knife in answering a problem, and the focus of questions in research. This means that the theory formed in the theoretical review section will be discussed, compared, and synthesized in a research finding described in the discussion section, after this data is described, and abstracted as a research finding.
With the existence of a theoretical study, the researcher will gain some deeper insights into the research problem. This theoretical study can also assist researchers in the process of preparing research instruments that will be used in data collection activities. The research instruments include research grids, interview guides in the form of field studies, observation guides or field studies, and others.
EASY WAY TO UNDERSTAND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This book consists of several chapters, the first chapter on research variables, the second chapter on descriptive research design, the third chapter on analytic research design, the fourth chapter on experimental research, the fifth chapter on population and sample, the sixth chapter on data analysis and the final chapter on determining hypotheses. If there are questions about what you are researching, then the answer relates to the research variables. So research variables are basically everything in whatever form is determined by research to be studied so that information about it is obtained, then conclusions are drawn. Theoretically, variables can be defined as attributes of a person or object, which have “variations” from one person to another or one object to another (Hatch and Farhady, 1981).
Variables can also be attributes of a particular scientific field or activity. Height, weight, attitude, motivation, leadership, work discipline, are the attributes of each person. Weight, size, shape, and color are the attributes of the object. Organizational structure, models, delegation, leadership, supervision, coordination, work procedures and mechanisms, job descriptions, policies, are examples of variables in administrative activities. Named variable because there are variations.
For example, body weight can be said to be variable, because the weight of a group of people varies from one person to another. Likewise motivation, perception can also be said to be a variable because for example the perception of a group of people certainly varies. So if the research is going to choose research variables, both those owned by the object person, as well as certain fields of activity and knowledge, then there must be variations. A variable that has no variation is not said to be a variable. To be varied, research must be based on a group of data sources or objects that vary
Example of writing a theoretical study:
Akhlak Aqidah Teacher’s Method in Improving Class VI Students’ Learning Activities at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Negeri Sambas
Based on the elaboration of the research context, the focus and formulation of the research problem can be broken down into the questions below.
1. How is the preparation of the Aqidah Akhlak teacher method in improving the learning activities of class VI students at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Negeri Sambas?
2. How is the implementation of the Aqidah Akhlak teacher method in improving the learning activities of class VI students at Sambas State Madrasah Ibtidaiyah?
3. What are the implications of the Aqidah Akhlak teacher’s method in improving the learning activities of class VI students at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Negeri Sambas?
From the title and focus of the research question, the systematics of theoretical study can be formed as follows:
A. The Teacher’s Method of Akhlak Aqidah in Improving Student Learning Activities
1. Definition of Methods
2. Teachers of Akhlak Aqidah
3. Student Learning Activities
4. Methods of Akhlak Aqidah Teachers in Improving Student Learning Activities
B. Preparation of the Aqidah Akhlak Teacher Method in Improving Student Learning Activities
(Describes theories, and research conclusions on theories related to the focus and first research question).
C. Implementation of the Aqidah Akhlak Teacher Method in Improving Student Learning Activities
(Describes theories, and research conclusions on theories related to the focus and second research question).
D. Implications of the Aqidah Akhlak Teacher Method in Improving Student Learning Activities
(Describes theories, and research conclusions on theories related to the focus and the third research question)
– Point A describes the concept part of each key term in the research title. The concept consists of understanding, foundation, or other aspects that have important values to describe. In explaining this concept, researchers can use or refer to theories from various sources by clearly stating the identity of the quoted source.
– Points B, C, and D are theoretical studies regarding theories related to the focus and research questions. Point B focuses on the first question, Point C focuses on the second question, and Point D focuses on the third question.
Those are some explanations about theoretical studies and how to apply them in a study. Hopefully this article will be very useful for Sinaumed’s who are compiling scientific papers.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SHARING EXPERIENCE FROM THE FIELD
One of the fundamental strengths of qualitative research methodology is its ability to provide complex textual descriptions of how human engagement and life experiences raise questions. Contextually, this involvement is entirely a rich variety of information about the human side and a problem, whether in the form of deviant behavior, emotions, beliefs, actions, conflicts/conflicts, emotions, individual relationships with other individuals (even their environment). Qualitative research is trusted by sociologists, anthropologists, and researchers in the humanities to find the best analysis of intangible factors, such as norms, values, socioeconomic status, gender roles, ethnicity, religion, human consciousness and others. . Qualitative research in its function should not be seen as separate from quantitative research, its existence can strengthen interpretation and better understanding for a researcher to reveal a very complex reality. This book stands at the top, its existence is not to replace existing textbooks but rather as a courtesy to share with other researchers and readers. This book was born out of a feeling of disquiet due to the declining attention to issues of methodology and research design in universities. its existence is not to replace existing textbooks but rather as a courtesy to share with other researchers and readers. This book was born out of a feeling of disquiet due to the declining attention to issues of methodology and research design in universities. its existence is not to replace existing textbooks but rather as a courtesy to share with other researchers and readers. This book was born out of a feeling of disquiet due to the declining attention to issues of methodology and research design in universities.
The initial intention of this book was to share experiences to foster creativity in conducting research field work, it is hoped that this book will serve as an impetus for researchers to find the best method for the research problem they are working on. In an effort to provide a comprehensive understanding, this book is designed to provide a description of the roots of philosophy in the form of a constructivism paradigm first and followed by other methods ranging from hermeneutics, phenomenology, ethnography, ethnomethodology, case studies, participatory action research, critical discourse analysis, semiotics, genealogical research. , and of course the current approach to digital ethnography. Of course, this book can actually be read separately from one chapter to another depending on the needs of the reader. This book deserves to be read by researchers, lecturers/academicians, teachers, students, practitioners, and general readers who are interested in research. In particular, this book is intended for the social sciences (sociology, anthropology, communication science, psychology, and government science) and humanities (language, literature, and culture).