Scientific Writing: Definition, Function, Structure and Examples of KTI

Scientific Writing and Its Uniqueness – Hello guys, when you hear about scientific writing, in simple terms, what you imagine is writing that contains logical things, is related to research, and produces new discoveries, is that true or not?

But, actually, what is the meaning of scientific writing? What are the functions, types, structures, and examples? So that you are not curious, keep reading the reviews, OK?

A. Definition of Scientific Writing

The third is scientific, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, it means that it is scientific in nature, or fulfills the requirements (rules) of science. Well, if interpreted as a whole, scientific writing is a work that results from writing activities, using the application of scientific principles, prioritizing aspects of rationality, raising issues that are objective and factual.

It is highly recommended that when writing scientific papers, use words that are unambiguous or have multiple meanings, it is necessary to use a language style that is straightforward, explicit, using variations of scientific terms in accordance with the general guidelines for Indonesian spelling.

In order to be able to write and be able to compile good scientific papers, the book Social Scientific Writing (Revised Edition) by Yunita T. Winarto, Ibnu Wahyudi, Ezra M. Choesin, et al. can be used as a reference because it describes how to find ideas and put the idea into the form of scientific writing.

In the development of science, theories about the meaning of scientific writing also develop according to research themes, research objectives, research methods, theoretical frameworks, so as to give rise to new knowledge about the meaning of scientific writing itself. let’s look at the meaning of scientific writing according to the following experts:

1. Eko Susilo, M.

According to Eko Susilo, M., Scientific writing is an article obtained in accordance with scientific nature and is based on observation, evaluation, research in a certain field, compiled according to a certain method with a systematic writing of polite language and its contents can be accounted for for its truth/scientificity.

2. Dwiloka and Riana

According to Dwiloka and Riana, scientific work or scientific article is the work of a scientist (in the form of development) who wants to develop science, technology, and art obtained through literature, a collection of experiences, and research.

3. Titi Setiyoningsih, S.Pd, M.Pd

Lecturer in Indonesian Language and Literature Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret State University, Surakarta, said that written work is writing based on the scientific method, namely the logic of science, which starts with problems, objectives, benefits, and the importance of this is discussed, containing facts, previous theories, and previous works that brought this about, then there are methods, discussions, to conclusions, of course, references must also be included.

The definition of scientific writing above develops according to the experience of its users. So, the experts above define scientific writing based on experience, as well as the need to use and create scientific writing. From the various definitions, we will examine the function of scientific writing.

B. Functions of Scientific Writing

1. Function For Education

When the writer was in high school, the writer had participated in extracurricular activities, youth scientific work, from here the writer learned a lot about the basics of writing, invited the writer to think critically, write down thoughts or results of scientific experiments, then be accountable for the results.

There is even a school in Yogyakarta, called Sanggar Anak Alam, which accustoms students to making reports on the results of their research, as a report on proof of one semester’s learning or as agreed upon, as a substitute for semester exams or study documentation, this is done by children since they are in first grade at school level. base.

To be more complete, while in college, writing practical reports and writing papers is a routine activity, which ends in writing a thesis or final project, a thesis for students taking the master’s or master’s program, a dissertation for students taking the doctoral program. As an educational function, scientific writing presents its own writing experience for students and university students.

2. Function For Research

In every era, science is growing, in accordance with the social growth of society. From here, scientific writing is used to develop one’s research, by presenting new knowledge, after obtaining accurate data, it is processed, concluded, then applied in life.

3. Functional Function

Scientific papers are written by authors from various disciplines. Explanation of the meaning of functional functions means that scientific writing can be a medium for developing knowledge as material for literature review, for the needs of various disciplines.

C. Benefits of Writing Scientific Writing

1. Can train the development of effective reading skills.

For writers, compiling scientific papers requires certain skills, so that scientific writing can be read comfortably, understood, and understood by readers.

So that writers need effective reading skills, so as not to waste energy in compiling scientific papers. For readers, scientific writing trains readers to be skilled at reading about things that are needed, to build their knowledge, not to expand on topics or themes that are not needed.

2. As an introduction to library activities

A scientific paper, full of sources and sources. Sources for the preparation of scientific papers are obtained from the theories of experts who are recorded, or contained in scientific journals that can be accessed via the internet. These sources are referred to as library sources.

3. Get intellectual satisfaction

Every writer of scientific papers, makes scientific papers not just writing. The process of making scientific writing involves the intellectuality of the writer. The whole ability of the author’s intelligence is involved here.

Scientific writing is prepared based on research, experiments, interviews with sources, and collects theories from the literature sources obtained. When you have obtained results that are considered sufficient, successfully present them in front of examiners or audiences, the writer will feel satisfied when his scientific writing is received by many people.

4. Broaden the horizons of knowledge

The more qualified a scientific paper is, seen from its content, purpose and originality. This is a reflection of the breadth of the author’s scientific horizons. A scientific paper also represents the structure of the author’s thought.

5. As a reference material or preliminary research for further researchers

Scientific writing with one another, must influence each other. The publication of current scientific papers will be more or less influenced by previous scientific papers. Previous scientific writings, must also be influenced by previous scientific writings.

Between scientific papers, if they have a focus of attention on the same research, they will automatically look for the closest supporting references.

6. As an increase in the systematic organization of facts and data

From the origin of the word itself, scientific writing implies a work that is scientific in nature, accompanied by studies and experiments, presentation of real data, then processed into a conclusion with clear and accountable systematics. The facts revealed come from clear sources, with valid research data, and are not the result of plagiarism,

7. Can train to combine reading results from various sources

A researcher cannot stand alone when conducting research, to compile scientific papers as reports. Researchers who conduct research need library sources as a theoretical basis when conducting research.
The foundation of this theory comes from various sources, especially scientific journals, or books published to support the writing of scientific papers.

D. Types of Scientific Writing

Based on each need, scientific writing is classified into seven types. The difference is the location of the content and the systematics of writing. These seven articles are.

1. Articles

Article is a written work whose content is in the form of ideas or facts that can persuade, convince, educate, and entertain readers. Usually articles have a sentence length with a certain number of characters.

Usually articles are made for publication purposes in newsletters, newspapers, social media, digital channels, and so on. An example is an article on “Fairy Tales as a Means of Multi-Intelligence Therapy” from the source As-Sarana-Terapi-Multiple-Intelligences, here involving Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence .

In writing an accredited scientific journal, there are several prerequisites and demands that you need to follow. If You is interested, the book Strategies for Writing Reputable Journal Articles by OOS M. ANSWAS, M.SI. Dr. E. DKK will be perfect for you.

2. Papers

The paper is a type of scientific writing. Usually, papers are written for purposes related to education. In its preparation, supporting data is needed from the results of field observations of a problem in research. The data collected is needed to find solutions to problems in research. Usually this paper is presented in a seminar, symposium, or material test.

In making a good paper there are also rules and demands that must be followed. The book entitled 8 Practical Steps to Writing Science Papers in Scientific Journals as the First Author by Dr. Endra Gunawan, ST, M.Sc. Explain the various steps in the process of writing a paper.

3. Thesis

According to Wikipedia, thesis is a term used in Indonesia to illustrate a scientific paper in the form of an explanation of the research results of undergraduate students (S-1), which discusses certain phenomena or problems using the applicable rules. The emphasis on the content of the thesis lies on originality. Thesis is a graduation requirement for students, to earn a bachelor’s degree, after passing an exam in front of the examiner.

Writing or compiling a thesis is not easy, which requires research and technical knowledge in the manufacturing process. In the book Writing Thesis, Journals, and Scientific Writing with MS Word by Jubilee Enterprise, You will be taught the steps for compiling good scientific writing.

4. Work papers

A work paper or if translated into Indonesian is a working paper, is a type of scientific writing which is almost similar to a paper, but the analysis is more in-depth. Usually the work paper contains the auditor’s notes, containing the audit procedures used, the test methods performed, the information obtained, and the conclusions drawn based on the audit.

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5. Papers

Paper is a type of scientific writing that is written based on data, as well as arguments with a strong level of validity. Paper is also commonly referred to as a summary of the research that has been made. There is not much difference between a paper and a term paper, only the systematic writing and discussion are different. The discussion is shorter, because it only focuses on the analysis of the problem.

6. Thesis

Thesis is more or less the same as the thesis for undergraduate students (S-1), but the thesis analyzes the topic in a more complex manner, so that its scientific essence is stronger and more complex than the thesis. The thesis is made as a graduation requirement to obtain a master’s or master’s degree which is taken by post-graduate students (S-2)

In writing a good thesis, You can read the guide in the book How to Write a Thesis by Umberto Eco which was first published in Italy in 1977 which has been translated.

7. Dissertation

At a higher level than a thesis, there is what is usually called a dissertation. Because it is at a higher level, the dissertation is used as a graduation requirement to obtain a doctoral degree for students of the three-level study program (S-3).

The content of the dissertation is the result of original research which can later be applied to real life, usually, dissertations are examined by a professor, or senior and professional doctor.

Dissertation is a difficult research to do. In the book Applied Statistics: Applications for Thesis, Thesis and Dissertation Research Using SPSS, AMOS and Excel by Jonathan Sarwono & Herlina Budiono you will be taught how to use statistics in the quantitative research that you will be doing.

There are many types of scientific writing that we can discuss? After knowing the types of scientific writing, we will discuss again about ways to write it, .

E. How to Make Scientific Papers

In making scientific papers, it is very important to use applications and websites that can help you expedite the writing process. Like Grammarly, MathType, and many more that you can read in a book entitled Writing Scientific Papers Using a Computer by Wing Wahyu Winarno.

Writing scientific papers is like stepping towards a certain point which is often referred to as a conclusion, before it is put into action.

1. Events

If we want our scientific writing to be accepted by readers, then we need a good planning.
At the stage of writing scientific papers, starting with the planning process, the writer plans what to write. In this planning stage, it is necessary to have the topic of a work, the purpose of writing, the target audience, and the scope of this scientific writing itself.

2. Reveal

This reveal stage contains the disclosure of supporting data, both from the results of research, case studies, literacy studies, or conducting interviews by preparing questions and also observation material.

3. Analysis

After the data is collected, the next process is to analyze the data, usually referred to as data processing. The data is processed with the formulation of the problem in accordance with the topic raised, but of course it cannot be separated from the supporting data that has been collected.

At this stage, you can begin to make a framework or draft of this scientific paper. But don’t forget, first examine the problems that arise, starting from the planning stage, data collection, until this analysis takes place.

4. Conclusion

The conclusion stage is the answer to the series of events that arise in planning the writing of a scientific paper. Conclusions can be an explanation for writers and readers, because usually everyone involved will understand more and be clearer after the conclusion appears.

5. Apply

Writing planning that is neat and systematic, will not bring benefits if it is not implemented properly. The application in writing is to start writing.

Well, it doesn’t stop here writing scientific papers, apparently has a structure that we must pay attention to. Come on, let’s see the explanation!

F. Structure of Scientific Writing

Every scientific writing has a style guide or envelope, which means the guidelines for writing procedures are determined by the type of writing and the purpose of writing this scientific paper. In general, the structure of scientific writing is presented as follows.

1. Title Page

The title of the work is based on the theme of the scientific paper to be made. The title should be written as unique and attractive as possible, so that it raises curiosity and curiosity for potential readers.

In addition to sparking curiosity for potential readers, the title can also be made to provide an initial description of the contents of this scientific paper for prospective readers. On this title page, the author’s name, the title of the scientific paper, the institution or institutions, date, month, year and place where the scientific paper was made, are written in a center alignment rule, sorted after the title at the bottom.

2. Abstract

Abstract is a summary of the entire contents of a scientific paper, the abstract functions to provide an explanation to the reader, so that quickly, the reader understands the contents, intent and purpose of the author, writing the scientific paper. The abstract is informative, but not too long, approximately 250 words.

3. Introduction

From its basic wording, we know that this introduction is at the front, greeting the reader. Introduction, usually tells the author’s reasons for conducting research, what is the background of this research, tells the purpose, and the benefits of this scientific writing.

4. Theoretical Framework

From the origin of the word, the framework comes from the word framework, which functions as a support, pillar, outline, or concept. While theory is an opinion or argument obtained based on research or discovery, which is supported by supporting data or facts.

So with the definition of understanding above, the theoretical framework is an outline of a systematic conceptual design that guides a study.

5. Research Methods

To develop the framework that has been made, first, the research method must be determined. The research method is the steps taken by a researcher, to obtain the right results from the research.
Usually the method used is a qualitative method, qualitative methods in outline focus on analysis and in-depth research. Meanwhile, the quantitative method is a method that has a lot to do with the use of numbers, tables and statistics.

6. Discussion

The discussion is the longest part of writing scientific papers. The discussion functions to explain the objectives, benefits, methods, theoretical framework, and formulation of the problem, which is accompanied by the data obtained. If this scientific writing is distributed to the general public, which will raise questions and answers, it is in this section.

7. Conclusions and Suggestions

The conclusion is always at the end of a scientific paper, which contains the author’s opinion on everything that has been discussed. The aim is for the reader to gain new insights from the subject that has been discussed.

Suggestions usually contain messages from the author, so that one day, if readers want to do the same research, they can find an effective way, or even develop it even more broadly.

8. Bibliography

The bibliography is a list that contains the theoretical sources used by the author in his research. Writing a bibliography is usually written in the format of the author’s name, the title of the article, the name of the publisher, identity, and when it was published.

After we discuss all the uniqueness of scientific writing, it’s a good idea to look at examples of good and correct scientific writing!

G. Examples of Scientific Writing

1. Examples of scientific writing on youth issues

“Managing Mental Welfare in Adolescents”
Andy Hermawan, S.Si, M.Pd Alternative Education Practitioner


A. Background

In addition to being physically prosperous with the fulfillment of food, shelter and clothing needs, everyone needs to have mental health, including adolescents. Adolescence is a vulnerable age, especially in difficult situations. A difficult situation that has the potential to reduce mental well-being is Covid-19. The need to study and meet friends, and all its variations, must be replaced by independent and virtual learning. This situation has the potential to make children feel bored and experience negative emotions.

B. Problem Formulation
How does the pandemic affect adolescent mental health?

C. Research objectives
To obtain tips on managing mental well-being in adolescents.


A. The Effects of a Pandemic on Life

The pandemic that has been going on for about a year, and with no certainty when it will end, has brought about many changes in a wide variety of lives that greatly affect the optimization of adolescent development in various aspects.

1. Effects Compared

Children’s responses to stressful events are unique and varied. Adults need to understand that the child’s response is natural and need to show empathy and patience when dealing with the response.

2. Social Distancing Effects

Even though it doesn’t mean social isolation, in order to prevent transmission of the Covid-19 virus, you must maintain a safe distance from others. A teenager needs quality time with the people who matter in his life, especially his family. Social emotional closeness will increase mental resilience in adolescents, when faced with difficulties.

3. Activity Effect

Teenagers will get bored easily when experiencing monotonous activities, even their inner worries will increase. Parents can provide choices to fill in useful activities.


In adolescents, mental well-being is characterized by the achievement of developmental stages, emotional needs, healthy social skills, and the ability to deal with difficult situations and problems that arise. These conditions can only be obtained in a situation when adolescents get unconditional support and love from their family, an environment that maintains their self-confidence and self-esteem, opportunities to explore the outside world, and a healthy and safe environment.

Leila, Ch, Budiman (1999). Becoming the Ideal Parent, KOMPAS Psychology Consultation Rubric. Jakarta: KOMPAS.

2. Examples of scientific papers on medical mask waste management

“The Impact of Medical Mask Waste on the Environment”
Andy Hermawan, S.Si, M.Pd
Alternative Education Practitioner


A. Background

Since the Corona Covid-19 virus has spread in Indonesia, a new habit pattern must be implemented in Indonesian society. Various health protocols must be obeyed by every community when on the move. One of them is using a mask recommended by the government to reduce the rate of spread of the Covid-19 virus. During the implementation of the health protocol, the use of medical masks has increased. The increasing use of medical masks has increased the amount of disposable mask waste.

The danger of disposable mask waste not only has an impact on the environment, but also has an impact on the health of the surrounding community. As we all know, the spread of the Corona Covid-19 virus is through droplets of people infected with the virus. The virus can spread through the air, when an infected person talks, sneezes, coughs, and can even stick to a medium that has been touched by the skin where the virus was previously attached.

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It can be said that masks are the first medium for the spread of the virus, because masks are always attached to the face, covering the human sense of smell, namely the mouth and nose, especially if the user of the mask is infected with the Corona Covid virus. Therefore, efforts are needed to reduce the spread of viruses due to waste medical masks or disposable masks.

B. Problem Formulation

The increasing amount of medical mask waste, apart from having an impact on the environment, also has the potential to spread the Corona Covid-19 virus in society.

C. Research objectives

Obtaining the best solution in preserving the environment and health, in particular suppressing the rate of spread of the Covid-19 virus by minimizing medical mask waste.


A. The potential for the spread of viruses originating from mask waste

Masks function to protect people who wear masks, so they are not infected with the Covid-19 virus and prevent transmission from people who have symptoms. The use of masks is increasing among the public, adding to the waste of disposable masks.

At one time of need, people use masks more than once a day. If we multiply this by the total population in Indonesia, we can imagine how many million pieces of mask waste are produced in one day. Several bad possibilities and potentials due to the increasing amount of medical mask waste will emerge.

1. Potential to Increase the Spread of the Corona Covid-19 Virus

The spread of the virus is carried by droplets, these droplets will definitely stick to the mask worn by someone who is infected with the virus. If the mask is disposed of carelessly without any effort to make the mask free of viruses, there is a great potential for it to spread to people who happen to be around, or who touch the mask waste.

Masks that have been used must be ensured that they are safe or free of viruses before being disposed of. From this problem, air is also a potential medium for spreading the virus.

2. Potential for Environmental Pollution

Disposable medical masks are made of materials that are not easy to decompose. Not much different from plastic, medical mask waste takes years to decompose. Besides soil ecosystems being disrupted, water ecosystems are also similar, careless waste disposal can cause disturbances in water ecosystems and can also be a cause of flooding.

3. Required Effort

The increasing use of masks requires serious attention for all parties. To prevent the number of disposable mask waste from increasing, it is necessary to think about the most effective way to avoid producing waste intermittently. Required proper process to avoid the spread of viruses or environmental pollution.

Disinfecting masks that have been used or heating masks at temperatures above 70 degrees for 45 minutes before being disposed of, or processing them into waste that is safe and environmentally friendly. Apart from that, we can also make our own masks that we want to use, and can even be washed repeatedly, so that the waste of disposable masks can be reduced.


The spread of the Corona Covid-19 virus cannot be estimated from where it came from, through what intermediaries, and who brought it. Masks can minimize the risk of being infected with the virus. As someone who understands health and cares about environmental health.

We must carry out disinfection as early as possible for the mask waste. Separate from other household waste, so as not to infect our other neighbors. In addition, we can use masks that comply with the standards recommended by the world health organization, namely WHO (World Health Organization), which can be used many times, of course by washing the mask after use.


The two examples of scientific papers above were compiled by the authors themselves, so now let’s take a look at some examples of scientific papers quoted from the source ya . Let’s see.

3. Examples of Traditional Dolanan scientific writings

“Traditional Play in Forming Children’s Character”


A. Background

Games or also known as traditional games have characteristics that have a positive impact on children’s development. The word play for children is a reflection of the soul’s liberation from attachment to parental rules.

When children play, they will express their joy and communicate with their peers. So, children can learn to socialize and also get along with the surrounding environment.

In addition, traditional games also have educative, recreational and reflective properties. Or in other words it has the nature of educating, encouraging, and also as self-reflection.

B. Problem Formulation

What is the meaning of traditional dolanan?
What is the influence of traditional games in shaping children’s character?

C. Research Objectives
To find out the meaning of traditional dolanan and also its influence on children’s character.


A. Traditional Dolan

The word “dolanan” is a word taken from the Javanese language. The word dolanan means toy or game. While the word traditional is a way of thinking and behavior that is in accordance with custom and has existed since ancient times.

Children’s play is also known as a symbol of knowledge that has been passed down from generation to generation and also has various functions in it.

B. Character Education

In simple terms, character education is all efforts that can be made to influence the character of students. This effort is made so that someone can understand the importance of positive character within.

Character education according to Thomas Lickona is education about attitudes that include knowledge to action. Not only that, feelings are also included in character education.


Traditional games are not just a game that will have a happy effect. Traditional games also have many benefits. These benefits include training the intelligence of the child’s brain and motor skills and can form character in children.

Children can improve social life within themselves and also communicate well and cooperate with playmates and also the environment.

4. Examples of Scientific Work About food

Maintain Heart Health


A. Background of the Problem
The heart is one of the most vital organs in the human body. Because of that many people try to always maintain their heart health.

However, it seems that there are still many people who do not care about it. Evidenced by the large number of fatalities caused by diseases that attack the heart. Therefore research on maintaining heart health needs to be done.

B. Problem Formulation
How to maintain heart health?

C. Research Objectives
To find out how to maintain heart health


How to Maintain Heart Health

Many diseases that attack the heart are still a big problem for some people. Even though there are many easy ways to maintain heart health. After going through in-depth research, researchers found several ways, including the following:

  • Avoid stress, because it can trigger abnormal adrenaline hormones and also cause high blood pressure.
  • Maintain cleanliness, both personal hygiene and the environment.
  • Set diet. Reduce fat and junk food and eat more vegetables and fruit.
    Regular exercise.


Maintaining heart health is indeed very important for humans in order to obtain a long life. And it turns out that getting a healthy heart doesn’t need to be too difficult and can be done every day. By maintaining heart health, it is hoped that fewer victims will fall due to diseases that attack the heart.


5. Examples of scientific papers on Red Bean Cultivation

The Effect of Soaking Water Media on Red Bean Plant Germination Speed


A. Background

The archipelago is an agricultural country that is very rich in natural or agricultural products, one of which is legumes.
Nuts are a useful food as a source of protein and have long been used by residents of Asia, Latin America, Africa and other countries.

In our country, Indonesia has more than 12,000 types of legumes, including peanuts, red beans, green beans, peas, koro, and soybeans. Kidney beans are food ingredients that are useful for lowering cholesterol.

In addition to lowering cholesterol, red beans also have the benefit of preventing high sugar levels in the body because red beans have a very high fiber content.

In 100 grams of dry kidney beans, it can produce 4 grams of fiber filled with water-soluble fiber and water-insoluble fiber.
The protein contained in red beans has benefits for the body, especially for heart health.

Peanuts are in the form of seeds, in simple terms if the seeds fall to the ground, then within a certain period of time the seeds sprout, therefore this type of legume is a plant that is very easy to plant.

That process is called germination. Red beans have the scientific name Phaseolus vulgaris.
The germination process can be influenced by internal and external factors. Internal factors are caused by genes and hormones.

While the external factors are in the form of milk, sunlight, humidity, and nutrients which are very influential in germination. These factors are very important for the growth of peanuts.

For example, sunlight, with the help of sunlight, plants can live well. In addition, sunlight is also very helpful in the process of growth, germination, and photosynthesis of these plants.

We will not be able to tell the difference that occurs in the germination and growth of red bean plants if we soak the seeds in a different type of water.

For this reason, the author chose a topic entitled “The Effect of Soaking Water Media on the Germination Speed ​​of Red Bean Plants”

B. Problem Formulation

From this background, a problem can be formulated, namely:

1. What is the germination rate between red bean seeds soaked in tap water and red bean seeds soaked in young coconut water?

C. Research Objectives

Based on the formulation of the problem above, the purpose of this scientific paper research is to find out and analyze the germination rate between red beans soaked in tap water and red beans soaked in young coconut water.

D. Research Benefits

1. For students

This research is used as learning in writing and compiling correct scientific work, this research is one of the learning materials that can be useful at higher education levels and to instill scientific values ​​in students.

2. For schools

From the research that the author did, it is hoped that the results can be used as reference material and library empowerment, which will later be used as reference material in further research for subsequent students.

3. For Biology lessons

Can be used as literature in biology lessons in each school, to find out the factors that can affect plant germination, in this case red bean plants.

Chapter III


Indonesia has around 12000 variants of legumes. Nuts have many benefits for our body. The growth of peanuts begins when the peanut seeds sprout, which is referred to as the germination process. In order for the growth process to be fast, there are several influential factors. One of them is water.

In addition to providing new knowledge for the world of science, scientific writing is also beneficial for literacy skills for students who do research.

So, like that, , notes about scientific writing along with some examples from various sources, for you prospective scientists who will conduct research and write scientific papers, I hope the above article can help you.