Research Methodology: Definition, Types, Benefits, and Purpose

Research methodology – Have you ever heard of the word research? Research is
a scientific activity that aims to obtain data which is then used for certain purposes.
Someone
who conducts research is also known as a researcher.
In addition, research is not only carried
out by one person, but sometimes by groups or organizations.

Research which is a scientific activity, in carrying out this activity, must be carried out in a
systematic, rational or reasonable way, and the data is valid or in accordance with the facts.
Therefore, in conducting research it should not be done carelessly because it can produce research
that is difficult for readers to understand.

So that research is not carried out carelessly, researchers must use what is called a research methodology.
Talking about research methodology can be regarded as one of the scientific disciplines that is
still growing today.
In fact, until now the research methodology continues to be developed.
Therefore, methodology is included in one of the courses that must be followed.

The use of this research methodology is adapted to the field to be studied, for example in the health
sector, so the research methodology used must be related to health.
This research methodology
will direct researchers to choose the right research methodology and according to the research objectives.
Therefore, it can be said that the selection of the right methodology can produce the right
research as well and the contents are easily understood by the readers.

There are two research methodologies that are generally known by many people, namely qualitative
methodology and quantitative research methodology.
However, actually there are several other
types of research methodologies that are often used by researchers, what are these methodologies?

In this article, you will not only know the types of research methodologies, but also know the meaning of
research methodology to the objectives of research methodology.
So, Sinaumed’s, check out this
article, OK?

Definition of Research Methodology

The research methodology consists of two words, namely methodology and research. In the Big
Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), methodology is the science of methods;
description of the method.
While research in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), research is an activity of collecting,
processing, analyzing, and presenting data that is carried out systematically and objectively to solve a
problem or test a hypothesis to develop general principles.

So, research methodology is a way or technique to obtain information and data sources to be used in
research.
This information or data can be in any form, literature, such as journals, articles,
theses, books, newspapers, and so on.
In addition, research methodology can also be obtained
through electronic media such as television or radio.
Even data sources can also be obtained
from surveys or interviews.

Therefore, when someone wants to do research, determine the methodology first. By determining
the research methodology, the researcher becomes more understanding of the workflow or steps in conducting
research.
Not only that, researchers will also find it easy to find answers to the topic of the
problem being researched, so that research can be completed with maximum results.

The need for a research methodology is not without reason because conducting research requires a systematic
method.
With this research methodology, a research can be accounted for because it has a fairly
high level of credibility.

Some people think that research methodology is the same as research method, but in fact the two things are
different.
The difference between the two terms lies in their scope (which is in the form of
methods or techniques of conducting research).
The research methodology has a greater scope.
Meanwhile, research methods have a smaller scope. Therefore, the research method is
part of the research methodology.

Research methodologies are often used by lecturers, researchers, or even students in conducting research.
In making a research methodology it usually consists of the formulation of the problem, a framework
or framework of thinking, then enters the hypothesis section.
The formulation of the problem
and the hypothesis can be said to be things that need to exist in making a research methodology because
these two elements complement each other and can explain a topic of the problem to be studied.

Research Methodology According to Experts

Some experts also express the meaning of research methodology. The following is the definition
of research methodology according to experts.

Nawawi

Nawawi said that research methodology is a science about methods, and if compiled it will become a research
methodology, the meaning is a science about methods that can be utilized in conducting various kinds of
research.
Research methodology can also be interpreted as a science that functions to explain
and reveal social phenomena and natural phenomena that exist in human life by using work procedures that are
regular, orderly, systematic, and can be used scientifically.

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Sugiyono

According to Sugiyono, research methodology is a scientific method used in an effort to find or obtain data for a
specific purpose or use.

Prof. ME Winarno

According to Winarno, research methodology is a scientific activity carried out with systematic techniques.

Muhammad Nasir

Muhammad Nasir said that research methodology is the most important method used by researchers to carry out
research activities.

Muhiddin Sirat

According to Muhiddin Sirat, research methodology is a way or step to determine and select a topic problem that
is intended to be used as a determinant for making a research title.

Based on the understanding of research methodology from experts, it can be said that methodology is a method or
scientific step used for a particular purpose.

Types of Research Methodology

Quoted from several sources, the research methodology is divided into eight, namely qualitative methods,
quantitative methods, descriptive methods, experimental methods, phenomenology, surveys, grounded methods, and
ethnography.

1. Qualitative Method

Qualitative method is a type of research methodology which in its application uses data derived from
research results which are then analyzed.
In this case, research results can come from
interviews, filling out questionnaires, and a poll.
Therefore, the qualitative method is a
method that comes from the participant’s point of view.

2. Quantitative Method

Quantitative method is a research method whose data source is taken through mathematical samples.
Therefore, the quantitative method is always synonymous with arithmetic and is always related to
numbers.

3. Descriptive Method

The descriptive method is a research method related to writing, especially in making a description.
In other words, this method is a method in the form of language and descriptive sentences.
Even so, in using this method it is also necessary to do research and retrieve valid data
sources.

4. Experimental Method

The experimental method is a research method derived from an experiment. Even so, in using
this method it is also necessary to make observations of the data first.
Usually this method is
used to find the cause and effect of a behavior from an observed data

5. Phenomenology

Phenomenology is a research method used to discuss and analyze a particular phenomenon.
Therefore, the data source used in this type of research methodology is an analysis that has been
carried out in previous studies and subjects who have experienced a phenomenon.

6. Survey

Surveys are a type of research methodology used to find out and analyze a behavior in the subject.
In general, the data from this method is in the form of interviews or questionnaires, so that the
resulting data is more often in the form of numbers.
Therefore, this method is also often said
if the data is quantitative.

7. Grounded Method

The grounded method is a research methodology that is often used to conduct research or research in the
field of sociology.
With this method, the results of sociological research can be clearer, so
that the content is very complex but still easy to understand.

8. Ethnography

Ethnography is a type of research methodology that is more often used in research related to a person’s
social behavior or actions.
With this method, researchers will conduct research in detail and
without engineering or you could say it is in accordance with the data that has been obtained.

Benefits of Research Methodology

As previously explained that this research methodology will be used when conducting research.
The research methodology itself has several benefits including:

Benefits of Research Methodology:
Sharpening Research Results

A sharp and in-depth research certainly requires a lot of data sources. Not only are there
many, but the data sources used in research must also be of high quality and related to the topic of the
research problem.
The sharper a study indicates that the research is more detailed and
complex.

To be able to produce sharp and in-depth research, it is necessary to create a research methodology.
With this, researchers will find it easier to know the basic things in conducting research.
In other words, without a research methodology, it will be difficult for researchers to conduct or
initiate research, analysis, and even draw conclusions.
If it has happened like that, then the
research carried out will be less than optimal.

Research Flow Becomes Clear

The second benefit that can be felt when using research methodology in research is that the research flow
becomes clear.
In this case, it can be said that it will be easier for researchers to complete
the research because they already know the steps that need to be done first.

With a clear research flow, the results of the research will be clear or not going anywhere, so that
readers will find it easier to understand a research.
Readers who easily understand a research
do not rule out the possibility that the research will be used by readers to conduct research with the same
topic of discussion (development) or with a new topic of discussion.

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Can Generate Useful Research

Useful research is research that provides solutions to the topics of the problems that have been
researched.
The benefits of this research can be felt by researchers or readers.
However, to be able to produce useful research or research that is solutive, in-depth research is
needed.

The thing that needs to be done to be able to do in-depth research is to carry out research activities in a
systematic way or you could say using a research methodology.
Sources of data that come from
valid methodologies and research will be carried out with great care, so that the solutions given to the
topic of research problems do not have gaps and can be utilized.

Research Can Be Accountable

The benefit to be gained from using research methodology is that research results can be accounted for.
This benefit can be obtained because when using a research methodology, the data source is very
valid.
In addition, with valid data sources, the results of researchers will be trusted by many
people.
In fact, the researchers themselves can also be trusted by many people who can make
quality research.

So, to get a valid data source, a systematic step is needed and that step is in the research methodology.
Therefore, in conducting research, research methodology is often used by researchers so that they
can still produce quality research that can be accounted for.

Can Overcome Limitations

The fifth benefit of research methodology is that it can overcome limitations when conducting research.
In this case, the limitations in question include costs, time, effort, and so on. With
various kinds of limitations that can be overcome, it will be easier for researchers to complete their
research.

Even though it has limitations in research, with methodology, all these limitations can be managed
properly.
Therefore, it can be said that research methodology is one way to overcome obstacles
that occur during research.
So, never hesitate to create a research methodology when conducting
research.

Those are some of the benefits that can be obtained when using a research methodology. So,
what research methodology have you created?

Research Methodology
Objectives

Quoted from the deepublish publisher’s page, the research methodology objectives are divided into two, namely
general objectives and practical objectives.

General Research Methodology
Objectives

The objectives of the research methodology in general, including:

  • Aims to develop existing knowledge.
  • To gain knowledge and discoveries that are new or have never been researched on the same research topic.
  • To prove as well as test the source of the data used in the research, whether it is valid and can be
    accounted for.
  • To get research with an appropriate theoretical basis.

Purpose of Practical Research
Methodology

Practical research methodology objectives, namely:

  • Facilitate researchers in completing research.
  • Provide support to readers or people in overcoming current problems through research results.
  • Advancing science and technology, so that it can provide benefits to society.

Example of Research Methodology

This research was conducted using a qualitative research methodology. Research using
qualitative research methodology aims to be able to reveal social facts in the form of descriptions.
According to Ratna (2007:47) qualitative methods pay attention to natural data, data in relation to
the context of its existence.
The scientific ways that drive qualitative research methodology
are considered multi-method because research in turn involves a large number of relevant social
phenomena.

In research of literary works, it will involve the author, the social environment in which the author is
located, including elements of culture in general.
In other words, qualitative research
methodologies in the social sciences and humanities have two distinct sources.
As stated by
Ratna (2007: 47) in social science the data source is society, research data are actions, while in
literature the data source is manuscript works, research data, as formal data are works, words, sentences,
and discourse.

This research pays more attention to the content of messages contained in a literary work.
Therefore, the author emphasizes how to give meaning to the content of communication, to interpret
the contents of symbolic interactions that occur in communication events in literary works.
Content analysis is a methodology for analyzing content, especially those related to communication.
The content in the content analysis methodology consists of two kinds, namely latent content and
communication content.
Latent content is the content as intended by the author, while the
content of communication is the content as manifested in the relationship between the text and the consumer
(Ratna, 2007:48).

Conclusion

With the existence of a research methodology, a research can be more easily completed and can be accounted
for.
In fact, with research methodology, researchers can produce research that can provide
benefits to readers or researchers themselves, so that this research can play a role in advancing science
and technology.