Literature Review: Definition, Methods, Benefits, and How to Make

In the world of research, especially scientific work, it cannot be separated from literature or literature in Indonesian. Literature is a source or reference or reference for researchers of scientific work, so it cannot be simply released. In other words, through literature, a person or researcher can obtain valid and accountable information and data which can then be used as a reference for writing scientific papers. One of the studies related to literature is a literature review.

Literature is often used as a reference or reference in making scientific writing, so literature is very difficult to separate from the world of education. Therefore, literature is often used by students to complete their final project or thesis. In fact, literature is also needed by lecturers who are conducting research or making journals.

This literature is very diverse in form or you could say not only books, but also in the form of scientific journals, dissertations, theses, and so on. The more literature that is used as a reference or reference for making scientific papers, the more scientific papers produced will be optimal. Scientific writing that is done optimally, usually the content will be more complex and still easy to understand.

Even though a lot of literature is used, it cannot guarantee that it will produce quality scientific work. Therefore, in making scientific work, you should choose quality data or choose data that is directly related to the topic of the scientific work being made.

To be able to get valid data from the literature, the creator of a scientific work should conduct a literature review first. This needs to be done so that the authors of scientific papers know the research data that has been done before and can be used as a reference. In addition, literature reviews can also be used to find out what approach has been chosen by previous researchers.

Literature review consists of two words, the first is literature and the second is review. Therefore, before discussing further about literature review, this article will discuss the meaning of literature and the meaning of review.

Definition of Literature

Literature is all written works that can be used as reference material or references in conducting various fields of research or scientific writing. In Indonesian, literature is better known as literature. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary, (KBBI), literature is reading material that is used in various activities, both intellectually and recreationally.

Literature is used as a reference because it is considered that there is a lot of valid data in the literature. In addition, literature is also considered to have many benefits that are eternal. In other words, literature will never die and will continue to exist and will continue to grow.

In this case, various kinds of papers are included in the literature section as long as they are related to the topic of discussion that will be used in making scientific papers. Although it can be used as reference material in making scientific work, the data in the literature must be checked first, whether the data is valid or not. Apart from that, it can also be checked through literature writers, editors, to who published the literature.

Definition of Reviews

As previously explained that literature review consists of two words, after discussing the meaning of literature, the meaning of review is a summary or review that comes from several sources, such as films, books, news, and journals. In addition, reviews can also come from several products that we usually do after shopping online .

Reviews that are done after completing online shopping are very useful for the store because they can find out what things need to be improved and what things need to be maintained. Therefore, online stores really expect reviews from their buyers. That way, shop owners can improve the quality of service or the quality of the product itself, so that it can increase sales turnover.

Basically, almost the same as a product review, the meaning of the word review in literature review means a person’s assessment of the quality of a written work. In this case, the written works in question are very diverse, such as journal writing, novels, books, and others.

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With a literature review, someone will know whether the written work can be used as a reference for research (scientific work) or not. Literature review is also useful for creators of their writing because they know the things that need to be done to improve the quality of their writing.

Not only that, literature reviews can also be useful for others in helping to find papers that are of good quality and can be used as references in conducting research. Because the scope of the review is very broad, the review itself is divided into several types, such as journal reviews, reviews, books, reviews, articles, and many more.

What is Literature Review?

Even though literature review consists of two words, the actual meaning of a different literature review is not the same as the combined meaning of the two words. In the field of research, especially the creation of scientific papers, literature review is better known as a literature review. Therefore, it can be said that a literature review is an analytical activity which can be in the form of criticism of a research that is being carried out on a particular topic which is part of a scientific field.

The content in this literature review is in the form of an explanation or discussion of the theory of a finding or research topic. From the explanation of these theories can be used as a theoretical basis in making scientific work or in conducting research activities. In addition, research that is currently being carried out can be in the form of developing from previous research or it can also be research that is being carried out for the first time.

To make this literature review, one needs to do a number of things first, such as reading and understanding the papers to be analyzed, criticizing the papers, and providing reviews or responses to the papers or literature. Therefore, this literature review activity is very synonymous with students or lecturers. This is because students or lecturers will usually get a job to do a literature review.

In general, the activity of making literature reviews is often carried out by students or lecturers. There are several types of literature that are often reviewed when carrying out literature review activities, such as scientific articles from scientific journals, theses, dissertations, seminal papers, textbooks (novels, short stories, non-fiction books, and so on), and report from an organization that has a fairly high level of trust.

Literature Review Method

When you want to do or make a literature review, you can use several methods, namely the method of systematic mapping study , systematic literature review, and traditional review. 

Systematic Mapping Study

Systematic mapping study is a type of literature review method in which the writing is carried out systematically and uses predetermined steps. With this literature review method, choosing the paper to be studied cannot be done subjectively, so it must be done objectively.

Systematic mapping studies are more complex and there are more papers that can be used compared to traditional reviews . In addition, researchers who want to make a literature review with this method usually already have certain standards. In this case, the standard in question is the standard in choosing the title and type of paper to be used.

Therefore, researchers who use this method in making literature reviews will usually collect various kinds of writings. After collecting the papers, the researcher will read the papers one by one which will then be reviewed or analyzed and adapted to the topic of discussion to be studied.

Systematic Literature Review

Systematic literature review is usually abbreviated as SLR. Systematic literature review is a method that systematically aims to collect, then analyze critically by presenting data and findings from various other studies.

Making literature reviews with the systematic literature review method is usually done sequentially or systematically. In other words, a literature review is made starting from the most basic things and then working on complex things.

The stages that need to be passed with this method can indeed be said to be quite long. However, the literature review that will be produced will be more detailed, accurate, and more complex. Therefore, when conducting a literature review using this method, the author can obtain a sharper and better quality theoretical basis.

Traditional Reviews

The second method used in making a literature review is the traditional review. Traditional review is a method commonly used to make literature reviews by researchers. The results with the traditional review method which is commonly used to make this literature review are often found in survey papers. Therefore, the literature reviews produced through this method are more specifically focused on one topic only. In addition, the author of the selected paper is known in advance.

With this traditional review method, the papers used as references are still on the same topic of discussion as the research being carried out. This method can indeed make a literature review more specific, but papers that can be used as references are limited. Even though it is possible that data or sources that can be used can be obtained from different topics of discussion.

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Not only limited in terms of data and sources, but the traditional review method is also limited to the insight and level of understanding of the researcher. In other words, the wider the researcher’s insight, the more written works or literature that have been read and researched or analyzed by researchers.

Benefits of Literature Reviews

The large number of researchers who use literature reviews is not without reason, because the literature review itself has several benefits including:

1. Knowing the Development of Science (Specific Fields)

The first benefit that can be obtained by making a literature review is knowing the development of science in a particular field. With this benefit, a researcher can continue to explore this knowledge, and can even contribute to the development of this science.

2. Knowing the Methods or Techniques in Making Scientific Work

The second benefit of making a literature review is knowing the methods or techniques in making scientific work. This benefit can occur because in making a literature review, the steps are almost the same as making a scientific paper. In addition, by making a literature review, researchers can also find out techniques for solving a problem, so that the solution to the problem can be used by other readers.

3. Increase Knowledge

In addition to knowing the development of science, making a literature review can also be useful to increase knowledge. With increasing knowledge, the insight will also increase. This can happen because when carrying out literature review activities, researchers will read and understand various kinds of written works, whether they are relevant to the topic of discussion or not.

4. Knowing Interrelated Research Results

When carrying out literature review activities, we will read and understand written works in the form of the results of previous research. Therefore, by conducting a literature review, researchers will find out the results of research that are interrelated with the topic of discussion to be studied.

5. Determine the Topics for Discussion and Problems to be Researched

The fifth benefit of making a literature review is that it can determine a topic of discussion and problems to be studied. This can happen because when making a literature review, researchers will easily find problems or topics of discussion that are close to everyday life. In addition, literature reviews can also be useful for researchers so that the research carried out does not go anywhere.

Every benefit of literature review is generally related to research activities or making scientific work because making a literature review itself is part of making scientific work.

How to Make a Literature Review

The following will explain several steps in making a literature review, including:

1. Finding, Reading, and Understanding Relevant Writing

In making a literature review, the researcher must look for written works that will be used in later research. Not only searched, but also must be read, and understood in order to get data sources that are relevant to the topic of discussion.

2. Choose Clear Data Sources

The second step in conducting a literature review is selecting clear data sources. This needs to be done so that the research process does not go astray and produce detailed and specific literature reviews.

3. Do In-Depth Identification

The next step is to carry out in-depth identification. In this case what is identified are all written works that will be used as a reference in making a literature review. The deeper the identification is carried out, the better the data sources obtained will be.

4. Create a Literature Review Framework

Before directly making a literature review, it is better to make a literature review framework first. By making a literature review framework, the researcher will find out things that need to be corrected and added in making a literature review. That way, it can reduce errors in making literature reviews and can produce quality literature reviews.

5. Make a Literature Review

The final step is to make a literature review using the previously obtained data sources.

After knowing how to make a literature review, are you interested in trying to make a literature review right away?

Conclusion

Literature review is often known as a literature review which is often found by students and lecturers who are completing their final assignments, such as theses, theses or dissertations. With a literature review, it will be easier for researchers to find papers of the same type as the topic of discussion to be studied.

There are three literature review methods, namely systematic mapping study , systematic literature review , and traditional review . Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is better to use a method that is in accordance with the literature review that will be made, so that it can produce optimal and quality literature reviews.