5 Types of Research – Research is one way to develop or advance a system. The system in question is an existing order or knowledge. For example, there is knowledge about exercising to make the body healthier.
After that, further research will be carried out to prove and develop this knowledge. Through research, we can find out what variables can later be changed so that we can develop this knowledge.
Research has a very broad field, this is because research can be done in all fields of science, starting from economics, health, technology and others. This research can also use different methods, therefore the research is divided into several types. Broadly speaking, research is classified into two studies, namely qualitative and quantitative research. Below will be discussed further about the research.
Definition of Research
Research is a term that comes from Middle French, namely recherche . Recherche means to go in search of. The term recherche itself is a term that comes from Old French, a word that comes from ‘re’ and ‘cerchier’ which means search. The earliest recorded use of the term is in 1577. Research is defined in several different ways.
The definition of research used by the OECD is any creative systematic activity carried out to increase the amount of knowledge, that knowledge includes knowledge about humans, society and culture, the use of this knowledge is of course to design a new application.
Based on the dictionary, research is defined as careful investigation or examination, especially investigations or experiments aimed at discovering a fact, revising the previous theory or accepted law based on new facts, or the practical application of it.
John W. Cresswell provides another definition of research. According to him, research is a process consisting of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or problem consisting of three steps, asking questions, gathering sources and data to answer the questions asked and presenting the answer to the question.
Meanwhile, according to a scientist in Indonesia, Soerjono Soekanto, research is a scientific activity based on an analysis and construction that must be carried out systematically, methodologically and consistently with the aim of revealing a truth.
5 Books That Help You in Doing Research and Compiling Scientific Papers
1. Qualitative Research Methods
This book explains more about the methods that can be applied in qualitative research. In addition, further qualitative research can be studied in the book Theory and Practice Qualitative Research Methods.
2. Qualitative Research Methods (Theory and Practice)
This book discusses principles, case studies and qualitative research methods. This book also includes examples of problems that can be found in analogies in other sciences.
3. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Theory and Practice
4. Research Methods (Quantitative, Qualitative and Combined Research)
5. Practical and easy solutions to master SPSS 20 for data processing
The discussion will begin with an introduction to SPSS 20, basic concepts, basic operations, and discussion of various statistical data analysis methods in the form of applicative exercises.
Types of Research
1. Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is research that has a descriptive nature, this research is more likely to use analysis. In this study the process and meaning are emphasized more by using a theoretical basis as a guide to focus on research based on facts in the field.
The theoretical basis also serves to provide a general description of the research setting and as material for a discussion of the research results. Qualitative research has a fairly limited research object. In qualitative research, the researcher must participate in the conditions or events being studied, this is because the results of qualitative research require in-depth analysis from the researcher.
Generally, qualitative research obtains primary data from interviews and observations. After that the researcher will analyze the data obtained so that it is likely to give birth to new concepts or theories if the results of the research conducted contradict the theory used in the research.
There are several methods that can be used in qualitative research, namely phenomenological methods, grounded theory methods, ethnographic methods, case study methods, and narrative research methods. Narrative research method is a research method in which the researcher conducts a study on someone to obtain data from the history of their life journey.
The phenomenological method is a method in which the researcher collects data by observing participants to find out the essential phenomena of the participants in their life experiences. Meanwhile, the grounded theory method is a method in which the researcher generalizes the observed objects inductively, or interacts based on the views of the participants studied.
While the ethnographic method is a method in which researchers will conduct studies on culture in a group and through observation and interviews. For the case study method is a method used to understand or explore the reasons for a case that occurs, this case can be the basis for use in further research.
An explanation of qualitative research methods can be seen further in this book,
Examples of qualitative research:
- Waste Utilizer with Artwork
- Case Study of Disabled Movement Patterns in City A
2. Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is research that conducts systematic investigations to examine a phenomenon by collecting data that can be measured using statistics, mathematics and computation. Quantitative research has the goal of developing hypothetical theories that have links with natural phenomena.
This quantitative research has an important goal of measurement. In this study, measurement is the center of research. This is because the measurement results can help to see a relationship between empirical observations and the results of the data. Quantitative research also aims to help find relationships between variables in a population.
Quantitative research also helps to define a research design. Quantitative research design has two types, namely descriptive studies and experimental studies. Descriptive study research is research that only tests the relationship between variables only once. Meanwhile, experimental studies are carried out if researchers want to measure variables that are carried out before and after research. Measurements made before and after this were carried out to determine cause and effect.
Quantitative research has several points based on its characteristics. Among them is quantitative research that focuses on specific problems that are used as research. Another characteristic is that quantitative research is present to answer the problems raised by researchers. This research is not result oriented, but more to the process.
Another characteristic of quantitative research is that the researcher is the basic instrument in data collection. After that the research design is temporary. This research was conducted by observation, interviews or data analysis techniques. From the results of quantitative research, the results of the data are qualitative.
The essence of quantitative research is a process to measure, the measurement will provide a relationship between observations made empirically and mathematically. Quantitative research is more widely used in the fields of natural sciences and physics. To understand more about quantitative research, you can read the book by Prof. Dr. Endang Widi which contains the Theory and Practice of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
The methods used in quantitative research. Comparative method is a method which is used to determine the difference between the variables studied. This method applies manipulative abilities so that the resulting data will be objective and accurate. This method is done as naturally as possible so that the differences in the variables will be obvious.
Descriptive method is a method used in research that conveys facts by describing what is obtained. Researchers simply write reports from their eyes, where the authors simply describe the subject of the object being studied.
In addition to the two methods above, there is also a correlation method. The correlation method is a method that has the goal of describing more than two research results. This method is better used in comparing similarities or differences so that the research results can be clearer. The correlation method is more suitable for use in research that has the goal of knowing a clear research starting point.
In addition to quantitative and qualitative methods, there are also studies that combine the two. Book by Prof. Dr. A. Muri Yusuf is a textbook that emphasizes research as an integrative system. The research methods in this book are summarized in 17 chapters which are also enriched with illustrations and research models.
Examples of quantitative research:
- The Influence of Learning Technique A on Language Mastery of Language Department Students at J University.
3. Experimental Research
Experimental research is research that is trial and error. The word experiment itself may already be familiar. Since elementary school, the term experiment has been introduced. For example, experiments to make rockets from used bottles and others. Experiments that are trial and error aim to test a hypothesis or to recognize the existence of a cause and effect relationship with a specific purpose.
Experimental research is further divided into four types, namely pre-experimental, true experimental, quasi-experimental and factorial design. In pre-experimental research, this research does not include serious research because there are still external variables that also influence the formation of the dependent variable.
While true experimental is research in which researchers can control all variables that can affect the course of the experiment. By controlling all the existing variables, the quality of the implementation of the research can be increased. So, true experimental has a control group and a research sample that can be chosen at random.
Factorial design research is a modified form of true experimental research. This modification is done by observing the possibilities of moderator variables that can affect the independent variables.
Quasi experimental is the development of true experimental research. However, this type of experiment tends to be difficult to do. Quasi experimental has a control group that cannot fully function to control other variables that can affect the experiment. This type of experiment is usually used because in practice it is difficult to obtain a control group during research.
4. Descriptive Research
Descriptive research is research that describes the characteristics of a population or a phenomenon that is the object of research. Descriptive research methods focus more on explaining the object of research, so that this research will produce answers from an event that occurred.
Descriptive research has the main objective of explaining and describing the phenomenon or event under study. The criterion that is owned by descriptive research is that the problem formulated must be feasible to study. The formulation of the problem to be raised must be examined in advance whether the formulation of the problem has scientific value.
Research with descriptive methods should not be too broad in its research objectives. The goal must be very specific so that the results of the research are more focused. If the purpose of descriptive research is less specific, then the explanation may be too long and the discussion too broad. In addition, the data used is also in the form of facts, the same as other types of research.
Researchers who conduct descriptive research must go directly into the field so that they can see and collect the required research data themselves. So that it can be seen whether it is really in accordance with the facts, besides that this is also easier for researchers to put it into a research report. Standards of comparison in descriptive research must also have validation so that there is no element of opinion.
There are several methods that can be used in descriptive research, there are survey methods, descriptive continuity methods, case studies, job analysis, library research and comparative research. Comparative research will use the method of comparison of each data obtained.
The survey method is a research method in which the researcher must interact directly with the subject under study. The survey method can use a questionnaire that must be filled in with subjects or opinions. While the descriptive method of continuity is a method that collects data continuously, so that the research data is more detailed.
For the case study method, is where the research will be conducted with a focus on the object of research. Researchers can be involved directly or indirectly when using the case study method. While the job analysis method uses a data collection process that analyzes a job or activity. In contrast to the library method which collects and analyzes data by observing the results of writing that have a relationship with the problem to be studied.
Also read: Definition of Development Research
5. Mixed Research
Mixed research is research that combines quantitative and qualitative forms of research. This mixed research is more complex than the studies mentioned above, because this research does not only collect and analyze data but also involves the functions of quantitative and qualitative research. The use of the two research methods is expected to provide a more complete understanding of the research problem raised.
Mixed methods research aims to better understand an issue by articulating qualitative data, which are descriptive details, as well as quantitative data, which are numbers. Mixed methods research also has the aim of obtaining quantitative statistical results from a particular research object and will then be followed up by observing individuals to obtain more in-depth results.
As with other studies, mixed research also has several methods that can be used. There is a sequential mixed method, this method is a procedure where the researcher will combine the findings obtained from one method with the findings from another method. For example, researchers may first use qualitative methods and then proceed with quantitative methods.
Apart from that, there is also a mixed concurrent method which is a procedure in which the researcher will combine quantitative and qualitative data. This data pooling aims to obtain analysis and research problems. In contrast to the transformative mixed method where the researcher will use a theoretical point of view as a perspective which consists of qualitative and quantitative data.
In addition to the several types of research described above, there are also types of research such as simulation, historical and cultural. This type of research must have a basis that is in accordance with the research to be carried out.
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