Literature Review: Definition, Benefits, Purpose, How to Make, and Examples

Literature review – Have you ever conducted research or written a scientific paper? For students or lecturers conducting research and making scientific papers you can say they are already familiar. This is because in tertiary institutions, a research or scientific paper is one of the mandatory things that must be done and completed, such as the final task of making a thesis.

In conducting research or scientific writing, one must pay attention to scientific principles. Without scientific principles in conducting research, the data sources obtained are invalid, so that the research is invalid and cannot be accounted for. Not only can a research be accounted for, but with scientific principles, it becomes easier for researchers to complete research.

As for data sources that can be used in research or to make scientific papers, such as literature, interviews, surveys, and so on. However, in choosing a data source, it is better not only to be valid, but also to pay attention to its suitability for the topic of the problem.

This scientific principle also makes researchers not carelessly carry out research activities because they will know what things must be done in order to produce quality research. In fact, with scientific rules, a research or scientific paper can provide benefits to its readers, especially in obtaining a solution to a topic that has been researched.

One of the scientific rules that must exist in research or scientific writing is a literature review. With a literature review, researchers can find valid and relevant data sources with the topic of the problem to be studied. Then, what is meant by literature review? Come on, see this review until it’s finished, okay, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Literature Review

Literature review is a collection of theories obtained from various sources that will be used as reference material in carrying out research activities or making scientific papers. In this case, the theoretical basis can be taken from various media, such as journals, theses, articles, news, newspapers, and many more. However, in choosing a theory to use, it is better to choose one that is relevant to the topic of research problem or scientific paper.

Literature review is often also known as theoretical basis. This literature review aims to answer or find solutions to a topic of the problem to be studied. Therefore, the theory chosen must be valid so that the results of the research can be accounted for and can provide benefits and solutions for readers on the topic of the problem raised.

Because literature review is very important in the process of research and writing scientific papers, literature review must exist. Literature review needs to be written because it can support the sharpness of the research process. Not just written, but literature review must also be explained in scientific language, but easy to understand so that the reader understands the purpose of the answer or analysis of the research.

Therefore, it can be said that literature review is an important part of the research process or scientific writing. Without a literature review, the process of research or scientific writing carried out can be deviated from the topic of the problem, so that the results of the research are less than optimal.

In addition, without a literature review, writers or even readers will find it difficult to capture the outline of the research process that has been carried out. In other words, the research process carried out is not in accordance with the original purpose. Therefore, never forget to include a literature review when you want to carry out the research process or scientific writing.

Writing a literature review on scientific writing, literature review is usually in CHAPTER II. Scientific works that use literature review, such as journals, theses, dissertations, and research reports, and the like.

Literature Review According to Experts

The following is the definition of literature review according to experts.

1. Trees

According to Poha, literature review is an activity to collect scientific data, especially in the form of theories, methods, or research that has been done before, both in the form of books, document manuscripts, journals, and others that are already in the library.

2. Nyoman Kutha Ratna

Nyoman Kutha Ratna stated three meanings related to literature review, including:

  • Literature review is a reading that has previously been read and analyzed in published form or as a private collection.
  • Literature review is often associated with a theoretical basis or theoretical framework, namely theories that have been used to analyze research objects. Therefore, for some researchers will combine literature review with a theoretical framework or theoretical basis.
  • Literature review is a variety of reading materials that are specifically relevant to the research object to be studied or analyzed.
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3. Nazir

Nazir said that literature review is a literature study or literature study that has a function to support research acumen and support research. In addition, literature review is also used to determine the extent to which knowledge related to the research process develops and to what extent conclusions can be obtained, so that the required situation is successfully obtained.

4. Muh Fitrah, M, PS and Dr. Lutfhiyah, M.Ag

According to Muh Fitrah, M.Ps and Dr. Lutfhiyah, M.Ag, literature review is an action or activity in the form of observing, exploring, and studying knowledge.

Of the four definitions of literature review according to experts, it can be said that literature review is an activity that starts from observing, studying, and studying knowledge in order to obtain data sources that can be used for research, such as theories, methods, or scientific approaches.

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Benefits of Literature Review

The benefits of literature review are as follows:

1. It’s easy to find solutions to the topics studied

Every time you carry out a research process or make a scientific paper, you cannot be separated from the topic of the problem to be researched. Then, the topic of the problem is sought for a solution, so that the problem has the answer. By conducting a literature review, solutions to the topic of research problems can be found because in the literature review there are theories that support the sharpness of the research.

All theories contained in the literature review must go through studies from various kinds of literature or data sources, so that a theory that is relevant to the topic of the problem can be obtained. In fact, it can produce useful research for its readers on current problems.

2. Providing Convenience in the Research Process

The second benefit of literature review is that it facilitates the research process or the creation of scientific papers. This benefit can be felt because literature review can be used as a basis for finding theories, so that it can produce solutive research.

However, before these theories are used in the literature review, researchers will develop these theories first. Then, then the theories are used as the basis for conducting research.

3. Easy to Determine Research Criteria

The third benefit of literature review is that it is easy to determine research criteria. In conducting research or making scientific work, researchers must first determine research criteria so that the research process can run properly or be more directed. In this case, the research criteria usually begins in the form of a statement.

The criteria for research must generally be in the form of success or failure, how to identify problem topics, suggestions for researchers, and making a conclusion. Therefore, it can be said that with this criterion, the research results will be easier to understand.

4. Verify the Research Results  

The fourth benefit of a literature review is that it can verify research results. Verification of the results of this research needs to be done because it serves as a comparison of the results of research that has been done before. With the verification of the results of this study, the research process that is being carried out can draw conclusions. The presence of conclusions on the results of the study, the reader knows the results of the research in outline.

Purpose of Literature Review

Besides having benefits, literature review also has several objectives, including:

  1. To understand a problem that is relevant to the topic of research discussion, so that it can produce a solutive research.
  2. To conduct a review of the topic of discussion that will be researched or analyzed through literature or written work.
  3. To find out previous researchers who have conducted research with the topic of discussion or topic of the same problem.
  4. To know and understand each theory that will be used as literature in the research process that is being carried out which will then be written down.
  5. Aiming at determining attitudes when conducting research that has been carried out and completed, the results are not in accordance with what is expected or not in accordance with the main objectives of the research.

In the world of academics and research, a literature review is a must. The existence of a literature review proves that in this world there is nothing really new. Making or writing a literature review cannot be done just like that, but there are guidelines. The book on compiling a literature review is very suitable to be used as a reference in making a literature review and is very suitable to be used as a reference in research methodology courses.

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Library Review Function 

In addition to the purpose of making a literature review, it turns out that there is also a function of literature review, especially in research.

  • Facilitate researchers in providing an explanation of the methods and techniques used when conducting research.
  • Explain the various types of research that has been done before with the topic of the same problem in the research that is being carried out.
  • Provide an explanation as well as a description of all data that has been used as a reference in research or scientific writing.
  • Prove the authenticity of the research being carried out and can be accounted for.
  • Explain some of the ideas and approaches that have been done before.

Types of Library Studies

Literature review consists of 4 types, including:

1. Qualitative Literature Review

Qualitative literature review is a type of literature review that is generally used in research with a qualitative approach. Therefore, researchers who use this type of literature review usually use a theoretical basis to provide an explanation of certain research guidelines and behaviors.

2. Quantitative Literature Review

Quantitative literature review is a type of literature review used in research with a quantitative approach. This type of literature review contains variables that are directly related to the hypotheses that have been determined.

3. Normative Theory Literature Review

Normative theory literature review is a type of literature review that uses normative theory in its production. Therefore, this literature review is often used in social science research.

4. Mixed Literature Study

A mixed literature review is a literature review made by combining qualitative research methods with quantitative methods.

Books About Scientific Work

Ethics of Writing Scientific Papers

In writing scientific papers, you should not be careless, you must follow the ethics of writing scientific papers. Currently, there is already a lot of literature explaining the ethics of writing scientific papers, one of which is the book Ethics of Writing Scientific Papers . In this book, it will be explained in more detail about how to prepare scientific writing to how to make scientific writing that is not plagiarism.

Microsoft Word and Excel for Writing Scientific Papers (Thesis)

When carrying out scientific paper writing activities, you cannot be separated from Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel software. Both software can be used in qualitative (descriptive) research or quantitative (mathematical) research. Books with the titles Microsoft word and excel for Writing Scientific Papers (Thesis) are very suitable to be used as study references because they include ways to make a table of contents, make page numbers, add references and make a bibliography.

Writing Scientific Papers

When you are already studying in tertiary institutions (S1, S2, and S3) you usually cannot be separated from writing scientific papers. To write good scientific papers, special skills are needed. One of the skills needed is managing research results so that they are easy to understand. The book Writing Scientific Papers contains information on how to write scientific papers according to research principles, managing data sources properly, and how to write good and correct scientific papers.

How to Make a Literature Review

How to make a literature review as follows:

1. Identifying Research 

When wanting to make a literature review, the researcher needs to identify the research first. From this identification, researchers can determine research that is in accordance with the topic of the problem that has been determined as well.

2. Finding, Reading, and Understanding Relevant Reading Sources

Because literature review is always related to previous research, to make a literature review one must search, read, and understand research that has been done before. Not only that, but researchers must also look for literature that is relevant to the research being carried out.

3. Keeping records

The third step in making a literature review is to record. This step needs to be done so that researchers know important things that can be included in the literature review.

4. Summarizing from the Readings That Have Been Found

After taking notes, the next step is to make a summary of the reading that has been found before. With this summary, researchers can produce brief, clear, and concise literature reviews.

5. Make Literature Review

The fifth step is to make a literature review. In making a literature review, it should be done in a systematic way and use theory that is relevant to the research being carried out.

6. Write General Views

The last step in writing a literature review is to write a general view that is appropriate and related to the content of the research that has been done.

Example of Literature Study

Before I looked for literature reviews from other universities, I first looked at the level of the language and literature faculty at the National University (UNAS). Based on my search, there have been those who have conducted research using semiological theory like mine, but with a different object. Analysis of the novel “YABU NO NAKA” by Akutagawa Ryuunosuke to reveal the theme through a study of Roland Barthes’ codes, the research was conducted by Hendra Kusumawinata, the Japanese Literature study program in 2004.

Based on my search, I found the same theory as my analysis, but with a different object. The work belongs to Haerunissa from the University of Mataram with the title Analysis of the Poetry “I’m on the Moon” by Khanis Selasih: A Study of Roland Barthes’ Semiology and Its Relationship to Literature Learning in Middle School.