Scientific Approach: Definition, Principles, Steps, and Examples

The scientific approach is a learning model that is applied to the 2013 curriculum by using the scientific method in its learning activities. This student -centered approach aims to enable students to have the capability to think critically , scientifically and analytically.

In this model, it is designed so that students are given space to explore learning materials. They can also actively build concepts, principles and laws through 5M activities, namely observing, asking, proposing (hypotheses), collecting data in several ways and techniques, analyzing, and making conclusions and communicating the concepts or principles that have been found.

Through this model, students will get benefits, such as starting to be able to investigate a problem, curious (curiosity) or want to know and also be able to construct concepts from an experience or learning knowledge that has been done. These things can make learning activities fun, meaningful, and challenging.

So, are Friends of Sinaumed’s one of the students who study with the 2013 curriculum? How does your school implement a scientific approach in teaching and learning activities?

If your Sinaumed’s friends just know about this one learning model, let’s get to know more about the scientific approach. Starting from the understanding, steps and principles, as well as its application.

Definition of Scientific Approach According to Experts

1. Ministry of Education and Culture

The scientific approach is a learning model that starts from collecting data through observing, conducting experiments, asking questions, processing information or data, to communicating it in the process of applying scientific principles.

2. Rusman (2015)

The scientific approach is a learning model that provides space for students to explore and elaborate on the material being studied. In addition, this educational model also provides opportunities for students to hone their skills through learning activities that have been designed by the teacher.

3. Hosnan (2014)

The scientific approach is a learning process designed so that students actively construct concepts, laws or principles by observing, formulating problems, proposing hypotheses, collecting data using various techniques, analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and voicing them.

4. Karar and Yenice (2012)

The scientific approach is a learning process that is designed in such a way that students can actively construct concepts through the steps of observing, formulating problems, making hypotheses, collecting data with several techniques, analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and presenting the concepts that have been found.

Purpose of the Scientific Approach

Here are some learning objectives using a scientific approach.

1. Improve Thinking Skills

One of the goals of the scientific approach is to improve and develop high order thinking skills in students. Students are expected to be able to think critically, analytically, and be able to create new ideas related to the material being studied.

2. Creating a Conducive, Active and Productive Learning Environment

By implementing a student-centered approach. It is hoped that teaching and learning activities will become conducive, through a series of activities designed systematically and the creation of an active and productive learning environment.

3. Improving the Ability to Think Systematically

The main characteristic of the scientific approach is the stages of learning that run sequentially and systematically. That’s what encourages students to start thinking systematically and slowly improve their ability, both in understanding a problem, and when solving problems.


4. Improve Concept Understanding

In practice, the scientific approach directs independent learning activities to discover and develop concepts from the material being studied. Students will be able to gain meaningful concepts and understanding through this learning model. In addition, students do not only receive concepts in rote form, but they will also gain a deeper understanding of these concepts.

5. Increase Learning Motivation

As a form of student-centered learning activity, this approach is expected to increase students’ learning motivation. This is because learning activities that require students to be more active and innovative can create a new learning atmosphere that is not monotonous, so it is not easy to get bored.

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6. Improving Communication Skills

Through this scientific approach it is hoped that it can present a learning process that can provide stimulus to students to be more active in communicating through conveying ideas, discussing solving problems, discussing data processing, to how to communicate learning outcomes through oral or written.
Meanwhile, according to Hosnan (2014) learning objectives with a scientific approach, namely

  • The first goal is that students are expected to be able to improve their thinking power, especially in HOTS ( high order thinking skills ) higher order thinking skills.
  • Students can solve problems sequentially and structured or systematically.
  • The learning atmosphere faced by students can make them aware that learning is a necessity.
  • Students will get good and meaningful learning outcomes.
  • This scientific approach can also make students voice their ideas and ideas through writing or orally.
  • Through this learning, students’ character can also develop to a more optimal potential.

Principles of the Scientific Approach

Following are the principles of a scientific approach in learning activities according to Hosnan (2014).

  1.  Learner-centered learning activities.
  2. Learning activities form students’ self-concept.
  3. In learning avoid verbalism.
  4. Learning provides space for students to simulate and accommodate the concepts, laws, and principles of the material being studied.
  5. Learning encourages the creation of increased thinking skills of students.
  6. Learning increases motivation for students and teachers, namely motivation in learning and teaching.
  7. Provide opportunities for students to practice communication skills.
  8. There is a process of validation or testing of concepts, laws, and principles built by students in their cognitive structure.

Scientific Approach Steps and Examples of Activities

1. Observing _

The first step in the scientific learning model is the observing process. Students can use their five senses to observe events around them that are in accordance with what will be learned. In practice, students can observe the environment directly or by using multimedia in news and videos.

The involvement of students through this observing step can bring up new problems that previously had no solutions. With this problem, teachers or teachers can guide students to investigate (observe) the problem.

Then, in order for learning to be more efficient, the teacher must have prepared media and activities that help in solving problems that students will investigate.

Through observation, students can find the fact that there is a relationship between the object being observed and the learning material being studied with the teacher. The implementation of this observation activity can be done with or without using tools.

Tools that can be used to help practice observing activities, for example such as microscopes, binoculars, weighing equipment, and so on. Then, in observing activities without tools, you can make direct observations. For example, such as listening to teacher explanations, watching related video shows, or listening to information from radio and other news sources.

The learning outcomes obtained at this stage can be in the form of students’ attention when observing an object, reading information from a written source, or when listening to an explanation. In addition, other learning outcomes can also be seen from the notes made by students during the observation process. Timeliness used in observing activities can also be used as a form of achieving their learning outcomes.

2. Asking (Questioning)

The questioning activity is of course an activity carried out by students to create and ask questions that are relevant to the material being studied. This step is often related to discussions in class about information that is not yet understood, additional information, or clarification of information that is not yet clear.

The teacher in this case must have mature readiness to determine how or choose media that is appropriate to the characteristics of students and relevant to the material being studied, so that students will be interested and active in asking questions.

Now, in this step, the learning outcomes that can be observed are the types and quality of questions that arise from students. The types of questions can be in the form of factual, conceptual, procedural, or hypothetical questions.

Preferably, a teacher must also have the ability to analyze the type and quality of questions. Because, from there we can make a comprehensive assessment of the questions posed by students.

3. Gathering Information or Trying (Experimenting)

The step of gathering information is a continuation of asking in the previous stage. In practice, this activity can be carried out by exploring or collecting information from various sources in various ways.

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Students can collect data and information using various methods. For example by experimenting or conducting independent trials, observing events in the surrounding environment, asking questions from sources, reading books, searching the internet, looking at encyclopedias, to statistics. Teachers are also expected to become facilitators for student learning references in collecting data.

Student learning outcomes at this stage are the number and quality of information sources that have been studied by students. Starting from the completeness of the information collected, the accuracy of the information obtained, as well as the media used in collecting data or information.



4. Processing/Analyzing Data (Associating)

This step of processing or analyzing data is also referred to as the student reasoning stage. This is because students must carry out a process of thinking logically and systematically about facts that can be observed from data and information that has been collected, in order to obtain conclusions in the form of new knowledge.

Students will utilize the data and information that has been collected to solve problems by constructing questions. Then, the teacher can guide students so they can connect the data that has been collected and find patterns and make final conclusions.

This activity is used so that students can analyze the work they have done and can compare their work with other students. This reasoning activity is also carried out by exploring and collecting data from various sources and various ways, including:

  • Process the information that has been collected.
  • Analyze data by creating several categories or groupings.
  • Linking data or information into a pattern, and
  • Make a final conclusion.

Teachers can direct students in conducting discussions related to the topics discussed. Furthermore, the teacher can carry out an assessment at this stage in the form of a process of developing interpretations, arguments, and conclusions about information from the two facts or concepts discussed by students.

Then, the teacher must also be able to provide a fair assessment of students’ abilities in presenting arguments and making conclusions regarding the types of facts, concepts, or their opinions.

In addition, other learning outcomes can be in the form of new structures, development of interpretations, arguments, and conclusions that show the relationship of facts/concepts from two or more sources of data and information processed by students.

5. Communicating (Communicating)

The last step, the teacher must provide opportunities for students to communicate the results of the learning process that they have done. Students can express it in the form of reports or papers which contain charts, diagrams, or graphs.

At a more advanced level, students can arrange their learning outcomes in the form of written reports and present them systematically. Starting from the process, results, to conclusions verbally with presentations in front of the class.

The learning outcomes that can be seen from this step are students’ ability to present the results of their analysis in writing, graphics, electronic media, and other creative forms. In physical form that the teacher can assess directly, for example it can be in the form of written reports, scientific work, or videos uploaded on students’ social media.

Furthermore, the teacher can provide feedback by providing input, correcting, and confirming that students can understand the events they are analyzing in depth and broadly. Teachers can also guide their students to decide important things that can be concluded before class presentations begin.

Table of Learning Steps in a Scientific Approach

The following is a table of learning steps, learning activities and competencies developed in a scientific approach.

Basically, the use of a scientific approach learning model is intended so that students are able to handle a problem and be able to find a solution. However, the point of emphasis is not on finding solutions, but on the scientific approach process, namely in analyzing (processing and communicating).

This scientific approach also makes students not only find solutions from rote memorization, but also find solutions using their brains (through reasoning), so that with these habits, students can become excellent problem solvers in society.

Well, that’s a brief explanation of the scientific approach . How are you, Sinaumed’s friends? Now you know why your school uses a scientific approach learning model. Hopefully useful, yes.

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Author: Indah Utami