Meaning of Curriculum – In the world of education, curriculum is very important. Without the right curriculum, the students will not get the appropriate learning target. Along with the development of the Curriculum in the world of education, it continues to undergo changes. Everything is adapted to the needs of students in their respective eras.
With these adaptations, it is hoped that each student will be able to adapt well in society in the future. For those of you who are struggling in the world of education, you must understand what the Curriculum is and its intricacies. The following will explain the meaning of Curriculum and other important things you need to know.
Meaning of Curriculum According to Experts
So, Curriculum can be interpreted as a distance that a runner must cover in order to get a medal or other awards. Later, the term Curriculum was adapted in the world of education. So the meaning of Curriculum in the world of education then becomes a group of subjects that must be completed and studied by students in order to obtain a degree or award.
As for the meaning of this Curriculum is also conveyed in the Law and by education experts, the following is the meaning according to them:
1. According to Prof. Dr. S. Nasution
Prof. Dr. S. Nasution in his book titled Curriculum and Teaching states that curriculum is a series of plans to launch the teaching and learning process. As for the plan that was compiled, it is under the responsibility of the educational institution and especially the teachers there.
2. Dr. Nana Sudjana
In the book titled Construction and Development of Curriculum in Schools by Dr. Nana Sudjana mentioned, the meaning of curriculum is a set of intentions and hopes expressed in the form of educational programs which are then implemented and implemented by teachers in the school concerned.
3. Harold B. Alberty
Harold stated that the curriculum is all activities given to students under the responsibility of the school. This curriculum is not only limited to everything in the classroom, but also all activities outside of school.
4. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis
According to the three figures, the curriculum is all the efforts made and carried out by the school to stimulate students to learn, both in the classroom, on the school grounds, and when outside the school.
Meanwhile, in the Law on the National Education System No. 20 of 2003, article 1 item 19, it is mentioned that the curriculum is a set of arrangements and plans regarding the purpose, content, and subject matter as well as the methods used as guidelines for learning activities in order to achieve educational goals.
Curriculum is very important for every school to have as a guideline for teachers. Especially for formal schools, where the curriculum will be a guide and provide direction in teaching. In accordance with the meaning of curriculum, which is something that is planned, then in the world of education all student activities can be arranged in such a way. So that the purpose of education can be achieved.
In fact, it can be said that if there is no curriculum, then learning in school cannot go well. Because everything has been written in a curriculum. Of course with various variations and adaptations. So it is not surprising if an expert named Beauchamp (1998) states that the curriculum is the heart of education.
Functions of the Curriculum
1. Functions For Maintainers
The function in the context of the curriculum as one part of the education management system in order to realize the purpose of education is as follows:
a. Integration Functions
This function means that the curriculum can be a tool that will shape the personalities of learners who are whole and have integrity in society through the world of education.
b. Preparation function
This function means that the curriculum is able to provide capital or preparation for students to prepare themselves to enter the next level, including being ready to live in society when they do not want to continue to a higher level of education.
c. Customization Functions
The third is the adaptation function, where the curriculum can adapt to the various changes that occur in the community and tend to be dynamic.
d. Differentiation function
Fourth, there is the function of the curriculum as differentiation, meaning that the curriculum becomes an educational tool that pays attention to every service to its students. Because every student has differences from each other.
e. Diagnostic Functions
The fifth is a diagnostic function, which states that the curriculum functions to understand and direct the potential possessed by each student so that they can continue to explore and hone that potential, including improving the weaknesses possessed.
f. Selection Function
Finally, there is the function of selection, which states that the curriculum provides facilities to students by giving them the opportunity to choose a learning program according to the interests and talents of each child.
In addition to the functions above, the curriculum can also be seen from its function for each involved and related party.
2. Functions for Involved/Related Parties
a. For the Principal
The curriculum has a function for the school principal as a manager and leader in the implementation of education in the school. School principals have the duty to manage education in their respective places, namely by coordinating and supervising each learning. Whether the curriculum is applied according to the provisions or not.
b. For Subject Teachers
For every mapel teacher, the curriculum has a function as a guideline in implementing learning inside and outside the classroom. Because each learning becomes the duty and responsibility of each subject teacher.
c. For Students
Then the third, for students, who become the target of the curriculum. In the education process, students are the center of attention of every learning. Therefore, the curriculum serves as a reference for students regarding what educational programs should be studied and understood, as well as what learning targets they should achieve at each level.
d. For parents or the community
Although not directly involved in learning, parents have an important role in the success of students. In this case they will receive the results of the learning process that has been done at school. So the student’s access to every learning that will be reported to parents is also inseparable from the existence of the curriculum.
Curriculum development in Indonesia
Indonesia first used a curriculum with the name Rentjana Pelajaran in 1947. Where the emphasis in learning is on the formation of the character of Indonesian society to become sovereign and independent human beings. Then in 1952, the curriculum was refined again with the title Rentjana Pelajaran Teruai 1952. In this period there was special attention on each teacher to teach only one subject to students.
Furthermore, in 1964 the curriculum in Indonesia was refined again. This time there is an addition in the form of an emphasis on the Pancawardhana program (ie the development of morals, intelligence, emotions, skills, and the body).
Curriculum changes in the following year occurred in 1968. Where emphasis was placed on the formation of true Pancasila human beings that should be maximized in every educational institution. The next change was made in 1975. At the time of this change, what was known as the lesson unit was the lesson plan for each unit of discussion.
After those changes in the following years, the curriculum also experienced many changes. Of course, the scandal happened because of turmoil and various things in the middle of the community. Further curriculum reforms were carried out in 1984, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2006, and the last one was in 2013. The 2013 curriculum, better known as K13, focused on three aspects of change, namely knowledge, skills, and behavior.
Basically, there were many changes that happened during that period. Not only in the evaluation process, but the content of the curriculum is also continuously updated. Even so, every change certainly has the hope that the world of education in Indonesia can become more advanced. The students who are the main focus of the curriculum can be someone who is much more valuable.
Components in the Curriculum
1. Purpose of the Curriculum
First is the purpose of the curriculum. Everything that is done with a plan, of course must have a purpose, as well as the curriculum. Without a clear purpose, of course what has been formulated will have no meaning. Education in Indonesia certainly also has a purpose, so from that, the formation of the curriculum is aimed at making education accessible.
Not only in Indonesia, in other countries the curriculum has a purpose. Although each country has different goals than the others. All of that is adapted to the country’s philosophy, human and natural resources, as well as the political and social conditions of the community. The purpose of education in Indonesia according to the level is:
- The purpose of basic education is to pay attention to aspects of intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and skills as the main foundation. With that foundation, it is hoped that students will be able to live more independently, as well as have the readiness to enter the next level of education.
- The purpose of secondary education is to improve intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and also skills in order to be a supply for the challenging life of teenagers.
- The purpose of secondary vocational education, which aims to improve intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and skills that are much better than before. That way, students are ready to live independently in the community and are able to continue their education to the next level.
- Materials in the Curriculum
The second component is matter. So, in the curriculum will be included materials in the form of teaching materials for learning activities inside and outside the classroom in order to achieve the learning objectives. As for the material in the curriculum, it should not be made indiscriminately. The material included should be appropriate to the development of each student and meaningful to them, then consist of scientific knowledge that can be tested for truth, be a reflection of national reality, and be able to support the achievement of educational goals.
2. Learning Strategies
Then there is curriculum component number three, namely learning strategies. To achieve an educational goal, strategy becomes very important. Learning strategies can be in the form of methods and equipment used to deliver lessons to students. The strategies applied by each country are certainly not the same as each other. All of that depends on several factors, especially natural and human resources. The richer the natural resources and the better the quality of human resources in a country, the strategies applied can be more maximal and varied.
3. Curriculum Organization
In this regard, each member has their own view of the curriculum that needs to be applied. Therefore, the diversity that exists makes provision for better organizing the curriculum.
The last curriculum component is evaluation. This evaluation is intended to check whether the curriculum that has been created and implemented runs smoothly, so that it is effective and able to achieve the goals of education.
1. Curriculum as a substance
Curriculum becomes a learning plan for students in school. In addition, it also lists the goals to be achieved from learning both inside and outside the classroom. Therefore, the curriculum becomes a document that includes substance whose content is the formulation of objectives, teaching materials, teaching and learning activities and programs, timetables, and student learning evaluations.
2. Curriculum as a system
The second concept of the curriculum states the curriculum as part of the education system. In accordance with its content, the curriculum is intended to support the achievement of educational goals. Therefore, the system in the curriculum consists of the personnel structure and also the work procedures regarding the procedures for compiling the curriculum, implementing, evaluating and perfecting it. From the results of this system, it is hoped that a curriculum that matches the goals to be achieved can be achieved. The function of this system is to keep the existing curriculum dynamic.
3. Curriculum as a field of study
The last concept is the curriculum as a field of study. Where as a study, it means that the curriculum also aims to develop knowledge about the curriculum itself and its system.
That is the meaning of curriculum and various other things about curriculum in the world of education. The importance of the curriculum makes every teacher have to understand its various aspects. So that making it will have a positive effect on students at school. If you want to understand more about the curriculum,