**Examples of Problem Formulations and How to Make It** – When we study education, we will usually be given the task by educators to make a paper in which the educator has determined the theme of the form. To make a good paper, you will look for what will be discussed in the article as a question or a problem statement.

If at a higher education level (university), it is not just writing papers. Still, sometimes lecturers are given assignments to conduct research which is then poured into scientific work. The research carried out is adjusted to the students’ majors, such as students majoring in economics will conduct research related to economics, students majoring in political science will conduct research related to politics, and so on.

In doing research, it has similarities with when making a paper, namely formulating the problem. That’s right, with developing the problem, a person or group conducting research becomes easy to solve. This is because, with the formulation of the problem, the research writer knows what to look for and discuss in the study.

Therefore, the formulation of this problem is often used when someone wants to write papers, research, and so on. On this occasion, we’ll talk more about the definition of a problem statement, how to make a problem statement, and examples of problem formulation. Let’s look at the review of the problem formulation below.

**What is Problem Statement? Definition of ****Problem** Formulation

The problem formulation can be said as a question that will be answered in the form of facts or truth by conducting research or collecting data. In addition, quoted from several sources, the formulation of the problem is a statement formulated or changed in the form of a question. Therefore, we often see the formulation of the situation as a question.

In addition, formulating problems that are more often in the form of questions must also be rational. In other words, the questions in the problem formulation must be detailed and focus on the variables that will be examined later. If it does not match the variables to be studied, then a piece of writing becomes unfocused and challenging to complete.

This problem is formulated at the beginning of writing scientific papers or, more precisely, in chapter I of the Introduction. The formulation of the problem is placed at the beginning because it can make it easier for the writer to determine the starting point so that they know what the end will be like. Simply put, the formulation of the problem can determine the direction of an essay.

Even though it is only in the form of a question, there should be no excuses in making a problem formulation. As for the things that need to be considered when formulating the problem, there are three elements. Namely, there must be elements of why, what, and how. In addition, these three elements must also be on the theoretical basis that will be used in writing scientific papers.

Therefore, a problem formulation can make a writer know the direction or what things will be discussed in a scientific work. That way, it can make writing scientific jobs easier for a writer or researcher.

Not only that, the formulation of the problem that has been made must also be related to the conclusion at the end of the article. In other words, the answer to the question in formulating the problem lies in the decision. If the problem formulation and conclusions are not related to each other, it indicates that the results of the writing could be better so that the reader will be clear when reading the paper that has been made.

**The characteristics of ****the problem** formulation

Before entering the discussion of how to formulate a problem, we need to know the characteristics of the problem formulation first.

**1. In the form of ****short, clear and concise** questions

The formulation of the problem, generally in the form of a question, is not just a long-winded question but a quick, clear, and straightforward question. With fast, clear, and straightforward questions, formulating the problem will not confuse the researcher, so the research process becomes more focused.

**2.** Provide **Direction For A Research **

The second feature of the problem statement is that it provides a direction for a study. Good research is research where the results of the problem formulation are the same as the conclusions. Therefore, the formulation of the problem will use the variables that will be studied or discussed later. In addition to the variables, the formulation of the problem must also be by the theoretical basis to be used so that the research direction is more precise.

**3. Has ****Research** Value

As we discussed, the formulation of the problem is always synonymous with research, so the formulation of the problem always has research value. Because it has research value, every time you make a problem statement, you have to focus on what will be studied later; the answer to the problem statement will be more precise and not spread everywhere.

**4. Made** in **the form of interrogative sentences**

The fourth feature of formulating the problem is that it is made as an interrogative sentence. Why is it written in the form of an interrogative sentence? This is because researchers will find it easier to direct the research process and focus on answering questions from the formulation of the problem that has been made. The more detailed the question, the more specific the answer will be. The answers to questions from the formulation of this problem are in the discussion and are on a theoretical basis.

**5. The problem** sought **is by the ability of the researcher**

The fifth feature of the problem formulation is that the issue to be searched for must be by the researcher’s power. In other words, researchers must know their limitations or abilities in finding answers to a problem. Suppose the issues in the problem formulation are not by the skills of the researchers. In that case, the research process may not run optimally, or even the research process will fail.

**6. Direct** Focus **on the Topic of Discussion **

The sixth feature of the problem formulation is that it is directly focused on the topic of discussion. For example, when a researcher wants to research Covid-19, the question in formulating the problem now leads to Covid-19. The formulation of the problem that directly leads to the topic of discussion can make it easier for researchers to determine what steps will be taken so that the research process can be completed optimally and can get conclusions from the problem formulation.

Those are some of the characteristics of the problem formulation that need to be known to make it easier to formulate the problem.

## Type of **Problem Formulation **

The types of problem formulation are divided into three: associative problem formulation, associative problem formulation, and descriptive problem formulation. For a more complete explanation, please take a look below.

**Comparative** Problem **Formulation**

Comparative problem formulation is a type of problem formulation that focuses on comparisons between one variable and another variable or several other variables. The following is an example of a comparative problem formulation.

- Is there a difference in work motivation between civil servants and private employees?
- Are career opportunities from public tertiary institutions more promising than private tertiary institutions?

**Associative** Problem **Formulation**

Associative problem formulation is a type of problem formulation that is made to determine the relationship between the relationship of two or more variables. An example of an associative problem formulation is as follows.

- Is there a relationship between children’s snacks and child development?
- Can English proficiency affect career paths?

### Descriptive **Problem Formulation**

Descriptive problem formulation is a type of problem formulation that provides an overview of the direction and flow of qualitative research and uses only one variable. The following is an example of a descriptive problem formulation

- Why do so many Indonesian students like to play on
*mobile phones?* - How to educate children who are full of motivation?
- What causes someone to prefer watching movies to reading books?

**How** to Make **a Problem Statement **

Something still needs to be added when discussing the formulation of the problem, but not how to formulate the problem. As soon as you can, I’ll explain how to make further problem formulation.

**1. Define** Problems **According to Ability**

The first step in formulating the problem is determining the problem to be studied. In addition, the issue must be examined by the researcher’s ability so that all questions in the problem formulation can be answered.

**2. Adjust** to **the Theory Basis**

The second step in making the problem formulation is to adjust the problem formulation to the theoretical basis used in the research so that the process becomes more focused. If the formulation of the problem differs from the theoretical basis, then the research results will differ from what was asked in the formulation of the problem.

**3. Make it** Using **the 5w+1H Format**

The third step in making a problem statement is to use the 5w+1H format to generate specific questions. In addition, using 5W + 1H also makes it easier for researchers to ask questions in the formulation of the problem.

**4. Use ****short, clear, and concise interrogative** sentences

The fourth step in making a problem statement is using fast, clear, concise interrogative sentences. This needs to be done so that researchers can directly focus on the answer to a problem under study.

**5. Adjust** to **Research Objectives **

The fifth step in making a problem statement is adjusting it to the research objectives. That way, the research process becomes more focused, making it easier for researchers to complete their research.

**Example of a ****Problem ** Statement

I think each problem formulation that will be made must be by what will be discussed. In other words, in formulating the problem, it must be by the background of the matter to be discussed or written.

**Example of a ****paper problem** statement

**Papers on elementary school education**

Based on the background previously described, the authors formulate the problem into several, including:

- What is meant by Elementary School education?
- How was the history of Elementary School formed?
- How is the elementary school education system?
- What is the difference between public and private primary school education?

**The paper about done about Pancasila**

- When was Pancasila formed?
- Why is Pancasila used as the basis of the Indonesian state?
- How do you apply Pancasila values in everyday life?

**Example of Proposal Problem Formulation**

**Proposals about the August 17 race**

Based on the background described above, we chose several problem formulations, including:

- Why should the August 17 competition be held?
- What benefits will be obtained for the August 17 contest participants?
- What is the schedule for the August 17 race?

**Example of Associative** Problem **Formulation**

Based on the background described previously, the researcher formulated this study, namely: Is there a connection between adopting a healthy lifestyle and happiness?

**Example of an Economic** Problem **Formulation**

**Formulation of the problem of macroeconomics**

From the background that has been previously described, the authors obtain several problem formulations, including:

- What is meant by macroeconomics?
- What are the characteristics of macroeconomics?
- What are the functions of macroeconomics?
- How to use macroeconomics in a company?

**Formulation of the problem of microeconomics**

Based on the background that has been described, we determine several problem formulations related to this research, including:

- What is meant by microeconomics?
- What are the characteristics of microeconomics?
- What is the purpose of microeconomics?
- What are some examples of microeconomics?

**Example of a Scientific Work** Problem **Formulation**

**Formulation of the problem of educational, scientific work**

Based on the background previously explained, we found several problem formulations in this study, including:

- How can educators increase students’ learning desires?
- What learning theory is used in carrying out the learning process?
- Does the new education curriculum affect the learning model?

**Formulation of health scientific work problems**

From the background that has been described above, the formulation of the problem is obtained as follows:

- What is stunting?
- Why did stunting happen?
- What are the adverse effects of stunting on children?
- How to prevent stunting in children?

**Example of ****Thesis ** Problem Formulation

**Thesis about the analysis of the novel**

Based on the background that has been previously disclosed, the writer chooses several problem formulations in the thesis analysis of the novel, including:

- What are the intrinsic elements in the ABC novel?
- What extrinsic elements are in the ABC novel?
- What is the social setting in the ABC novel?

**Thesis about the condition of management accounting**

From the background described above, the authors found two problem formulations in this study, including:

- What is management accounting?
- How does management accounting influence company B’s strategy?

**Example of ****Comparative Problem** Formulation

**Formulation of the problem regarding private employees with civil servants**

Based on the background of this research, the authors found several problem formulations, including:

- What are private employees and civil servants?
- What is the process of becoming a private employee and a civil servant?
- How much are the salaries of private employees and civil servants?

**Formulation of the problem regarding formal education and non-formal education**

Through the background that has been previously described, the researcher found the following problem formulation:

- What is meant by formal education and non-formal education?
- What are the benefits of formal education and non-formal education?
- Why is formal education mandatory to follow?

**Example of ****a Descriptive Problem** Formulation

**Formulation of the problem about betta fish**

Based on the background that has been described, the formulation of the problem that the author found is as follows:

How to care for betta fish that is good and right?

**Formulation of the problem of flooding**

From the background that has been described, the author makes a formulation of the problem: Why does flooding occur when the rainy season arrives?

## Conclusion

Thus, formulating the problem is a formula that can facilitate researchers in conducting research and make research results more focused. This problem formulation is often used in research, generally in written form, such as scientific papers, theses, etc. Formulating the problem in a study will make the research process easier to complete optimally.

Formulating the problem must be by the theoretical basis and research objectives. Therefore, the formulation of the problem must be done appropriately. Many books provide explanations about writing excellent and correct problem formulations; you can get them at sinaumedia.com.