Example of a Good and Effective Research Proposal and Its Structure

Sample Research Proposal – Proposal documents can be used as a form of submitting program plans, activities, or businesses to other parties. The proposal maker must know the structure or elements that must be in the proposal so that the proposed proposal can have the goals and functions expected by the maker.

An applicant submitting a proposal must, of course, make a proposal in accordance with its designation. Therefore, it is also necessary to know the type or form of the proposal so that no wrong designation of the proposal is made. Is it made for a permit application, funding, or work/business plan.

This time, we will discuss various matters regarding the proposal, especially regarding its functions and elements. However, before that you also need to know about the meaning of a proposal. This aims to make it easier for you to compile and understand the proposal. For more details, see the following review carefully.

Definition of Proposal

1. General Definition

Proposal is a document used in proposing a research project. Based on the explanation in the Big Indonesian Dictionary, the definition of a proposal is a plan outlined in the form of a design. Meanwhile, in the Class XI Indonesian e-Module , a proposal is generally defined as a work plan made systematically and in detail for a formal activity.

2. Special Meaning

In addition to the general definition of proposal, there is also a specific definition of proposal. For example, scientific work proposals made in the world of education. In the world of science or education, the definition of a proposal is a research design (research proposal) that researchers want to carry out regarding research materials.

Research or scientific proposals are usually made by researchers or students who will conduct research. The form of a scientific proposal generally has a form with certain standards starting from the use of language, punctuation, quotations, and so on.

3. Riefky

Proposal is a form of activity design that is made in a formal and standard form.

4. Hasnun Anwar

Proposals are plans drawn up for specific activities.

5. Jay

Proposal is a standard management tool for management to function efficiently.

6. Hadi

The proposal is a structured proposal for an agenda for business collaboration between institutions, companies, proposed activities, up to problem solving.

7. Craft

Proposal is a suggestion or request to a person or an entity to do or do a job.

Based on some of the opinions of the experts above, it can be concluded that a proposal is an activity or work plan that is systematically and detailed according to standards by a person or group of researchers to be submitted to the desired party in obtaining approval or assistance in their research.

The scope of proposing research proposals is in the field of science or academics. The purpose of writing a research proposal is generally a request to seek research funding from a sponsor. The initial part of the research proposal contains the background, problems, objectives, and uses of the research. The supporting part of the research proposal contains a literature review, framework and hypotheses.

The form of writing a research proposal in a research institution or educational institution can vary. The choice of the form of research proposal writing is determined by the collective agreement that applies in research institutions or educational institutions. The research design in the research proposal must provide practical and effective procedures.

The feasibility of a research proposal is determined by the ideas offered as a solution to a problem in research. Evaluation of research proposals is reviewed in terms of costs and potential impact of the proposed research. Reviewing the feasibility of research proposals also pays attention to the level of probability of success of the proposed plan to be implemented.

Requirements for Preparing a Proposal

As for preparing a proposal, it must meet the following requirements:

  • Must have structure and logic that is very clear and easy to understand.
  • The results of these activities must be structured.
  • The formulation of the types of activities carried out must be written in detail and must really be done.
  • If there is a budget needed, it must be realistic with these activities.

Proposal Function

The function of the proposal is as follows:

  • To conduct research related to political, economic, social, cultural issues, and so on.
  • To set up a business, whether small, medium, or large scale.
  • To submit tenders.
  • To apply for a loan or credit to a bank.
  • To hold an activity, such as seminars, competitions, discussions, training, and so forth.
  • To apply for business cooperation.
  • To hold certain events, such as training, competitions, seminars, and so on.
  • For guidelines for the implementation of scientific research.
  • To apply for business establishment.
  • For project or item auctions.

Purpose of Proposal

When someone makes a proposal, it must have its own purpose. The following are some of the objectives of making a proposal:

  • Obtain approval from the parties concerned in order to carry out certain activities.
  • When it comes to submitting funds, proposals are made with the aim of obtaining financial assistance from sponsors.
  • Get support from parties related to activities.
  • If the proposal made relates to a government project, the proposal is made for the purpose of conducting tenders or auctions for these projects.
  • Obtain business cooperation offers if the proposal is made in the form of a business proposal.

Proposal Making Benefits

1. As a Guide to Research Implementation

For researchers, research proposals act as guidelines for conducting research. Preparation of research proposals can be a work reference that controls research performance optimally, is directed, and saves energy, time and funds used during research. In addition, the quality and credibility of the research results can be accounted for by referring to the research proposal.

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2. As a Determinant of Research Feasibility

Research feasibility is generally assessed by supervisors who are experts, consultants, or resource persons in a particular research field. The research proposal becomes a benchmark for the feasibility of a study. If the research proposal is feasible, then the research can be carried out.

Conversely, if the research proposal is not feasible or not feasible, then the research design can be corrected first, the topic and problems changed, or rejected altogether. The research proposal is also an assessment of the feasibility of granting funds by sponsors to a research. The amount of funding provided by the sponsor is largely determined by the level of quality of the research proposal.

Kinds of Proposals

1. In General

a. Business proposal

Business proposals are proposals related to the business world, either in the form of individuals or groups. An example of this proposal is a proposal to establish cooperation between companies, a proposal to establish a company, and so on.

b. Project Proposals

The project proposal relates to the world of work in which there is a business or commercial plan. Examples of these proposals are proposals for development projects and office building project proposals.

c. Research proposal

Research proposals are proposals that are related to the academic world as well as scientific organizations. This proposal functions to submit ideas, proposals, or ideas aimed at certain bodies or agencies to conduct research on a problem.

d. Activity Proposals

This proposal contains plans for activities, both individual and group in nature. The function of this proposal is to submit an activity plan to certain parties in the hope that they will provide support in the form of funds, permits, or approval of the plan.

2. By Form

a. Formal Proposal

A formal proposal is a proposal that consists of three main parts, namely the introduction, content, and closing. The introductory part of this proposal consists of a cover, title page, preface, overview, table of contents, and approval sheet. The contents section contains the background of the problem, problem definition, objectives, scope, theoretical basis, methodology, facilities, committee composition, benefits, type of activity, time and place, activity schedule, and activity budget. Meanwhile, the closing section consists of a bibliography and annexes.

b. Informal Proposals

This proposal is not as complete as a formal proposal. It contains only problems, suggestions, solutions, and requests.

c. Semiformal Proposals

This proposal is similar to a non-formal proposal because the structure is not as complete as a formal proposal.

Proposal Elements

1. Research Title

The research title is made concise, clear, and in accordance with the research problem. The choice of title should not create ambiguity. Titles that use many words should be divided into two. One as the main title, and one as the subtitle. The division of titles to facilitate understanding of the reader on research topics. The use of cliché words should be avoided in selecting research titles.

2. Research Objectives

The research objective is a description that explains the purpose or objective of conducting research specifically and clearly. The sections described in the research objectives include the main objectives and additional objectives. The research objective is the most important aspect of the research which is the statement of the main desire of the researcher in conducting the research. All research activities are based on research objectives. The information conveyed in the research objectives is in the form of finding answers to research problems faced or of interest to researchers.

3. Research Benefits

The benefits of research are useful for practical decision making in a fairly clear sense. In particular, research must provide benefits for the development of science, benefits for the object being studied and benefits for researchers. Meanwhile, in general, research must provide benefits for the development of the country.

4. Research Methods

Research methods are needed so that research results can be justified. In addition, the existence of research methods is a benchmark for data validity so that other researchers can continue research based on research findings.

5. Literature Review

The literature review contains the results of other people’s research and theories that support the implementation of the research. The novelty of a solution in research can be identified through a literature review. In the literature review there is an explanation of the research problem. Making a literature review is done by making critical and systematic references to documents related to the title of the research to be carried out.

These documents contain information, ideas, data and methods for obtaining research-related information. The main purpose of the literature review is to provide an overview of research from a scientific perspective. Research is associated with existing knowledge. The information obtained in the literature review is in the form of theory. research design, and data collection and analysis methods.

The specific objectives of making a literature review are:

  • Identifying the approval of previous researchers for the new research to be carried out.
    Knowing the difference between the results of old research with new research.
  • Identify research problems in terms of the variables and factors that influence them.
  • Obtain information regarding recommendations for future research results. Research recommendations can be used as a guide for new research designs.
  • Identify research fields that are useful in gaining understanding and important knowledge about research problems.
  • Knowing how other researchers connect theories with research designs.
  • Know how other researchers measure research variables, develop research instruments and item measurement scales and simplify measurements.

6. Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a temporary guess of an event that has occurred or will occur. The use of the hypothesis is carried out in two types of research categories. First, comparative research that aims to compare two or more objects or subjects. The purpose of comparative research is to find differences between two or more objects or subjects. Second, correlative research which aims to examine the existence of a relationship between events and other events or a symptom with other symptoms.

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Proposal Language Rules

Proposal language rules are:

  • Use scientific terms, both related to the activities to be carried out or related to the scientific field.
  • Using action verbs to express activity steps or research methods.
  • Using words that express definitions, such as is, that is, that is, is.
  • Using words that contain detailed meanings, such as first, second, besides.
  • Using words that are about to, like would, expected.
  • Use denotative or meaningful words. This is very important to avoid misunderstandings between the party submitting the proposal and the party receiving the proposal.

Things to Look For in Making a Proposal

Some important things that must be considered before making a proposal include:

  • Preparation of proposals should appoint a person or several people who are experts in preparing proposals, preferably those that have a connection with the activities being held.
  • Proposal drafters prepare the necessary materials and information, namely in the form of materials agreed upon by the entire committee.
  • Prepare draft proposals systematically, attractively, and realistically.
  • Proposals are discussed in deliberation forums to be discussed, revised, and approved.
  • Made a proposal that has been refined to be used as appropriate.
  • Proposals are reproduced and distributed to the intended parties, both internal and external.

Sample Research Proposal

Research Proposal Title

Potential Analysis of Sugar Cane Waste as Fuel for Biomass Energy Power Generation in Sugar Factory

Background of the problem

Over time, there are more and more home industries and factories in Indonesia. Now, it is very easy to find an industry even though it is located close to a densely populated settlement. The location of a factory close to residential areas can certainly have a negative impact, be it through solid, liquid or gas waste. Especially solid waste that requires a large enough storage area.

The active industry in Indonesia cannot continue without a process that can reduce the adverse effects caused by the manufacture of products in an industry. Waste or trash is indeed a material that is meaningless and worthless, but waste can also be something useful and beneficial if it is processed properly and correctly.

Several factories in Indonesia have now started implementing waste treatment systems to reduce the impact of pollution from these wastes. In fact, there are some who use their factory waste to make useful new products which of course are processed through certain processes.

One way is to process the remaining waste from sugar production into compost, bricks, and others. Utilization of waste is currently very important, especially to overcome the problem of accumulation of waste in big cities, industrial organic waste, as well as agricultural and plantation waste.

The most optimal power generation system (biomass generator) with a grid-connected power generation system model. Calculation of the potential yield of sugarcane biomass (feedstock biomass) by utilizing bagasse as an energy source for generator 1, generator 2, generator 3, and the calculation of power consumption in the industry as a whole uses the help of software, namely HOMER version 2.68.

The simulation and optimization results with the help of HOMER software show that overall, the most optimal system to be implemented at PT. Madubaru (PG/PS Madukismo) is a power generation system (100%) with Grid PLN (0%). The total power generated from power plants 1, 2, and 3 is 15,024,411 kWh/year from Homer Energy’s analysis results.

Based on the data above, the authors are interested in compiling a final project entitled “Analysis of the Potential of Sugar Cane Waste as a Biomass Energy Power Plant in a Sugar Factory”. In this final project, the author discusses the utilization of waste generated from the process of making sugar at PG Madukismo Yogyakarta.

Formulation of the problem

  • Potential of bagasse in the supply of electrical energy.
  • Analysis of the application of bagasse in a sugar factory.

Scope of problem

  • Data collection was only carried out by the Madukismo Sugar Factory in Yogyakarta.
  • Analysis of power and load calculations is only centralized via Homer.

Problem Objective

  • Calculation of the potential of bagasse in the supply of electrical energy.
  • Knowing the results of analysis of sugarcane biomass energy as a source of environmentally friendly electrical energy in society.

Benefits of research

The benefits of biomass research for writers, namely that it can add insight to researchers and can be used as a guideline for dealing with fuel problems which are currently in an alarming condition. For the community, it can be used as a provider of renewable electrical energy that is environmentally friendly, can provide alternative energy that is independent and does not depend on fossil energy, and can increase community independence in the field of alternative energy for underdeveloped areas so that they are more developed and prosperous.

Research methods

  • Literature study ( study research ). This study was conducted by looking at and searching for existing literature to obtain data related to analysis in writing the final project.
  • Field research ( field research ). In the form of site visits and discussions with related parties to obtain the data needed in writing this final project.
  • Preparation of the final task after testing the data and analysis obtained, then compiled in a written report.

Bibliography

  • Anton, Widono Johanes. Comprehensive Review of Preliminary Design of Sugarcane-Based Furfural Factory in Indonesia , Faculty of Engineering. University of Indonesia.
  • Hermanto, Muhammad Iwan Fermi, Zulfansyah, Ida Zahrina. (21-22 July 2011), Potential Application of Biomass Gasification in CPO Mills . Pekanbaru Riau University.
  • Indra, Gem Kusuma. Study on Utilization of Palm Oil Waste Biomass as Fuel for Steam Power Plants in South Kalimantan . FTI Institut Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya.
  • Irhan, Febijanto, Volume 9 No. 2 (2007), Indonesia’s Biomass Potential as a Substitute Fuel for Fossil Energy. Center for the Assessment and Application of Energy Resources Development Technology , Deputy for Natural Resources Development Technology, BPPT, Jakarta.
  • Marsudi, Djiteng, 2005. Electrical Energy Generation , Erlangga.
  • Pritzelwitz, Hugot. 1986. Potential of Sugarcane Bagasse Energy .
  • Prime, Pressa. Journal. Final Project (2010). Study on Utilization of Sugarcane Bagasse Biomass (With Coal) as Fuel for 1X3MW Steam Power Plant 59 at Asembagus, Situbondo Regency . Electrical Engineering-FTI, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS).
  • Rifai, Fathur Rahman. Thesis (2015). Renewable Energy Potential Study of Cogeneration System in Sugar Factory . Mechanical Engineering. UGM.
  • Saechu, Muhammad. Journal Volume 4 No.1 (2009). Development and Application of Cogeneration Technology in Sugar Factory . Chemical Engineering. Sugar Research Center.

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