How to Establish a Political Party and its Definition, History and Functions!

How to Establish a Political Party – Political parties are a group of people who are in an organized group. In a party, a group of people who are in it have a certain ideology and also have the same goal. One of the goals of forming a political party is to get a position. In addition, the formation of political parties also aims to have political power in government or in a country.

In order to achieve its goals, political parties do it in accordance with the existing constitution. Likewise, to establish a political party, one must meet the requirements set by the electoral body. In Indonesia, the institution that administers general elections is known as the General Elections Commission (KPU).

To find out more about political parties and how to set up a political party, you can see this article regarding how to set up a political party, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Political Parties

Political party as an organization that coordinates its prospective members who will then compete in a general election in a country. In general, party members already have the same ideas as the political party itself. Then, members of the party also help spread the ideology of the political party he or she joins.

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a political party is an association established to realize a certain political ideology.

In the world of politics, political parties can be regarded as modern organizations that have continued to develop and spread throughout the world in the last few centuries. In a country there are those that have a lot of political parties and there are also those that only consist of a few parties.

Political parties themselves can be said to have quite an important role in a democratic government system, including the state of Indonesia. In addition, political parties also have a role in a country that has an autocratic political system. In this case, the autocracy is a political system that usually consists of only one party.

Political parties themselves can then develop from various kinds of societal divisions, such as divisions between the lower class and the upper class. In addition, political parties sometimes streamline the political decision-making process by encouraging their members to work together.

The structure in this political party consists of party leaders, party advisers, and so on. The party executive is usually in charge of all the administrative work. Meanwhile, members of political parties have a role in assisting the party, up to choosing the party’s own candidates.

History of Indonesian Political Parties

The Boedi Oetomo organization founded by Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo and his friends in 1908 were the origins of political parties in Indonesia. Even though at the beginning of its formation, Boedi Oetomo was not an organization that was involved in pure politics, historical experts agree that the presence of Boedi Oetomo was a forerunner to the establishment of a political organization.

The political party that was first born in Indonesia was a party founded by a triumvirate, namely Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, Dr. Setiabudi, and Ki Hajar Dewantara. The first party itself was named Indische Partij. This party was founded on December 25, 1912 in the city of Bandung.

The political parties that were established during the Dutch colonial era were always accompanied by various kinds of feelings of anxiety and also could not live in peace. This was because this party had the main goal of politically overthrowing the Dutch government. In the end, the leaders of the figures from the first party in Indonesia, the three of them were then exiled to Bangka, Kupang, and Banda, until finally they were exiled to the Netherlands, so that the party founded by this triumvirate was only 8 months old.

Since then, various organizations have emerged that dare to engage in politics, namely the PNI or the Indonesian National Party which was founded by Ir. Soekarno as the first president of the Republic of Indonesia. Political parties also have a very large role in the course of the Indonesian nation’s struggle for independence.

Currently, political parties in Indonesia no longer aim to free themselves from colonialism, but aim to free every Indonesian people from various kinds of government problems, including those in the economic, social and various other sectors.

Characteristics of Political Parties

La Palombara and Weiner (1966) then identified several basic characteristics that characterize a political party, namely:

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1. Continue to Undergo the Program and its Ideals

Political party organizations are often expected to continue to exist even though their founders are no longer there.

2. Organizational structure

Political parties themselves can only carry out their political functions if they are supported by an organizational structure, from the local to the national level, as well as regular patterns of interaction between the two.

3. Purpose of power

This political party was founded with the aim of gaining and maintaining power.

4. Support

Political parties often receive widespread support from the public. Because this support then becomes a source of legitimacy to rule.

This also shows that political parties must be able to be accepted by the majority of society and be able to mobilize as many elements of society as possible.

Functions of Political Parties

Broadly speaking, the roles and functions of political parties are then divided into two. First, the internal roles and tasks of the organization. Second, roles and functions related to the wider community, nation and state.
Meanwhile, essentially, political parties have the main function of seeking and maintaining power to realize various programs that are based on a particular ideology. In addition to the functions mentioned above, political parties also have the following functions:

1. Public Communication Facilities

According to Sigmund Neumann, political parties are intermediaries that can link social forces and ideologies with official government institutions and link them to political action in a wider political society.

2. Socialization Facilities

The next function of political parties is as a means of socialization. In this case, what is meant by means of socialization is spreading ideology and fighting for the public interest. especially in the public interest.

3. Recruitment Facilities

The third function of political parties is as a means of recruitment. What is meant by recruitment means is carrying out the process of recruiting quality new cadres. That way, the party’s ideology can continue to run and can realize the wishes of the wider community.

4. Political Participation

The next function of political parties is for citizens to participate in political activities. That way, citizens can play a role in determining government policy.

5. Regulatory Means

The function of the last political party is a means as a means of regulation. In this case, what is meant by regulatory means is that political party members can accommodate and also integrate various kinds of input from the public.

Party System

Hague and Harrop (2004) define the party system as the interaction that occurs between political parties, which then gains significant votes. Meanwhile, Maurice Duverger (1954) then divided the party system into three, namely:

1. Single Party System

Although considered irrelevant by some observers, the single-party system is widely recognized and applied to many countries. This system also has a non-competitive nature because all groups must be able to accept the leader of the party and it is not justified to compete with him or even be considered a form of betrayal.

A single party is also a party system in which in a country there is only one largest party that controls all aspects of people’s lives.

2. Dual Party System

The dual-party system can be interpreted as in a country where there are two dominant parties in the acquisition of voting rights. There are three conditions for this system to run smoothly, namely a homogeneous society, a society that has a strong consensus on socio-political principles and objectives, and historical continuity.

3. Multi-party system

This system is then considered to be the most effective political party system in representing the diverse desires of the people and is more compatible with cultural and political plurality when compared to two parties.

Quoting the director general of , our constitution then implies that Indonesia implements a multi-party system. This itself is stated in Article 6A (2) of the 1945 Constitution which states that the presidential and vice-presidential pairs are then proposed by a political party or a coalition of political parties. The word ‘joint political parties’ itself means that there are at least two political parties that join together to be able to nominate the president and compete with other candidates carried by other political parties.

How to Establish a Political Party

Referring to Article 2 of Law Number 2 of 2008 concerning Political Parties, in creating a new party there are at least requirements that must be met. Here’s how to set up a political party, including:

  1. The party was founded by at least 50 Indonesian Citizens (WNI) aged more than or equal to 21 years and accompanied by a notarial deed.
  2. The establishment of the party has accommodated at least 30 percent women’s representation.
  3. Parties must also have Statutes (AD), Bylaws (ART), as well as a party management structure at the central level.

The Articles of Association in question are containing information on the principles and characteristics of political parties, such as the vision and mission of political parties, names of political parties, symbols and symbols of political parties, objectives and functions of political parties, organization, place of position, decision-making, management of political parties , regulations and decisions of political parties, political education, and also political party finances.

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Quoting from the page , political parties are then entitled to take part in elections if they meet the following requirements:

  1. Has the status of a legal entity in accordance with the Law on Political Parties.
  2. Have management spread throughout Indonesia, at least 75 percent of the number of districts and cities and 50 percent of the number of sub-districts in related districts and cities.
  3. Allocating 30 percent of women’s involvement in party management at the central, district, city and provincial levels.
  4. Membership of at least 1,000 people or 1: 1,000 of the total population in the relevant regency or city as evidenced by a membership card (KTA) or electronic identity card (KTP).
  5. Have permanent offices at the central, provincial, and district or city levels.
  6. Submit the party’s name, symbol and image sign to the KPU
  7. Submit the account number to the KPU

After fulfilling these requirements, the new political party will be asked for several additional documents to complete the administrative requirements. Then, the KPU will carry out verification and if it has been declared valid and correct, the party can compete in general elections in Indonesia.

Related Books

1. Introduction to Political Parties

This book discusses, among others: the definition of parties, the history of political parties, the legal basis for regulating political parties, the principles of political parties, the ideology of political parties, the functions of political parties, the goals of political parties, the party system, the legal arrangements for the dissolution of political parties, nine political party theses according to Thomas meyer. There are 10 main points of discussion that can be a reference for teachers, researchers and academics as well as politicians in understanding political parties.

2. Factions and Internal Conflicts of Political Parties in Indonesia in the Reformation Era

In this reform era, political parties are often plagued by problems of internal conflict and party divisions. The influential parties that have seats in the national parliament have, without exception, experienced conflict. The party’s internal conflicts, some of which even led to cracks and the formation of new parties.

This situation is of course very unfortunate considering that parties have a central function to recruit important political positions, political communication, political control, and encourage the consolidation of democracy in Indonesia. The question is why internal conflicts and party factionalization often occur, even though, since 2002, laws have been drafted to prevent them.

The Law on Political Parties has specifically regulated party conflict management, and has even made several amendments to perfect it. Another big question is, what are the impacts of various internal conflicts and party splits on party organizations, the party system and democracy in this country. This book thoroughly reviews the causes and effects of the internal conflicts and divisions of political parties that took place during the reform era

3. Political Parties: Dynamics & Institutional Problems in Indonesia

There is no end to the discussion about political parties. The problem of institutionalizing political parties and the post-reform party system still reaps a lot of criticism. The arrangement of the party system in Indonesia which results in an extreme number of political parties not only causes polarization and fragmentation, but is also incompatible with a presidential system.

In addition, political parties in the Reformation era have not yet become public institutions that have responsibility or accountability to their voters. One of the roots is that political parties are still trapped in an oligarchic pattern in the strategic decision-making process.

In the study of political science, the presentation of this book helps students and political science students in developing party insights as well as political patterns in Indonesia. Weaknesses in the institutionalization of political parties are obvious. However, by reading this book, readers will also get answers to the discourse on reforming political parties in Indonesia.

4. Renewal of Political Parties in Indonesia

This book recommends strategies to improve political parties through five key elements. First, the election of the chairman must be more democratic, not based on heredity and have limited power. Second, the determination of candidacy is more open and uses a tiered mechanism to find the right candidates in legislative, regional head, and presidential elections by prioritizing cadres who have worked for the party.

Third, managing the relationship between the central and regional administrators causes divisions down to the regional level. fourth, set up a democratic mechanism in internal party disputes. Fifth, increase the need for party funds so that the party is far from being dominated by “black” money from groups of contributors which leads to the control of the party. The author describes these five things in detail. It is hoped that this book will be read by party leaders and cadres, political and future generations, students and academics.

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