Examples of Ideological Threats – The state is not always in a state of peace and control. Sometimes there are disturbances that even threaten the integrity and sovereignty of the state. One of them is the threat of ideology that can completely change the order and perspective of society. Before examining more deeply about ideological threats, it is better for Sinaumed’s to first pay attention to the meaning of threats.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), threats are defined as efforts made conceptually through political acts and/or crimes that are expected to endanger the order and interests of the state and nation.
An expert named Treats argues about threats as the occurrence of important situations that exist in a company or others where it is not profitable. Another expert gave his views on threats.
For him, a threat is any activity or effort, whether carried out abroad or within the country, which is considered to endanger the sovereignty of the state and the territorial integrity of the country as well as the safety of the entire nation and state.
The purpose of the threat, namely to change the order of a nation and a state that was initially fine became messy and destroyed. Therefore, there is a need for unity and unity in solving various problems that occur so that they do not pose a significant threat.
After understanding about threats in general. The following will explain the ideological threats that have been summarized from various sources on the internet.
Etymologically, ideology comes from the Greek, namely idea and logic. Idea comes from idein which means to see. Idea is also interpreted as something that exists in the mind as a result of the formulation of a thought or plan.
Meanwhile, logia means science or theory. Meanwhile, “logical” comes from the word logical from the word legein which means “to speak”. Meanwhile, in language, ideology means the utterance or expression of something that is formulated in the mind.
To better understand the definition of ideology, Sinaumed’s can listen to the following expert opinions which have been summarized from the Katadata.co.id page.
- According to Francis Bacon, the notion of ideology is the synthesis of fundamental thoughts from a concept of life.
- Gunawan Setiardjo argues that ideology is a set of basic ideas about human beings and all realities that are used as guidelines and ideals of life.
- Karl Marx defines ideology as a false consciousness because ideology is a product of thought created by its owner who is determined by his interests.
- Nicollo Machiavelli argues that ideology is knowledge about how to hide the interests of obtaining and maintaining power by utilizing religious conceptions and deception.
- Descartes revealed, ideology is the core or principal of all human thought.
- The etymology of ideology according to John B. Thompson in the International Grandbook of the Studies in the Theory of Ideology, notes that the term ideology is a derivation of ideologues, which emerged after the French Revolution. Thompson noted, ideology is thinking about others, thinking about people other than himself. To assess an ideological view, one must be critical because ideology is not a neutral term.
- Soerjanto Poespowardojo in Philosophy of Science defines ideology as a concept of knowledge and values which, as a whole, provide the basis for a person or group of people to understand and determine the earth and universe, the basic arrangements for solving them.
- According to Erich Fromm in Revolution of Hope , ideology is ideas that are formulated for public consumption, satisfying everyone’s need to lift his guilt in the belief that he acts according to something that seems good or desirable. F
- Rans Magnis-Suseno explains that in a narrow sense, ideology is an overall idea or theory about the meaning of life and values that will absolutely determine how humans should live and act. Ideology in this sense is called “closed ideology”.
- In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), ideology is interpreted as a collection of systemic concepts that are used as the basis of opinions (events) that provide direction and purpose for survival; the way of thinking of a person or a group; understand, theory, and goals which constitute a socio-political program.
It can be concluded that ideology is belief, doctrine, and symbols that are used as a reference for the state by the community to achieve national goals or those that have been formulated together. Ideology is also a characteristic of a particular group of people. Usually, ideology contains ideas or ways of thinking based on philosophy.
After understanding the meaning of ideology, here are the characteristics of ideology in the Citizenship Education book.
- Ideology has a high degree as the value of national and state life.
- Ideology embodies a spiritual principle, a world view, a view of life, a way of life, a way of life that is maintained, developed, practiced, preserved for the next generation, fought for and defended with a willingness to sacrifice.
Ideology has various kinds, along with an explanation of several types of ideology that exist in society.
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), liberalism is interpreted as a constitutional and economic genre that wants democracy and personal freedom to do business and trade (the government must not interfere); struggle for freedom.
Liberalism itself comes from the Latin language, liber and ism. Liber which means free and not a slave or a condition in which a person is free from the possession of another person. Meanwhile, ism means understanding. Free, then developed so that it has a variety of meanings.
John Locke considers that a tradition based on a social contract, arguing that everyone has the natural right to life, to liberty and property and that the government must not violate those rights.
The freedom referred to consists of the freedom to reside. The right to oppose oppression, personal liberty, and the right to protection of person and property. Launching from the Tirto.id page, Dwi Siswanto mentioned five characteristics of liberalism as follows.
- Democratic form of government is the best.
- Society has complete intellectual freedom.
- Government regulations are limited.
- One’s power is interpreted as a bad thing in life.
- Individual happiness is the ultimate goal.
Meanwhile, Heru Susanto classifies liberalism along with its characteristics as follows.
- Politics: The emergence of democratization.
- Social Sector: Freedom of opinion, equal opportunity in business, social reform, and feelings of egalitarianism.
- Arts and Culture: Freedom of expression, such as painting, drama, art, music, and others.
- Economics: A democratic market economy.
Capitalism in the view of Karl Marx is a system in which prices of goods and market policies are determined by the owners of capital to achieve maximum profit. Adam Smith also gave his views on capitalism, namely a system that can create prosperity for the people of the country if the government does not intervene in market policies and mechanisms.
Meanwhile, Max Weber argued about capitalism as an economic system that applies to a market and is driven to generate profits by exchanging activities in that market. Indonesian proclaimer Soekarno also gave his views on capitalism as a social system in society that arose because of the mode of production that separated the workers from the means of production.
Meanwhile, JM Romein gave his opinion on capitalism as an economic system that has the aim of carrying out production activities with the aim of making a profit. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), capitalism is a system and economic understanding (economy) whose capital (investment, industrial activity) comes from private capital or private company capital with the characteristics of competition in a free market.
Capitalism can be identified through several characteristics as written on the Quipper.com page, as follows.
- Recognition of the personal rights of each individual.
- Ownership of the means of production by individuals.
- Individuals are free to choose their own work or business.
- The economy is governed by market mechanisms.
- The government has a very small role in economic activity.
- The motive that drives the economy is to make a profit.
- Humans are seen as homo-economicus , namely individuals who always pursue their own profits.
- The notion of individualism is based on materialism or hedonism (an inheritance from the ancient Greek era).
In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), socialism is defined as the teachings or understanding of the state and economy which seeks to make property, industry and companies belong to the state. Socialism was born as a critique of capitalism that developed in Europe at the end of the 18th century.
Launching from the Tirto.id page, socialism is an economic-social system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and self-management of workers. This ideology includes the theories and political movements associated with it.
Meanwhile, well-known figures in the ideology of socialism, namely Simonde de Sismondi, Lauderdale, to Karl Marx. This thinking focuses on class differences between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. In the view of socialism, the capitalist economic system is considered only to make the proletariat exploited by the bourgeoisie.
Countries that adhere to the ideology of socialism can be identified through several characteristics listed in the State Education book as follows.
- Put the power and interests of the state first.
- The interests of the state are more important than the interests of the citizens.
- The interests and freedoms of citizens are defeated by the interests of the state.
- Religious life is separate from the state, so that citizens are free to have religion, not diverse, and are free for anti-religious propaganda.
Ideological Threat Concept
Ideological threats are disturbances that have the potential to cause threats to the mindset or ideological basis adopted by a country. There is no single ideology in the world, there are various types, including socialism, liberalism and capitalism.
Ideology becomes something that is fundamental and actual in a country. Indonesia has the ideology of Pancasila which is contained in IV of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. When Indonesia experiences an ideological threat, there are a number of consequences that will occur, as stated in the book “Pancasila and Citizenship Education” for class X SMA/MA as follows.
- The weakening of people’s understanding of the nation’s ideology so that the behavior of Indonesian citizens is not in accordance with the values contained in Pancasila;
- Bringing up separatist or separate movements due to ideological differences;
- The nation’s ethics and morals are damaged because of attitudes and behavior that are inconsistent with ideology.
Ideological threats do not just appear. There are various factors surrounding it as stated in Detik.com as follows.
- There is widespread spread of ideologies other than Pancasila.
- Inequality in the demographic field.
- Gaps in natural resources in various regions.
- Unstable political conditions.
- Slow economic development.
- Reducing the level of tolerance between community groups.
Examples of Ideological Threats
Indonesia has experienced ideological threats, but failed. The threat is the emergence of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). GAM is a separatist organization that has appeared in Indonesia. The goal is to separate Aceh from the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI).
The conflict occurred because of differences in goals or desires between the Indonesian government and the Indonesian Aceh Movement. Therefore, GAM activists want to separate themselves from the Republic of Indonesia.
The conflict has several consequences as listed in Kumpaaran.com, as follows.
- Weak public understanding of the nation’s ideology, namely Pancasila. This resulted in people’s behavior not in accordance with the values of Pancasila.
- Emerging various separatist movements due to ideological differences.
- Damage to the nation’s ethics and morals due to attitudes and behavior that are not in accordance with the values contained in Pancasila.
Strategies for Handling Ideological Threats
Ideological threats must be prevented and crushed if they grow. Handling it should not be haphazard because it involves the ideology of a nation. Indonesia has several strategies for dealing with ideological threats which have been summarized from the Detik.com page, as follows.
1. Strengthening the Nation’s Mentality Based on Pancasila
Strategies for handling ideological threats can be carried out by strengthening the beliefs and truths of Pancasila as an ideology. The goal is to unite Indonesia as a whole and thoroughly.
This is done by providing insight into the meaning of Pancasila to every student starting from the lowest level of education. Not only that, Pancasila can also be used to crush separatist movements and instill Pancasila values in people’s lives.
2. Instilling the Pancasila National Insight
Insights about Pancasila must be spread, encouraged, and applied to society in public life. Thus, it will not be easily influenced by the thoughts of other nations whose ideology is different from the Indonesian nation. This is because Indonesia adheres to ethics and morals that have been passed down from generation to generation and are not the same as other countries.
3. Layered Defense Concept Strategy
Strategies to deal with ideological threats can be carried out by using the concept of layered defense as follows.
- The front layer is non-military defense elements such as ministries and government and non-ministerial agencies that control the field of ideology.
- Ministries and elements of government in the field of domestic politics to mobilize all political power and strength to face threats in the field of ideology.
- The government element in the information sector has national power to carry out “counter information operations”, so that the public receives information that can ignore various foreign influences that have the potential to divide national unity.
- The government element in the education sector organizes the learning process and raises awareness among students about the importance of Pancasila and Citizenship education.
- Government elements in the field of religion partner with religious leaders to synergize strategies against foreign ideologies that endanger the life of the nation and state.
- The layered role carried out by the military in maintaining security through the TNI’s service implementation program in accordance with its work area. This program can improve TNI’s social communication and awareness to defend the country, both in education, employment and housing.