Understanding Papers: Types, Structure, and How to Make Them

Definition of Papers – Scientific writings are often made by academics to show the knowledge they are studying in depth in accordance with their respective fields. Almost all academics, whether they are still in school or college, know what is called a paper. The paper itself is usually used as a task to develop oneself. A paper is a scientific product written by someone. Writing a paper is not a difficult thing, but it only requires carefulness to see the situation and conditions to be used as a writing idea and also requires good writing skills based on the rules of paper writing.

Therefore, in this article, we will explain in detail what a paper is, starting from the definition, type of paper, structure, and how to make a good and correct paper. The following is a complete explanation.

Understanding Papers

A paper is a scientific writing that discusses a specific topic that is included in the scope of knowledge. A paper has a systematic system that is divided into four parts, namely introduction, literature study, discussion, and conclusion or closing. In addition, a paper is one of the conditions to complete studies or education. A paper usually has a characteristic that is the result of a literature study or a report on the implementation of an activity, demonstrating an understanding of the theoretical problems being studied in the paper, showing the ability to deal with issues that come from the various sources used and demonstrating the various sources of information from the paper into one whole unit .

The Meaning of the Paper According to the Experts

The definition of a paper according to experts is certainly different in grammar from one to another. Even so, they all have the same meaning. The following are some definitions of paper according to experts:

1. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary or KBBI

According to KBBI, the meaning of a paper is divided into 2. The first is that a paper is an official writing about something that is mainly used for publication and at conferences and is often compiled and published. The second is that papers are written works by students or students to give a report in the context of the implementation of campus or school tasks.

2. WJS Poerwadarminta

According to him, the meaning of a paper is a written description that discusses a specific problem from which further discussion and explanation is obtained.

3. Cape and Ardial

According to Tanjung and Ardial, a paper is a written work that contains a problem written systematically and through logical and objective analytical thinking.

4. Panuti Sudjiman

According to him, a paper is a prose essay that is not fictional and discusses a specific topic. In the sense of a paper, it will generally be published in magazines and newspapers or it can also be in the form of an anthology book.

Based on the meaning mentioned above, we can conclude that a paper is a formal scientific work with a specific discussion topic. The conditions for a written work to be called a paper are if it is based on one’s own thinking, is not plagiarized, has never been published before, and contains contemporary elements. For example, it contains a topic that is being hotly discussed by the public and the most important thing is that it is scientific.

Types of Papers

The following are the types of papers based on the type of study, among others:

1. Deductive Papers

A deductive paper is a paper based on a theoretical study which is relevant to the problem being discussed.

2. Inductive Papers

An inductive paper is a type of paper written based on empirical data that is objective in nature based on what is obtained from the field but remains relevant to the discussion.

3. Mixed Papers

A mixed paper is a type of paper that is compiled or written based on theoretical studies as well as empirical data. That means, this mixed paper is a combination of deductive and inductive papers. In the mixed paper, there are six categories based on the subject of the problem formulation discussed, namely:

a. Scientific Papers

Scientific papers are basically used for written works resulting from scientific studies that contain problems and discussions. You should note that if viewed in terms of principles and scientific procedures, a scientific paper will resemble a simple research report. Where scientific papers are generally written as a scientific problem solving suggestion. Certainly, the writer of a scientific paper will also need library studies and that is seen in the attached revision.

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b. Working Papers

The working paper will usually be read at the working paper seminar. Where it will be delivered in the form of argumentation in a research result. In the work paper that is read there should be a problem that is presented. The presenter of the working paper has included assumptions and also hypotheses to answer the problem. Based on the content of such a paper, a discussion will arise.

c. Research Papers

A research paper is one of the terms used for scientific writings in the form of suggestions for solving a controversial problem without the intention of being read in a seminar.

d. Position Papers

A position paper is a paper prepared at the request of a party that serves as an alternative solution to a controversial problem. As for the procedure used as a discussion and writing is done scientifically.

e. Analysis Papers

Analytical papers are a type of empirically objective paper. As for the source of data obtained based on experience gained from discoveries, experiments, and also observations that have been made.

f. Response Papers

A response paper is a paper that is often used as a course assignment for students that contains a reaction to a reading.

Paper Structure

The structure of the paper consists of cover, introduction, table of contents, introduction, discussion, conclusion, and bibliography. The explanation of the structure of the paper is as follows:

1. Cover

Cover is the front page of a paper. Where the paper cover contains important information. Usually, an example of a paper cover contains the author’s name written in full, the logo of the institution or institution, the place and also the year of publication. The following are some examples of paper cover examples in universities:

– Title of the paper.
– Author’s name accompanied by NIM.
– The name of the apologist lecturer.
– Campus logo.
– Name of major.
– Faculty name.
– University name
– Year and place

The writing on the cover page of the paper should be in accordance with the applicable format. An example of a paper cover with the title “The Influence of Education on the Character of the Nation”. In the sample cover of the paper, the title should use capital letters and be printed in bold. For the font on the cover title of the paper can be larger than other writing which is generally only size 14. So that the reader will find it easier and more focused to read the title of your paper.

2. Introduction

The introduction is not only found in the structure of the paper, but in almost all scientific works. Where this preface is an opening greeting from the author intended for the reader. The writing of the introduction is written before the writing of the table of contents of the paper. Generally, this introduction is written to provide information about anyone who has played a role and also contributed to the creation of the author’s paper, thanks, explains the main structure of the paper, and the basic thinking of creating the title and its purpose in outline.

At the end of the introductory paragraph, you can add the hope and also the benefits of writing the paper to the readers. This preface is then closed with the date of manufacture and the author’s signature accompanied by a clear name.

3. Paper Table of Contents

The table of contents of the paper usually contains page information from each chapter and sub-chapter of the paper. Therefore, the table of contents of the paper is important and should be there. The function of the table of contents is to make it easier for readers to find the material they want to read. In addition to containing page numbers and chapter or subchapter titles, the table of contents also contains a list of pictures and a list of tables if any. The table of contents of the paper must be well organized, complete, and correct by arranging it in order, ie from the smallest to the largest page number. If the paper requires an appendix that supports the content of the paper, then the appendix can be included in the table of contents of the paper called the table of appendices.

4. Chapter I Introduction

In the structure of this paper is the main part of the paper that explains the problem to be discussed. Where in the introductory chapter it will be further divided into three important points that become sub-chapters, namely background, problem formulation, and also the purpose of writing.

5. Chapter II Discussion

In this section it is also included in the structure of the paper which is the description of the main topic in the writing. This happened because chapter II contains a discussion about research methods, research targets, and an explanation of the research results that have been obtained, either qualitatively or quantitatively. For qualitative papers, the discussion contains more theoretical studies that are discussed using one’s own language, instead of copying results from other sources. Qualitative paper data can be obtained from interview methods and other methods that support the discussion. So that it is exclusive and different from other papers.

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The composition between theoretical study and discussion should have more discussion compared to the theory, ie with a minimum ratio of 1:2. When quoting from the theory in the discussion, then the source must be included. It is important to show that the information obtained from the paper is authentic and not random. If the data is quantitative, then it can be discussed by making a table that contains numbers so that it is easy for readers to understand. A graph or diagram can also be made to show the increase or decrease of data with certain variables. So that it is easy to see and understand. Then the data that has been processed is discussed to answer the problem posed. From the discussion, theoretical foundations, theoretical comments that can be in the form of support or refutation of previous studies, are obtained.

6. Chapter III Closing

The last structure of the paper is the conclusion which consists of conclusions and suggestions. The conclusion is the meaning given by the writer from the discussion he has made. The characteristics of the conclusion in the paper are:

– Contains a comprehensive meaning from the content of the discussion
– The conclusion is not a summary of the content, but the answer to the problem discussed
– Must be in accordance with the purpose and also the formulation of the problem
– Can explain whether the answer to the problem is in accordance with the hypothesis
– Written briefly and clearly
– Can be written using point format

The subchapter in the next cover is a suggestion. Suggestions are input from the author and tend to be aimed at the reader. For readers, the purpose of this suggestion is expected so that readers can apply it theoretically or practically in society. The suggestion is obtained from the content and conclusion of the paper to be developed, followed up on, and various things that need to be observed by further researchers. In addition, suggestions can also be used for policy makers or institutions related to research to be able to correct when something is not in accordance with the rules.

7. Register Library

The bibliography is the final part of the paper which serves to provide information about the sources that are used as a reference in the paper, especially in Chapter II of the discussion. The bibliography page is also included in the table of contents of the paper so that the reader can understand its location. The order of writing the bibliography should be alphabetical.

Usually, the writing style starts from the author’s name written in reverse. Then followed by the year of publication and the title of the book whose first word is written using capital letters, then followed by the place of publication, and the name of the publisher. With the bibliography, it will provide information that the paper is written based on logical reasoning and scientific theory as explained by experts in books, websites, scientific journals, and others.

How to Make Papers

Here are some steps you can take to write a paper, among others:

1. Choosing the Right Theme

Theme is one of the important things that should be in a scientific work. Where the theme of the paper needs to be thought about in depth so that the paper made can be useful for others. The theme used in the paper is generally related to the writer’s academics. After finding a theme, write down ideas related to the theme.

2. Formulating Purpose

The next step in making a paper is by formulating the purpose. Once you have determined the appropriate theme, then the next step is to find the purpose of why you are writing the paper. Is it for education or for what?

3 Determining the Limits and Title of the Paper

The function of the paper’s limitations is to make the paper more specific and in-depth about the theme you will study. As for the title of the paper, it is made by involving variables that are the topic of discussion. So that readers can know the outline of the paper you wrote.

4. Collecting References

The way to make the next paper is to collect various kinds of supporting data or literature studies related to the title of the paper you will make. Steps to gather references can be done by making notes containing small summaries and writing quotes and even words that are difficult to learn.

5. Developing the Paper Framework

After searching for literature that produces a framework of thought. Therefore, the way to make the next paper is to develop ideas and ideas broadly and contextually from the framework of the paper based on the structure of the paper which is the basis for its preparation.

That’s an explanation of what a paper is and various things in it. Starting from the meaning, type, structure, and how to make it. Hopefully useful.