Abstract: Definition, Purpose, Types, Characteristics and Stages of Writing

Abstract is – In making scientific papers, such as theses, theses, papers require an important part which is called an abstract. This abstract section is usually located at the beginning of the scientific paper.

Simply put, an abstract is a brief and concise summary of the contents of a scientific paper. An abstract usually has a total of 250 to 400 words. There are several important things in an abstract such as the subject matter, objectives, methods, data, and conclusions in the form of paragraphs.

As previously explained, the abstract is an important part of a scientific paper. Therefore, usually the abstract is often used as the first part that examiners or readers of scientific papers will look for.
The process of writing the abstract itself will begin when the research carried out has been completed. This is because basically an abstract is a summary content of the entire research.

There are many important things in the abstract that you can find out more just by reading all the explanations in this article. So, check out this article, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Abstract

Previously it has been briefly explained what is abstract. However, this point will explain more deeply about the meaning of abstract.

Abstract is an important component in a scientific paper. The existence of an abstract is always located on the first page of a scientific paper. The content of the abstract is a summary of the research that has been carried out by the party concerned.

You could say an abstract is a component that can provide an outline of a research that is in the scientific paper to the examiners or to the readers.

The abstract will be written in a concise, accurate, easy to read, clear and concise manner. That’s why the total number of words in an abstract in scientific writing is usually around 250 to 400 total words.

Definition of Abstract According to Some Experts

After knowing the abstract understanding in general. It turns out that there are several experts who explain the meaning of abstract in a scientific paper. The following is an explanation of the abstract notion from several experts.

Frederick Wilfrid Lancaster

Frederick Wilfrid Lancaster explained that an abstract in a scientific work is a representation that is not only concise but also very accurate of the contents of the scientific paper.

Even though the process of writing an abstract uses various kinds of sentences in scientific writing. However, an abstract is a piece of text created by the author. Even so, it should also be noted that the abstract is also not a direct quote from the author.

Clarence W Rowley

Clarence W Rowley explains that an abstract is a series of presentations of the contents of a scientific paper which is made concisely and accurately in the same style as the original scientific paper.

International Standards Organization (ISO)

The International Standards Organization (ISO) explains that an abstract is a part of a brief but accurate description, so that it can represent the contents of a scientific paper without the need for additional interpretation or criticism and without the need to see who made the essay.

Those are some explanations about abstract understanding according to experts.

The Purpose of Having an Abstract in a Scientific Writing

The existence of an abstract in a scientific paper is of course also not without reason. There are several purposes that make an abstract must be in scientific writing. So maybe you don’t really know what the purpose of an abstract in a scientific paper is.

The following are some of the purposes of having an abstract in a scientific paper.

  1. The first purpose of an abstract is to make it easier for readers to know the essence or essence of a scientific work. The existence of an abstract can also be a consideration for readers to continue reading a scientific paper or not. In fact, for readers who want to find information or select several scientific writings, then reading the abstract is the best option that can be used.
  2. Abstracts can also be used as a guide for readers in reading a scientific paper. This is because in the abstract to the details of the information, analysis and arguments of the authors of the scientific papers.
  3. The existence of an abstract can also make it easier for readers to be able to remember important points in a scientific paper.

Those are some of the purposes of having an abstract in a scientific paper. From the explanation above, it can be concluded that the existence of an abstract in a scientific paper is indeed very important. One of them is to make it easier for readers to find information in a scientific paper.

Abstract Types

After knowing the meaning and purpose of the existence of an abstract in a scientific paper. Next is an explanation of the types of the abstract itself. Abstracts are distinguished by function and orientation of the readers. As for the types of abstracts, they are divided into two, namely indicative abstracts and informative abstracts.

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Well, so that you are clearer about abstract types. The following is a complete explanation of the two types of abstracts.

Indicative Abstract

The first type of abstract is an indicative abstract. In this indicative abstract there will be a brief description related to the problem contained in the report or scientific paper that is being made.

The existence of an indicative abstract is expected to be able to make the reader know the contents of the information without the need to condense the contents. In the indicative abstract, it is only necessary to provide an indication of the target scope of the writing.

The existence of an indicative abstract will usually be needed when scientific writing has not yet reached the completion stage, but must include the abstract first as soon as possible. Usually this happens for certain purposes such as symposiums, seminars or congresses.

Informative Abstract

Next there is the informative abstract type. Informative abstracts can also be regarded as miniature reports or original scientific writings in which there is complete data and information.

In an informative abstract there will be several important components such as title, author, intuition, purpose. Methods and report analysis, research results and conclusions. Later the information contained in an informative abstract will be thoroughly conveyed by the author.

Of course, because of this, it will make it easier for readers to find out the entire contents of scientific papers only through informative abstracts.
Although the two types of abstract above are the most commonly found today. However, if we review more deeply, there are still several types of abstracts. The following are several types of abstracts in a scientific paper.

Critical Abstract ( Critical Abstract )

A critical abstract is an abstract that can provide an overview of the findings as well as key information as well as comments about the validity, reliability or completeness of the studio. Researchers will evaluate papers and often compare them with other scientific papers on the same subject.

Usually a critical abstract is 400 to 500 words long. This is because there are additional interpretative comments in the critical abstract. However, this type of abstract is rarely used.

Descriptive Abstract

Next there is a descriptive abstract which type of abstract will provide information found in a scientific paper. In addition, descriptive abstracts also do not make an assessment of work and also do not provide results or conclusions in an existing study.

Simply put, a descriptive abstract will only provide an overview of the research in summary form. Some researchers make the assumption that this type of abstract is an outline of work, not a summary.

As explained earlier, if the descriptive abstract is a summary, of course the form is also very short, around 100 words or less.

Abstract Highlight ( Highlight Abstract )

Then there is also the highlight abstract . This type of abstract highlight or highlight is usually specifically made only to draw the attention of readers to a research that has been carried out.

In this highlight abstract no pretense is made. This is because there are paper images that are balanced or complete and in fact. The presence of incomplete and prominent comments can also be used as a trigger for reader interest.

Then, this type of abstract cannot stand independently from related scientific writings. This makes this type of abstract rarely used in academic writing.
That’s an explanation of the types of abstract. Each abstract always has its own function. Of course, you can make an abstract according to your needs.

Abstract Features

Although the abstract is located at the beginning of scientific writing and is easy to find. However, actually abstract also has several characteristics, you know . Some of the features in the abstract are as described below.

  1. An abstract is a brief, thorough and thorough description that can be used to represent the contents of the title as a whole. Abstracts can stand alone as a unified whole and this makes abstracts able to be published in a special abstract magazine.
  2. The existence of an abstract will usually be placed at the beginning as a medium for providing information from scientific papers that are made.
  3. Does not have comments from the author, that means the abstract only contains what has been described in scientific writing.
  4. Because an abstract is a summary, the number of words used is relatively small, generally around 250 to 400 words or less.
  5. In its presentation, the abstract does not have a replacement paragraph.
  6. In the process of making an abstract, you should use letters that are different in size from those in the contents of scientific papers.
  7. Abstract usually also uses passive sentences.
  8. Abstract does not contain bibliography, abbreviations, illustrations, graphics or tables.
  9. Under the abstract section there will usually be keywords used. From three to 10 words are used to index scientific works.


Abstract Writing Structure

Although the abstract only has a relatively small number of words. However, in the abstract there are also some important structures. Some of the structures in the abstract structure are as follows.

  1. General information about the research that has been done.
  2. The purpose of the research that has been done.
  3. Reasons for conducting the research.
  4. The research method used.
  5. The findings from the research.
  6. Keywords consisting of three words or combinations of words.
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Those are the structures in an abstract of a scientific paper. Each of these structures must exist in making an abstract so that scientific work is easy to understand and more and more people want to read the scientific work.

Stages of Abstract Writing

After knowing the structure that is in the process of writing an abstract. Then the next is to know the stages in the process of writing an abstract. There are about five steps that need to be done so that the written abstract can be better and make it easier for readers to understand the meaning of the abstract.

So, here are some of the steps required in writing an abstract of a scientific paper.

1. Write the Research Background

In the process of writing an abstract of a scientific paper, you can explain the background of the research. Give reasons that can underlie why you are doing this research.

Don’t forget to teach about the topics/issues/problems that will be raised in the research. Also explain why you chose that topic. You can also explain about the unique things that are in the research, so that the research and writing of scientific papers that you make really need to be done and deserve to be done.

In this section, the reader will be able to get an overview of the author’s reasons for writing what is written in the scientific paper.

2. Describe the research method used

The method in a scientific paper is one of the obligations that must exist. Without a research method, a paper that is being made will not have a strong foundation and data can be broken easily by researchers.

The research method can be interpreted as a research tool used to solve problems that have been raised in a study. This method should be included in the abstract of scientific papers so that readers can more easily have an idea of ​​how the author conducted the research.

The existence of a research method written in the abstract section of a scientific paper can make readers get an explanation of how the author processes research data. Because of this, the data processing process can indeed be more accountable.

3. Give an Explanation About Research Results

After the background and research methods have been written in the abstract section of scientific writing. You can explain about the explanation of the research results obtained. In the process of writing the results and findings of the research that has been carried out, they will be written briefly so that readers can more easily find out what was obtained from the research. Then, don’t forget to provide important information from the research results that have been obtained.


4. Give a Conclusion

Conclusion is a part that should not be missed in the process of writing scientific papers. In this concluding section, there will be the author’s interpretation of the research that has been conducted.

After completing searching for data, processing the data and analyzing the data and finding the results of the research conducted. Then, what is the author’s view of all the processes that have been carried out? This view can be written in the conclusion section and there is a conclusion section which will also be written more concisely than the abstract section.

5. Enter Keyword

The last is to write down the keywords needed. Keywords also make the abstract part look different from other parts in a scientific paper. Later these keywords will be written at the end of the abstract paragraph.

The process of making these keywords can be taken from the important points contained in the research title. The existence of keywords will also be able to make research online.
So, those are some steps that you can apply in the process of writing abstracts in scientific papers.


In making an abstract you also have to pay attention to abstract writing such as the number of words and the spacing between words used. This is because abstract writing is indeed different from other parts which can use a large number of words. In abstract writing, it will usually be written briefly and only requires around 200 to 400 total words.

Then, for the spacing used in abstract writing, it is usually 1 (one) or single spacing . If indeed in writing an abstract there are words written in English, the meaning of the word in English must be italicized. It should also be noted that writing abstract sections in scientific papers in Indonesia will usually use two versions, namely Indonesian and English.

Thus the discussion about abstracts is what you can use as a guide in making abstracts in scientific work. Besides that, if you want to know more about scientific papers, then you can search for scientific paper books at sinaumedia.com . Together with sinaumedia, make your life #MoreWithReading