Characteristics of Deductive and Inductive Paragraphs – Everyone will always have ideas that often pop up, be it while working or imagining. Every creative idea that pops up in your head, if you don’t realize it or don’t put it into action, you will feel something is missing. Moreover, if it continues to be left unchecked, these creative ideas will disappear, so we have to look for new creative ideas again.
Therefore, when we already have creative ideas that arise in our brains, it is better to immediately pour them into any media. One medium that is very suitable for expressing creative ideas that often arise in our minds is writing media. This writing media can channel creative ideas into various forms, ranging from just a collection of words, to a collection of sentences which can then turn into a paragraph.
It is true, for someone who is not used to writing paragraphs it will be difficult, but as long as someone wants to continue learning to write paragraphs, paragraphs will be easy to complete. By completing a paragraph, a person can already express the creative ideas that are in his mind.
In writing, there will definitely be words, sentences, and paragraphs. The structure is a unit that cannot be separated. In other words, without words, sentences and paragraphs will not be formed properly.
Paragraphs can be said to be the key to every writing because with paragraphs, it will produce discourse which means that from words to paragraphs it has become a single unit which contains information. From this information, the reader can catch what the writer wants to convey through this writing medium.
There are actually many types of paragraphs, but the paragraphs that are often used by many people are deductive paragraphs and inductive paragraphs. These two types of paragraphs are often found in Indonesian lessons, especially when I was still in school.
This article will discuss more about the meaning of deductive and inductive paragraphs and the characteristics of deductive and inductive paragraphs. So, read this article to the end, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Paragraph
In discussing deductive and inductive paragraphs, we need to know in advance the meaning of paragraphs. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a paragraph is a chapter in an essay (usually containing one main idea and writing begins with a new line).
Paragraphs that contain main ideas indicate that in one paragraph there can be one main thought. The main idea is also often known as the main idea. The main idea is an idea or idea that is the core of the discussion in the paragraph.
Therefore, when a writer has more than one or two or more main thoughts, he must make two or more paragraphs. This needs to be done so that the main thoughts to be conveyed can be accepted by the reader, so that the reader becomes comfortable when reading the text. So, before writing a paragraph, a writer should determine the number of main thoughts he wants to convey and convey.
Thus, the paragraphs in an article can be said to be quite important because they can determine the beginning and end of an article. In addition, the presence of paragraphs will make it easier for readers to understand the message or meaning in a piece of writing. In fact, a reader will easily connect one main thought with another.
Definition of Deductive Paragraph
According to Shalima (2018: 11) a deductive paragraph is a paragraph where the main sentence is at the beginning of the paragraph, followed by an explanatory sentence. So, when reading a paragraph in a written work, then finding the main thought or main idea at the beginning of the paragraph, then the paragraph is a type of deductive paragraph.
In addition, deductive paragraphs are also commonly referred to as paragraphs that explain general matters to specific matters. In other words, the writer will explain the main problem first and then explain some explanations related to the main idea.
So, when you want to write a deductive paragraph, you must determine the main idea or thought sentence first. By determining the sentence to be used, the main thoughts at the beginning of the paragraph can explain the contents of a paragraph.
Definition of Inductive Paragraph
According to Santoso (2019: 31) an inductive paragraph is a paragraph whose main idea is located at the end of the paragraph. From the understanding that has been expressed by Santoso in his book entitled Paragraph, Playing with Words to Style Sentences, it can be said that the writer will first provide facts and descriptions that are conical to the main thoughts or main ideas.
Thus, when you read a paragraph where the main idea sentence is at the end of the paragraph, then the paragraph is an inductive paragraph. This inductive paragraph will usually discuss specific matters first and then discuss general matters. Therefore, the main sentences in inductive paragraphs will usually discuss general matters or very broad matters.
So, you could say that the key to knowing whether a paragraph is deductive or not, you have to look at it from the main idea sentence. If, you read the main idea sentence is at the beginning of the paragraph, then the paragraph is included in the type of deductive paragraph. Meanwhile, when reading a paragraph, then the main idea sentence is at the end of the paragraph, then the paragraph is included in the type of inductive paragraph.
Characteristics of Deductive Paragraphs
In order to better understand deductive paragraphs, you need to know about the characteristics of deductive paragraphs. The following are the characteristics of deductive paragraphs.
1. The main idea or main sentence in a paragraph is at the beginning of the paragraph.
2. Supporting ideas or explanatory sentences are explanations or descriptions of the main sentence.
3. The main sentence contains a general statement.
4. Paragraphs have general – specific – specific – specific patterns.
Characteristics of Inductive Paragraphs
As with deductive paragraphs, inductive paragraphs also have characteristics. Below will be explained further about the characteristics of inductive paragraphs.
1. The main idea or main sentence of a paragraph is at the end of the paragraph.
2. Explanatory sentences which usually contain descriptions or facts are at the beginning of the paragraph.
3. The main sentence is the conclusion of all the ideas or sentences in a paragraph.
4. Paragraphs have special – specific – general patterns.
Difference between Deductive and Inductive Paragraphs
After discussing the characteristics of deductive and inductive paragraphs, in order for you to better understand the two types of paragraphs, you need to know the differences.
1. Place in the Main Sentence
Deductive paragraphs have the location of the main sentence or main idea which is located at the beginning of the paragraph. Meanwhile, in an inductive paragraph, the location of the main sentence or the main idea is located at the end of the sentence.
2. Sentence Patterns
Deductive paragraphs that are composed of several sentences have a general pattern – specific. Meanwhile, inductive paragraphs have a different pattern, namely sentences with a special pattern – general.
3. Contents of Main Sentences
Deductive paragraphs where the main sentence is located at the beginning of the paragraph, the sentence contains general statements. Meanwhile, an inductive paragraph whose main sentence is at the end of the paragraph, the sentence contains the conclusion of a discussion in the paragraph.
Examples of Deductive Paragraphs
In order to understand more deeply about deductive paragraphs, below will be given some examples of deductive paragraphs.
“General elections or better known as “Elections” which are held every five years are a democratic party for all Indonesian people. All Indonesian people are obliged to take part in elections and use their voting rights to choose the best leader. Society should not become a White Group (Golput) because that is not the best solution to solving problems that exist in Indonesia. By participating in the election, the Indonesian people have participated in the democratic party and can use their voting rights to elect the best leader who can provide benefits and prosperity for all Indonesian people and can solve the problems that are being faced. “
The first sentence in the deductive paragraph example above is the main sentence or the main idea of a discussion about General Elections (Election). Through this first sentence, the author wants to inform that the General Election is a democratic party for all Indonesian people. The main sentence in the example of the first paragraph becomes the basis for paragraph development, resulting in sentences that can clarify the main sentence. Then, in the second sentence, third sentence, and so on, are explanatory sentences containing descriptions of how important it is to participate in the election democratic party.
“Due to the Covid-19 pandemic which has not ended until now, students must carry out learning activities from home online or known as Distance Learning (PJJ). Students doing distance learning use the zoom application to communicate and fill in class attendance. In addition, there are also those who directly give assignments to their students who have been given time to collect assignments. Even though students cannot meet their teachers face to face or cannot do Face-to-Face Learning (PTM), students can still gain knowledge.
The first sentence of the second example of a deductive paragraph has the intention of students having to study from home online because the Covid-19 pandemic is not over. From the intent of the first sentence, the first sentence becomes the main sentence or the main idea of the second paragraph example. Then, in the second sentence, third sentence, and fourth sentence are sentences that can clarify the main sentence. The second, third, and fourth sentences contain descriptions of distance learning.
Inductive Paragraph Example
If you are still confused about how to write an inductive paragraph, don’t worry. You can listen to some examples of inductive paragraphs as follows.
“When the New Order era began to exist in Indonesia, at that time the world of literature experienced a revival which can be seen from the many literary writers at that time. Whereas in those dark times, writers who criticized the government would be exiled or even punished. However, writers are not afraid and continue to write literary works in order to create justice for the entire Indonesian nation. The rise of the world of literature during the New Order era showed that there had been a lot of struggle poems and literary works with the theme of struggle so that people could live more prosperously. Thanks to the rise of literary works during the New Order era, it can be said that the world of literature is very strong and has a breaking element .”
In the example of the first inductive paragraph, the first part of the sentence is an explanatory sentence in which the author wants to inform the reader that during the New Order era many writers had emerged. Then, in the second and third sentences, the author wants to convey the facts that occurred during the New Order era, the fact is that writers who criticize the government through their literary works will be exiled and may also be punished.
The last part of the sentence in the example paragraph above shows that the writer wants to give the main idea of a single paragraph that has been written. At the end of the paragraph, which is written in italics, I want to state that literary works have very strong elements and can break into various kinds of things that are not justified.
“During the rainy season, residents in area B often experience flooding, which usually occurs when the rainy season arrives. Residents are not optimal in carrying out their activities and work because they are hampered by flooding. If the rain conditions do not stop, the flood water will also increase. The water that is increasing and never receding means that it is increasingly difficult for local residents to carry out activities. After further investigation, what causes flooding is a bad habit practiced by residents, namely throwing garbage into the river, so that the river flow becomes obstructed. So, it can be said that the main cause of flooding in area B is the amount of garbage that has accumulated in the river flow. ”
In the example of the second inductive paragraph, the first sentence written by the author contains an explanation that in region B the residents often experience flooding when the rainy season arrives, so they are no stranger to flooding. Then in the second, third, and fourth sentences contain explanations about that flood conditions can disrupt residents’ activities, especially activities related to work.
In the sixth paragraph or the last paragraph, the author gives a sentence whose contents are the main ideas from the example paragraph above. The main idea is that the main cause of flooding in area B is that many residents throw garbage in the river, so that the flow of the river becomes obstructed.
From the discussion about the meaning of deductive and inductive paragraphs to the characteristics of deductive and inductive paragraphs, it can be concluded that a deductive paragraph is a paragraph whose main thoughts are at the beginning of the paragraph. While inductive paragraphs are paragraphs whose main thoughts are at the end of the sentence. So, when there are Indonesian questions about deductive and inductive paragraphs, you can distinguish them well.
To make it easier for you to write paragraphs and produce an article easily, you need to get used to reading examples of paragraphs. Apart from that, you also need to start training yourself to write paragraphs so that when you can make paragraph writing more interesting to read, so that readers will find it easy to understand each of the main thoughts.
Source: From various sources