Characteristics of Developed and Developing Countries – In general, countries on this planet are divided into several groups based on the welfare of their inhabitants, namely developed countries, developing countries and underdeveloped countries. Actually, the distribution of these groups also depends on the per capita income earned by each country.
Although actually, according to the Statistics Division of the United Nations (UN), there is no official convention regarding the designation of a country that can be called “developed” and “developing”. However, when looking at the quality of the welfare of its population, the level of developed countries and developing countries is “true”.
Well, this time we will discuss the characteristics of developed countries and developing countries. Does Sinaumed’s know which countries are included in the group of developed countries? Surely some of you will answer the United States and Japan. Yep, that answer is correct.
Furthermore, for our country, Indonesia, is it included in which group of countries ? Is it a developed country or a developing country? The answer is that Indonesia is included in the ranks of developing countries.
If so, what are the characteristics of these developed and developing countries? Then, do developed countries and developing countries have the same problem?
So that Sinaumed’s understands this, let’s look at the following review!
Characteristics of Developed and Developing Countries
In simple terms, a developed country has a definition in the form of a country that has a high level of welfare or quality of life for its people. In analyzing whether a country is a developed country or a developing country, it is sufficient to look at the following indicators.
1. Population Growth
Population growth is the change in population in a country that occurs at any time. The increase or decrease in the number of people in a country is caused by several factors, such as birth and death rates.
In developed countries, the population growth rate is small or low, so the population is not too large. Therefore, the dependency ratio is also small, in line with the high quality and productivity of the population.
This is because in developed countries, they usually want a small number of children, around 1 or 2 children. The main reason why people in developed countries want a small number of children is because they can focus on educating their children. In fact, it is not uncommon for developed countries to think that having many children will hinder their careers.
Meanwhile, developing countries actually have a high population growth rate. In fact, the explosion in the teaching population is often not followed by the quality of the population, so of course it will cause various economic problems, such as poverty, unemployment, and high crime rates.
Developing countries are considered to still have difficulty reducing the crude birth rate, even to below 20.
2. High Per Capita Income
Per capita income is the average income earned by the entire population in a country. This per capita income can describe the economic situation of the country.
In developed countries, per capita income is of course relatively high. This high per capita income is due to several factors, for example the mastery of science and technology by the majority of the population and the management of high quality potential human resources.
Most of the developed countries no longer depend on the agricultural sector for their economic potential, but in the industrial, service and trade sectors. In addition, the existence of a growing variety of jobs means that the overall population in developed countries has a high average income.
In contrast to developing countries, the average income earned by the entire population is relatively low. This is because the majority of the population from developing countries still work in the agricultural sector which is done traditionally.
This condition causes people in developing countries to not be able to compete for work or even jobs in other sectors.
3. Low Poverty Rate
In line with the previous point, developed countries also have lower poverty rates and better social security. Developed countries seem to be able to provide various kinds of assistance to their “poor” population, such as health services and necessities of life.
Not only that, the employment opportunities obtained by residents in developed countries are also at a high level. This of course is able to reduce the unemployed population and also in line with the high per capita income of the country.
In contrast to developing countries, the level of poverty in these countries is actually high. There are many factors, one of which is the low level of income per capita.
In fact, developing countries also have high unemployment rates because of the low employment opportunities provided by the state for its residents.
4. High Life Expectancy
Still in line with some of the previous points, if per capita income is high, then the life expectancy of the population is also high. The average population in developed countries can reach the age of 60 years and over. This is due to good health services and economic level.
In contrast to developing countries, where life expectancy is low. This is due to poor health services and some residents are not aware of the importance of health.
5. High Education Level
The level of education in a country can be seen from the average length of schooling achieved by its residents. In developed countries, the level of education is high because the state is able to build adequate educational facilities with an almost 100% literacy rate.
Residents in developed countries also have a high awareness of the importance of education and mastery of science and technology. This can be seen from the study participation rate of the population.
Meanwhile, in developing countries the level of education is average or even low. This is because residents in developing countries, especially those in remote areas, do not think that school is important. In addition, the country’s ability to build educational facilities is also not comprehensive.
6. Livelihoods and Land Use
In developed countries, most of the population works in the electronics, machinery, and other industrial sectors. Well, it is from the industrial sector that is the main driver of the economy of developed countries.
Not only that, the wages obtained from these industrial sectors are also high, so that many residents are attracted to work in these industrial sectors. Meanwhile, in developing countries, the agricultural sector (especially those that are still traditional) has many enthusiasts. Even though there is also the electronics and machinery industry sector, it is located in urban areas. In rural areas, most of the population work as farmers.
7. High Health Level
The high health rate is also in line with life expectancy. The average population in developed countries realizes that health has an important meaning for life and the government always pays good attention to it.
The government is actively continuing to renew the development of both health facilities and infrastructure that are easily accessible to all levels of society.
Meanwhile in developing countries, usually the level of health is low. This is because the ability to build health facilities is not evenly distributed and the cost of accessing treatment is also expensive.
8. High Technological Advancement
Previously it was explained that in developed countries the livelihood is in the industrial sector. This is of course driven by technological advances. The average population in developed countries has been able to optimally utilize natural resources and technology, so they have also succeeded in finding some alternative energy.
In contrast to developing countries, technological progress is average. Even accessing the technology itself is sometimes only available in certain areas. Not only that, access to the internet and electricity often do not arrive or it spreads to remote areas.
9. Dependence on Export-Import Activities
For developed countries, usually the presence of natural resources is minimal or even does not have natural resources at all. Even so, they have technological capabilities that can produce processed products from natural resources. Of course, these processed products are of good quality and will be exported to other countries.
Meanwhile, developing countries usually have natural resources but have not been able to use them optimally. This makes developing countries cooperate with developed countries, but it is not uncommon for these natural resources to be exploited to the fullest by developed countries.
These developing countries are generally active in carrying out development in various fields, but are faced with capital and technological constraints. Thus causing developing countries to rely heavily on export-import activities.
|No.||Indicator||Developed countries||Developing country|
|1.||Income per capita (reflects the level of prosperity and progress of the country)||Tall||Low|
|2.||Population Growth (the process of increasing and decreasing the population in a country caused by certain factors)||Low||Tall|
|3.||Poverty Rate (referring to the presence or absence of job opportunities and the number of unemployed)||Low||Tall|
|4.||Employment Opportunity||Various (in the industrial sector, machinery, electronics, technology, etc.)||Less diverse (mostly still in the agricultural sector with minimal technology)|
|5.||Life Expectancy Rate (depending on health services and a country’s economic level)||60 years and over||Average below 60 years|
|6.||Land Use||Used for the industrial, service, and trade sectors||Mostly for the agricultural sector (covering rice fields, plantations, ponds, and forests)|
|7.||Level of Education (referring to literacy rates and awareness that education is important)||Tall||Low|
|8.||Health Level (referring to health facilities and medical expenses)||Tall||Low|
|9.||Advancement and Use of Technology||Fast||A bit slow|
Examples of Developed Countries and Developing Countries
|No.||Developed countries||Developing country|
|3.||United States of America||Bulgaria|
Problems of Developed Countries and Developing Countries
Even though the characteristics of developed and developing countries are very contrasting, this does not mean that developed countries do not have problems. Many problems are often encountered in developed countries.
So, here are the problems that often occur in developed and developing countries.
Developed Country Problems
1. Developed Country Investment Enters Developing Countries
In this case, it relates to the large number of entrepreneurs from developed countries who invest in developing countries. This is done because developing countries also have potential markets for products from abroad.
If these entrepreneurs from developed countries open companies in developing countries, of course they will generate significant profits. As a result, the amount of investment in developed countries will actually decrease.
2. Workers from Developing Countries Enter Developed Countries
Previously it was explained that developed countries have slow or low population growth, so that it will have an impact on the lack of a workforce for the country itself. This makes developed countries eventually “import” workers from developing countries.
Even though in developed countries, labor regulations have been running well, still, this inflow of labor can have a negative impact on the developed countries themselves.
3. Environmental Damage
In this case, many developed countries claim that developing countries are the cause of environmental damage in their countries. This claim may be true, because most developing countries do not yet have clear rules regarding environmental pollution.
However, it should also be noted that many companies from developed countries have entered developing countries to “dredge” their natural resources under the pretext of production needs. In fact, not infrequently also efforts to exploit natural resources in developing countries do not pay attention to environmental sustainability.
Developing Country Problems
The problems faced by developing countries are even more numerous and relate to the quality of life of their inhabitants. Well, here are the problems that exist in developing countries.
The problem of poverty is of course experienced by developing countries, because their per capita income is very average or even low. Especially Indonesia, in fact the government has been trying to tackle poverty every year, but the results are the same.
The problem of poverty can actually cause other problems, for example increasing the unemployment rate to the level of crime that occurs among the community.
Well, this problem is the result of poverty, especially in the limited number of jobs. The problem of unemployment arises because of an imbalance between the number of labor force and the number of jobs available.
Actually, the problem of unemployment is common, especially in countries that are experiencing a transition period of changes in economic structure. Moreover, developing countries have rapid population growth and are not in line with the growth in employment opportunities.
3. Lack of Capital
The problem of lack of capital is also often experienced by developing countries, especially in the process of economic development. The development of the times and the modernization of the economy certainly requires large capital.
To overcome this shortage of capital, the government will usually attract investors, both from within and outside the country.
4. Inequality in Development Results
The next problem experienced by developing countries is the uneven distribution of development results. For example, in Indonesia, the economic system is more focused on big cities, especially on the island of Java. It is this overly centralized economic system that causes the potential of areas outside Java to be neglected.
The next problem is underdevelopment, which is related to the quality of human resources (HR). In addition, the problem of underdevelopment is also closely related to the low level of health services, the maintenance of public facilities, and community discipline.
So, that’s a review of the characteristics and problems of developed and developing countries . Even though our country is included in the category of a developing country, through its existing natural resources and human resources, it actually has the potential to become a developed country.