Population Dynamics: Definition, Factors, Elements

Every human being who lives or lives on earth cannot be separated from what is called space or area to live or be occupied. Every area occupied by humans will have its own problems. Even though every problem in an area often arises, humans will always look for the best solution. This is because humans are sentient beings.

Talking about residents is endless, there will always be something interesting to talk about. It has become a common thing that the diversity of one population with another population is different. The differences in question, such as race, gender, religion, education, and others. All of that diversity will affect the growth and movement of population within a region.

In addition, the development or growth of the population is strongly influenced by population movement, death and life. Things that affect the growth and development of the population in a different region. Therefore, population growth in a region also varies.

This human growth and movement is also known as population dynamics. Population dynamics is a phenomenon that can cause problems in it. In other words, population dynamics greatly affect the life of the population itself.

Does Sinaumed’s know what population dynamics is? This article will discuss the notion of population dynamics. Not only understanding, but the factors, elements, impacts, and examples of population dynamics will be discussed in this article. So, happy reading, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Population Dynamics

Population dynamics comes from two words, namely dynamics and population. In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), dynamics is movement (from within) or energy that moves or enthusiasm. While the population according to KBBI means people or people who live in a place (village, country, island, and so on).

Based on the understanding of the two words dynamics and population, then

Population dynamics is a movement and growth of people or people who are influenced by various things that happen in an area and happen from time to time.

In its growth, the population in a region will be different from other regions. There are areas that are experiencing rapid population growth, causing overcrowding and there are also areas where population growth is not so fast, which can lead to population shortages.

Population density or underpopulation will greatly affect the growth of a region, be it in terms of health, economics, education, income, and so on. Therefore, each region should have good and clear population data so that the growth of a region can run optimally and it is easy to find solutions to current problems.

Therefore, an area has a population agency that can calculate the population.

Population Data Sources

In finding out the population, usually an area (read: the government) will collect population data by means of population censuses, population registration, and population surveys.

1. Population Census

The population census is the calculation or collection of population data, economic level, and so on by the government in a certain period of time. Usually a population census is carried out every ten years in years ending in zero, such as 2020, 2010, 2000, and so on.

With a population census conducted by the government, the needs and interests of the state and the state’s financial situation can be used as best as possible.

2. Population Registration

Population registration is an activity in the form of registration or data collection carried out by the government with the aim of recording events that occur in the community and can affect the life of the community itself.

Unlike the population census, population registration will continue as long as there are events occurring in the community. There are many events that occur in society, such as birth, death, divorce, marriage, change of residence, and adoption or adoption.

Every resident who experiences these events needs to report it or register it with a government agency that records population data. That way, the country will get the right population data.

3. Population Survey

A population survey is an activity that aims to improve the results of a population census and population registration. Why should the results of the population census and population registration be improved? Because the two activities have limitations in providing information or it can be said that the information provided from the two activities needs to be completed.

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In Indonesia, the Central Bureau of Statistics has conducted population surveys, such as the National Economic Survey, the National Labor Force Survey (SAKERNAS), and the Inter-Census Population Survey (SUPAS).

Although population surveys are limited in nature, they still provide comprehensive, comprehensive and in-depth information. In general, population surveys conducted by the government use a sample system.

Population Dynamics Factors

Population dynamics can be said to be a phenomenon that must occur in every country. Population dynamics do not just happen, but there are several factors that cause this phenomenon to occur, such as births, deaths, and migration.

1. Birth (natality)

This birth factor is known as natality. Birth is the release of a baby from a mother’s womb, which is usually a sign of life marked by the sound of crying and the baby’s heartbeat.

This factor can affect the occurrence of population dynamics because the population is increasing. However, if when the mother gives birth there are no signs of life from the baby (stillbirth), then the population does not increase or it can be said that the birth has not been included in the birth rate.

In categorizing the birth rate usually by showing babies born out of 1000 population per year. The birth rate in the population dynamics factor is divided into three types, namely high birth rate, medium birth rate, and low birth rate.

a. High birth rate

The birth rate in an area can be said to be high, if the birth rate is around > 30 per year. The high birth rate indicates that population dynamics can occur quickly.

b. Medium birth rate

The birth rate in an area can be said to be moderate, if the birth rate is around 20 to 30 per year. The moderate birth rate indicates that the dynamics of the population are not too fast and not too long.

c. Low birth rate

The birth rate in an area can be said to be low, if the birth rate is around <20 per year. The low birth rate means that population dynamics can occur slowly.

Birth Supporting Factors 

1. Doing marriage at a young age.

2. Still believe that “a lot of children, a lot of luck”

3. Still think that children are the successors of offspring, especially sons.

Factors Inhibiting Birth

1. There is a limit on the number of children with the Family Planning (KB) program.

2. There is an assumption that having more children means more burden on the family.

3. Age of marriage postponed by reason of wanting to have a career first or finish education.

4. Child benefits for civil servants are limited to the second child only.

2. Death (mortality)

This death factor is known as mortality. WHO says that mortality is an event of permanent loss of all signs of human life that can occur after birth. This death event can happen to anyone, from the young to the old. In addition, death can occur anytime and anywhere.

If birth can be said as a phenomenon of increasing population, then death can be said as a phenomenon of decreasing population. Reducing population can affect population growth, as well as being a benchmark for public health in an area.

In other words, the number of deaths in an area indicates that the health level in that area is not good.

To classify the death rate can be done by calculating the number of deaths per 1000 population per year. Therefore, the mortality rate is divided into three types, namely high mortality rate, moderate mortality rate, and low mortality rate.

a. High death rate

The death rate in an area can be said to be high, if the death rate is around > 18 per year. High mortality rates can affect population dynamics slowly.

b. Moderate death rate

The death rate in an area can be said to be moderate, if the death rate is around 14-18 per year. Moderate mortality rates can affect population dynamics, not too fast or too slow.

c. Low mortality rate

The death rate in an area can be said to be low, if the death rate is around 9-13 per year. Low mortality rates can affect population dynamics quickly.

Factors Supporting Death

1. Public awareness of the importance of health is still very low.

2. Natural disasters that claimed many lives.

3. Murder caused by many things, such as revenge, robbery, and others.

4. Traffic accidents.

Death Inhibiting Factors 

1. The high level of public awareness of health.

2. Health facilities are very complete.

3. Thorough preparation when dealing with natural disasters.

4. High religious beliefs, so the crime rate is reduced.

5. The high level of public awareness of education.

3. Migration (moving)

The last factor that can affect the dynamics of the population in an area is migration. Migration is often known as movement. Migration in question is the existence of residents who move from one region to another.

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This migration can grow the population in an area and can also reduce the population in an area. Usually, people who migrate have their own goals and try to settle in a new area.

The United Nations (UN) states that population migration is the movement of residence from one administrative unit to another.

Migration is divided into five types, namely emigration, remigration, immigration, urbanization, and transmigration.

a. Emigration

Emigration is a movement of people from one country to another and settling in the new country.

b. Remigration

Remigrants are residents who return to their country of origin after several years of living in another country.

c. Immigration

Immigration is residents from abroad who enter a certain country and settle in that country.

d. Urbanization

Urbanization is the movement of people from villages to cities that occur within one country.

e. Transmigration

Transmigration is the movement of people from one island to an island with a smaller number that occurs within one country.

Factors Causing Migration

Population migration can occur due to several factors, namely

1. Job vacancies are dwindling.

2. Difficult to adapt in the area of ​​origin.

3. There was a natural disaster that made the area uninhabitable.

4. There is pressure in society.

5. Greater job opportunities, so that socio-economic life is guaranteed.

Impact of Population Dynamics

It is undeniable that the more the population in an area, the more impacts that will arise. The impacts of population dynamics are as follows.

1. Low Level of Education

Population growth is getting faster and the death rate is moving slowly causing it to be difficult for the population to get a proper education. Low levels of education can result in delays in development, especially in the fields of science and technology.

A low level of education indicates that the quality of education of the population in an area is very low. The large number of children in the population makes educational facilities in an area unable to accommodate them, so that many children are forced not to pursue education. In addition, the low level of education can be caused by the low economic capacity of the community, so parents have to help work.

2. Low Level of Health

Public health has become a necessity of life that must be owned by every resident. The number of healthy residents in an area proves that the welfare of the population is guaranteed.

However, with the existence of population dynamics in an area, the health level of the population is getting lower. This happens because health facilities are not sufficient to accommodate the large number of sick patients. In addition, the environment is increasingly dirty and clean water is difficult to obtain, making the population’s health decline.

3. People’s Welfare is Getting Lower

Everyone who lives in a country should get welfare. Welfare that is owned by every resident, then the wheels of the economy will run well.

However, population growth is accelerating and the death rate is moving slowly indicating that the level of social welfare is becoming low. The declining level of welfare of the population can be seen through the very small income of the population.

The low welfare of the population is due to the dynamics of the population, so that many residents have difficulty getting jobs. In other words, population dynamics can cause the unemployment rate to increase. Residents who do not get a job will find it difficult to make ends meet.

4. Deteriorating Natural Conditions

Humans are very dependent on existing natural conditions because healthy and good natural conditions will provide health to humans. In addition, good natural conditions can be used as a source of income for every resident.

However, residents who often use natural resources can cause natural conditions to be disrupted. Disturbed natural conditions can reduce the welfare of the population and the health of the population also decreases.

Not only that, the faster population growth can make the place for farming less and less because of the large amount of land that is used as housing. Things like this can reduce water absorption, but increase the use of groundwater.

5. Unequal Population Distribution

In an area, it must have limitations or the ability to accommodate residents who live in that area. Therefore, the population will look for a more suitable place to survive, then there will be a distribution of the population.

Unequal population distribution makes economic growth in an area uneven. Not only economic growth, but educational facilities and health facilities are also uneven, resulting in social disparities between regions.


The occurrence of population dynamics in an area occurs because it is caused by three things, namely births, deaths, and migration. Population dynamics give rise to many new problems related to human life. Therefore, the government must move quickly so that problems arising from population dynamics can be resolved.