Get to know the Structure of the Earth’s Layers

Get to know the Earth’s Layer Structure – Earth is one of the planets of the solar system which is in part
of the Milky Way galaxy.
Earth’s Chemical Structure is the third planet of the planetary system
in this solar system. Earth has a multi-layered structure down to the core of the Earth (core).
With an earth diameter of 7,926 miles. The earth has at least 4 layers of earth that
make up the earth that we currently live on.

This planet earth has 4 types of layers, viz

  1. crust,
  2. earth blanket,
  3. outer core and
  4. the inner core of the earth.

Check out a more complete explanation about the following layers of the Earth, Sinaumed’s.

Understanding the Structure of the Earth’s Layers

The structure of the earth is the arrangement / layer forming the earth. The structure of
the earth is made up of many types of materials

The inner Earth’s structure is divided into layers, much like an onion. The earth generally
consists of several layers, namely the upper part is called the lithosphere or crust, the layer below is the
asthenosphere or mantle and the bottom is the earth’s core.

The interior of the earth can be known by studying the physical properties of the earth, namely by
geophysical methods, especially from the propagation velocity of vibrations or seismic waves, its magnetic
properties and gravity as well as geothermal data.
From these data it can be seen that the
inside of the earth is composed of different materials starting from the surface of the earth to the core of
the earth.

With this geophysical method it is also known that the overall specific gravity of the earth is around
5.52
. The earth’s crust itself, which is the outermost layer and is
composed of rocks, has a specific gravity between 2.5 and 3.0.
From this it can be seen
that the material that makes up the inside of the earth is a heavier material with a greater specific
gravity than the rocks that make up the earth’s crust.

Learn about the layers of the earth that exist through story books with interesting science content that
can be accessed via smartphones.
You can get the Smart Science Book Series: Layers of Earth and
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Structure of the Earth’s Layers

1. The Earth’s Crust

The Earth’s crust is the outermost layer of the earth which is divided into two categories, namely the
oceanic crust and the continental crust.

Oceanic crust is about 5–10 km thick while continental crust is about 20–70 km thick. The main
constituent of the oceanic crust is basalt, while the main constituent of the continental crust is granite,
which is not as dense as basalt.

The Earth’s crust and most of the Earth’s mantle form a layer of lithosphere with a total thickness of
approximately 80 km.
The temperature of the crust increases with depth. At the
lowest limit, the temperature of the crust touches 1,100 C. The crust and the relatively dense part of the
mantle form the lithosphere layer.
Due to convection in the upper mantle and asthenosphere, the
lithosphere is broken into moving tectonic plates.

Temperature increases 30 0C every km, but the geothermal gradient will be lower in the deeper layers of the
crust.

The main chemical elements that make up the earth’s crust are:

  1. Oxygen (O) (46.6%),
  2. Silicon (Si) (27.7%),
  3. Aluminum (Al) (8.1%),
  4. Iron (Fe) (5.0%),
  5. Calcium (Ca) (3.6%),
  6. Sodium (Na) (2.8%),
  7. Potassium (K) (2.6%),
  8. Magnesium (Mg) (2.1%).

2. Overcoat

The earth’s mantle or what is commonly called the earth’s mantle is the layer that envelops the earth’s core
and is the largest part of the earth’s part, around 83.2 percent of the volume and 67.8 percent of the
entire earth’s mass.

Consisting of liquid phase material, the earth’s envelope is often referred to as the asthenosphere layer.
This layer is where plate movements occur due to convection forces or geothermal energy.

These movements greatly affect the shape of the earth’s surface. the thickness of this casing
ranges from 2,883 km.
Its density ranges from 5.7 gr/cc near the core and 3.3 gr/cc near the
crust.
In the upper casing region magma intrusions will begin to form caused by infiltrated and
melted rocks.

3. Core

The earth’s core is located from a depth of about 2900 km from the bottom of the earth’s crust to the center
of the earth.

The core of the earth can be separated into the outer core of the earth and the inner core of the earth.
The boundary between the Earth’s mantle and the Earth’s core is marked by a marked decrease in the
velocity of the P waves and S waves that do not propagate.

This situation is due to the increase in the specific gravity of the material that makes up the earth’s
core and changes in the properties of the material from being solid to being liquid.
The
increase in specific gravity is caused by a change from the silicate material that makes up the earth’s
casing to a metal alloy material that is rich in iron (Fe) in the earth’s core.

The change in material properties to liquid is due to the lower melting point of iron-containing materials
compared to silicate-rich materials.
That is why the material that makes up the outer core of
the earth is a liquid rich in Fe metal.

Conversely, the increasing pressure to the deeper part will result in an increase in the melting point of
the metal material.
This causes the material that makes up the inner core of the earth to be a
solid metallic material.

The composition of the material making up the earth’s core is known with the assumption that the element
iron is an element that is often found in the rocky crust that makes up the earth’s crust.
With
an increase in the specific gravity of the rock the deeper it is located, the iron content will also
increase, so that the earth’s mantle has the possibility of containing a greater iron content than the
earth’s crust.

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The specific gravity of the outer Earth’s core composed of liquid iron-rich material is the same as the
specific gravity of the specific gravity of iron in a liquid state.
Because the inner core of
the earth is composed of dense iron-rich material, the boundary between the outer core and the inner core
has a temperature equal to the melting point of iron at the pressure in that place.

In addition, the composition of the earth’s core is also known based on the composition of the meteorites
that were found to contain around 7% to 8% iron and nickel.
So it is estimated that the metal
materials that make up the earth’s core are elements of iron and nickel.

Learn more about the structure of the existing layers of the earth through the book Smart Encyclopedia: Our Earth
which also explains various other information that is important for Sinaumed’s to know about our earth.

Layer Structure of the Earth Based on Chemical
Arrangement

For example, the nature, composition, and characteristics that influence many of the main processes of the
formation of the Earth.
The scientific understanding of the structure of the Earth’s interior
is based on conclusions made with the help of seismic monitoring.

That means measuring the sound waves generated by earthquakes, and examining how sound waves travel through
different layers of the earth.
The change in seismic velocity causes refraction which is
calculated (according to Snell’s Law) to determine the difference in density.
It is also
necessary to experiment with crystalline solids at pressures and temperature characteristics of the Earth’s
interior.

As a result, it can be seen that the difference in temperature and pressure is caused by residual heat from the
initial formation of the planet, to the decay of radioactive elements.

In addition to the layers mentioned above, the Earth also consists of four chemical arrangements, viz

  1. atmosphere,
  2. hydrosphere,
  3. lithosphere, and
  4. biosphere.

1. Atmosphere

The atmosphere layer is a layer of air that wraps around the planet with a thickness of more than 650
kilometers.

This layer is composed of 78 percent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen. The atmosphere is also
divided into five layers, namely the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
The troposphere is the layer closest to the Earth’s surface. The distance is about 0
to 15 kilometers.

Weather phenomena such as rain and lightning occur in the troposphere. In the next layer there
is the stratosphere which is above the troposphere.
The distance is about 15 to 40 kilometers
from the surface of the Earth.
This layer serves to absorb and scatter ultraviolet radiation
from the sun.

Above the stratosphere is the mesosphere at an altitude of 40 to 70 kilometers above the Earth’s surface.
Then there is the thermosphere which is 70 to 400 kilometers from the surface of the Earth.
The thermosphere is also referred to as the ionosphere because the ionization process occurs in the
atoms and molecules that interact with the Sun’s plasma.

Finally, there is the exosphere as a protector and the outermost layer that envelops the planet.
It is located 800 to 3,260 kilometers from the Earth’s surface. The satellites that
orbit the Earth are in the exosphere.

2. Hydrosphere

As the name suggests, the hydrosphere refers to the layer of water that is on the surface of the Earth.
That is, the layers of the hydrosphere include the oceans, oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater,
and water vapor.

Hydrosphere from the word hydrosphere in English. The word hydro comes from Ancient Greek
which means water.
Hydrology is the science or study of water and the way it is used and
circulated around the planet earth.

In a way, the hydrosphere is a component of the earth’s water.

Quoted from the National Geographic Society, the hydrosphere is the total amount of water on a
planet
. The hydrosphere includes water on the planet’s surface,
underground and in the air.
The hydrosphere of a planet can be in liquid, vapor and ice
forms.

The hydrosphere is the sum of all the water on earth and the water cycles that distribute it throughout the
planet.
On earth, liquid water exists on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, lakes
and rivers.
There is also underground water such as groundwater, in wells and aquifers.
There is also water in the hydrosphere in the form of vapor and is seen as clouds or fog.
The frozen part of Earth’s hydrosphere is made up of ice including glaciers, ice caps and
icebergs.

Water in gaseous form (water vapor) is more accurately called part of the atmosphere. The
frozen part of the earth’s hydrosphere has its own name, namely the cryosphere (cryosphere).
The hydrosphere is always in motion The movement of rivers and streams can be seen, but the
movement of water in ponds and lakes is less obvious.

The movement of the seas and oceans can be seen easily with large-scale movements that flow water over
great distances such as the poles and the tropics or between continents.
This kind of movement
is in the form of currents that move warm water in the tropics towards the poles and cold water from the
poles towards the tropics.
These currents are present at the surface of the ocean and at the
depths of the ocean.

Water moves through the hydrosphere in cycles. Water collects in clouds and then falls to
earth in the form of rain or snow.
This water collects in rivers, lakes and oceans.
Then the water evaporates into the atmosphere to start the cycle all over again. This
rotation is called the water cycle.

Sinaumed’s can find discussions about how the water cycle occurs, how the seasons change, and much more in the
Super Exciting Encyclopedia: Hello, Earth!
by Hemma.

3. Lithosphere

The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the crust consisting of rock. The lithosphere is
a moving plate, so it can cause continental drift.

Lithosphere comes from the Greek words, lithos (λίθος) which means rocky, and sphere (σφαῖρα) which means
solid.
The lithosphere comes from the word lithos which means rock, and sphere means
layer.

Literally the lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth or commonly called the Earth’s skin.

The word lithosphere comes from the Greek word lithos meaning rock and sphera meaning layer.
The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the earth’s crust and consists of rock with an average
thickness of 1200 km.
The lithosphere is the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust consisting of
rock, generally this layer occurs from chemical compounds rich in SO2.

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That is why the lithosphere layer is often called the silicate layer. According to Klarke and
Washington, the rock or lithosphere on the earth’s surface is almost 75% composed of silicon oxide and
aluminum oxide.
The main constituent of the lithosphere is rock consisting of a mixture of
similar or dissimilar minerals that are loosely or densely bonded to each other.
The parent
rock that forms the lithosphere is magma, which is incandescent molten rock that has a very high temperature
and is found beneath the earth’s crust.
Magma will undergo several processes of change to
become igneous rock, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock.

The lithosphere plays an important role in plant life. Soil is formed when the rocks on the
surface of the lithosphere undergo degradation, erosion or other physical processes into small rocks to
sand.
Furthermore, this part is mixed with the results of the inclusion of organic components
of living things which then form soil that can be used as a place for organisms to live.
Soil
is a source of various types of minerals for living things.

In their original form, these minerals are in the form of rocks that are layered on the surface of the
earth.
Through the process of erosion, the minerals which are the source of food for these
living things are often carried by rivers to the sea and deposited on the seabed.

That is why the lithosphere layer is often called the silicate layer with an average thickness of 30 km which
consists of 2 parts.

2 Sections of the Lithosphere

  1. The upper lithosphere is about 35% or 1/3 of the land.
  2. The lower lithosphere is about 65% or 2/3 of the ocean.

The Earth’s lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost part of the Earth’s mantle which gives rise to
the hardness of the outermost layer of planet Earth.
The lithosphere is supported by the
asthenosphere which in this case is the weaker, hotter and deeper part of the mantle.

4. Biosphere

The biosphere means ‘living layer,’ which refers to the layer that is habitable for living things.
The biosphere includes land, water, air, and the interactions between living things and their
environment.

The biosphere is the largest living system because it consists of a combination of ecosystems on planet
earth.

The biosphere can also be interpreted as the outer part of the earth’s surface which includes air, land and
water and allows life and biotic processes to take place.
The biosphere can also be interpreted
as the entire ecosystem on earth, covering all parts of the earth that contain life (consisting of biotic
components that interact with the abiotic environment which are part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and
lithosphere).

So, the biosphere is the layer where living things live. The biosphere is the largest living
system because it consists of a combination of ecosystems on planet earth.
Etymologically, the
word biosphere consists of 2 words, namely bio which means life and sphere which means layer. The meaning of
the biosphere in the narrow sense is the layer or part of the earth where living things live. The broad
meaning of the biosphere means living things as well as the layers on the surface earth suitable for
life.

Understanding the biosphere in a broad sense according to geophysiology, the biosphere is a global
ecological system that unites all living things and their relationships, including their interactions with
the elements of the lithosphere (rock), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere (air) of the Earth.
Biosphere According to Experts In addition to the standard definition of the biosphere, there are
also definitions given by experts regarding the biosphere, including:

According to Vladimir Wanouich Veinadsku, the biosphere is an open and developing system since the
beginning of the history of life on earth.
According to John Wiley, that is a zone of planet
Earth where there is life that forms naturally in the layers of the earth with the lower atmosphere.
According to M. Allaby, the biosphere is one part of the habitat of organisms that forms a stable
and effective group system for the entire ecosystem of planet earth.

Earth as a place where we live has many interesting things that you can learn such as types of animals, plants,
big cities, and many more which are discussed in the book Junior Encyclopedia: Our Earth.

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Earth’s Layers

Junior Scientist Encyclopedia: Earth

Change is also occurring in our landscapes. Shifts in the Earth’s crust form mountains.
If there is magma underneath, the shift creates a volcano. A deposit of crushed stone
in a river that has dried up can become mountains.
Did you know that underwater volcanic
eruptions can form islands?

This encyclopedia will help you keep up with Earth’s developments. From the process of its
formation, natural phenomena, to the richness of Earth’s habitat.
You won’t miss a
thing!

You will see the beauty of the Crystal Cave with the highest crystal reaching 12 m, up to 3,000 stone
towers in Wulingyuan, China!
There is much more for you to explore in this encyclopedia.
Beautiful pictures and photos will take you as if you are on an adventure directly to every corner
of the Earth.

Smart Science Series:
Layers of Earth and Fossils – Alpha & Mega Travel to Earth

Alfa and Mega got an assignment from their school to research Planet Earth. They also
discovered new things that did not exist on their planet, such as rivers and how they were formed.
Wow, what will Alfa and Mega find when they research Earth?

The Smart Science series is a story book with interesting science content that can be accessed via a
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What’s inside the Earth? How do the seasons change? How is the water cycle?
Why are forests important? There are tons of questions about Earth.
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