Getting to Know the Layers of the Sun and Their Explanations – Lots of people already know what the sun is. The sun is the only source of natural light that can illuminate the Earth. Because the sun also we know a condition of the Earth, namely day. Apart from being the only full source of light that can illuminate the universe, the sun is also the largest and closest star to Earth. The sun is also the center of the solar system and the axis of the planets in the solar system that surround it.
The sun has the form of a bright gas ball that has a very large size. With the fusion reaction at the core of the sun, it is the reason why the sun can glow. Because of the enormity of the sun’s rays, when we look at it from Earth, we can see that the sun’s surface is smooth and even slippery. The glow on the sun is not solely with light, but also has a very high temperature.
Therefore solar thermal energy is used in various activities on Earth and supports the occurrence of life on Earth. Even with the sun’s rays or heat, this is the greatest source of energy that can be owned by the Earth. Without sunlight, there would be no life on Earth or even any living things on Earth at all. This is because the sun is a very central position to the Earth and other planets
Layers of the Sun
Earth is a planet inhabited by living things that have various layers. The layers of the Earth that we live in are inside and outside the Earth. If it’s inside the Earth, then that layer is called the Earth’s constituent layer. This layer contains soil and rocks. Meanwhile, the layer outside the Earth is called the atmosphere. This layer contains the air layer that surrounds the Earth.
Not only does the Earth have layers, but other planets also have the same layers, even the sun, as the center of the solar system, also has layers. This layer consists of several types and several levels. There are 4 layers of the sun that must be known together.
The first layer of the sun or the outermost layer of the sun is called the photosphere. The photosphere is also known as the light layer. The photosphere is a part of the sun’s surface that forms a very large ball of gas and has a thickness of up to 350 km and the boundaries of the layers are not clearly visible. This photosphere is like a golden disk.
Of the many layers of the sun, it is this layer of the photosphere that can emit the strongest light, so it is also called the light layer. The strong light that is released in this layer reaches the Earth and is known as sunlight. Apart from light, this layer also emits heat energy along with the sunlight. Because light and heat energy have been distributed to the surroundings, the temperature in this layer will be the lowest compared to the other layers.
The temperature of this layer of the photosphere touches 5,700 Kelvin. At such temperatures, an object can emit a yellow light, because light or sunlight has a yellowish color. In addition to the light that is dazzling to the eye, in this layer light waves are also produced, such as infrared and ultraviolet rays.
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Then, the next layer after the photosphere layer is the chromosphere layer. This layer is the layer above the photosphere. This layer is often said to be the layer of the sun’s atmosphere and for this chromosphere layer itself is the lowest part of the sun’s atmosphere. The chromosphere layer itself is thicker than the photosphere layer, which is as far as 16,000 km.
This chromosphere layer is a layer that contains lots of particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons. The temperature of this chromosphere layer averages around 6,000 to 20,000 kelvins. The deeper you go, the temperature in this chromosphere layer will be hotter.
So basically this chromosphere layer is a layer that is difficult to see by the naked eye. However, this chromosphere layer can be seen with the human naked eye during a total solar eclipse. During the process of this total solar eclipse, the chromosphere layer will look like a red ring. This red color is proof that the chromosphere layer emits light that is weaker than the photosphere layer.
Even though it can be seen with the human eye during a solar eclipse, when you see this layer with the naked eye without any protection at all, it will be very dangerous because the ultraviolet light that is released is very fast, causing damage to the eyes. The light launched by the chromosphere layer is formed from hydrogen gas. In this layer of the chromosphere there is a jump of hot gas outwards which returns to the sun. These hot gas jumps are called prominences. In this layer of the chromosphere we can get a radio wave called “star radio”.
In this third layer that is on the sun is the corona layer. This corona layer is an outermost layer of the sun. The corona layer includes both the photosphere and the chromosphere. The corona layer is also called the outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere. In this corona is also a layer in the form of gas, even though the gas that is present is very little and very thin.
Because the gas is thin, its shape can change every time and measuring the boundaries of this layer becomes very difficult. The corona layer usually looks like a white crown that covers the sun. Meanwhile, when a total solar eclipse occurs, the layer will appear to have a grayish color. Because it has a shape similar to a crown, this layer is called corona which means “crown”.
The corona layer is about 1,000,000 kelvin thick. This corona layer becomes the layer of the sun which contains lots of argon, nickel, iron atoms, and also lime. So that you can observe the corona every time by using a tool called a telescope. The telescope used to observe the corona layer is called a coronagraph.
For the next layer is the core layer of the sun. The sun’s core is the deepest part of the sun. So that we can know that it is in this section that has the highest temperature among all layers. This layer of the sun has a temperature of 15,000,000 kelvins. Because it has a very high temperature, it is in this layer that fusion reactions occur.
The fusion reaction that occurs is because in the sun’s core there are many charges, namely electrons (atoms with a negative charge), protons (atoms with a positive charge), and also neutrons (atoms with a neutral nature). Even at the core of the sun, it has a gravitational force that can pull all matter so that it forms a pressure.
The energy that is created is due to fusion reactions or thermonuclear reactions which are then emitted out by a radiation process. The core part of the sun is around 502,000 km below the sun’s surface. At the core of the sun has a diameter of 386,160 km. The extent of the sun’s core fulfills up to 25% of the total solar radiation as a whole.
Temperature and Solar Energy Sources
That the shining sun is not just an ordinary light, but behind this shining light there is a very high temperature. So that the sun produces very high heat. The heat on this high sun and supported by its large size makes this sun’s heat clearly felt by other planets. Even the sun’s heat becomes the greatest natural heat energy for the Earth.
The temperature in the sun is very high and each layer has a different temperature. The temperature on the sun is measured in Kelvin units. In this part of the sun the deeper it will be the hotter the temperature. The following is a complete breakdown of the temperature of the layers that exist on the sun:
- The photosphere layer (outermost layer), has an average temperature of 5700 Kelvin
- The chromosphere layer, has a temperature of around 6,000 to 20,000 Kelvin
- The corona layer, has a temperature of about 1 million Kelvin
Those are some details of the temperature that the sun’s layers have. The heat from the sun is very high, so use units of Kelvin to measure it. 1 Kelvin itself, if you change it to Celsius, you get -275.15ᵒ C. The temperature on the sun is much higher than on Earth. So, this solar heat can be used for various activities.
This source of energy from the sun comes from the fusion reaction that is in the sun’s core. This fusion reaction is a fusion of hydrogen atoms that turn into helium. So that the fusion reaction will produce enormous energy. The sun is composed of several kinds of gases, including helium (22%), hydrogen (76%), oxygen and other gases (2%).
The sun is the biggest star in the solar system. A star is a celestial body that can emit its own light. The diameter of the circle on the sun is 1,400,000 km wide, and at this size it is about 109 times larger than the diameter of the Earth.
With such a large area, the sun itself has the broadest gravitational force as well. So that this sun can become the center of the solar system and can pull the planets around it to form an orbit. Through their respective orbits, the planets revolve around the sun and are called revolution events.
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Benefits of the Sun
The sun, which is the center of the solar system, becomes a place for the planets to depend. The sun, which continues to radiate its warmth, will create many benefits and functions for the life around it. The sun is the center of the solar system as well as being the only source of light for the Earth. Sunlight itself becomes very important for the Earth and the survival of living things that live. We as living beings, in our daily lives, take advantage of the services of this sunlight.
The following are the benefits of the benefits of the sun that can be felt in everyday life.
Help the drying process
One of the benefits that we can feel directly from the hot sun is to help the drying process. Yes, sunlight is the only thing that is relied upon when carrying out the natural drying process, so it can help with daily work. Some drying that often relies on sunlight are drying clothes, drying rice, salted fish, and other agricultural and marine products. Drying in the sun will give better results than using a machine. In addition, drying with sunlight will also be more frequent, so the process can be completed more quickly.
Helping the implementation of photosynthesis in plants
One of the functions that can be enjoyed by living things, especially plants, from the presence of sunlight can help carry out the process of photosynthesis. As we all know that the process of photosynthesis is a feeding activity carried out by plants.
In addition to the process or activity of eating, photosynthesis can be beneficial for humans because it will produce oxygen which is often needed for humans and animals to breathe. Without the presence of sunlight, this photosynthesis process will not be able to occur, so the presence of sunlight is very important.
The greatest source of energy
Sunlight is the largest natural energy source on Earth. With sunlight, humans will be able to carry out various activities and also make various discoveries that can help human activities in their daily lives. This very useful sunlight can be used for electricity generation, namely for PLTS or Solar Power Plants. As we all know, electricity itself is very useful and much needed by humans. Without electricity, humans will not be able to carry out all activities or things smoothly.
Sunlight is also useful for nourishing the body. Sunlight in the morning is very rich in vitamin D which is suitable for healthy bones and teeth. So many children are advised to sunbathe their bodies in the morning to benefit from the sun’s rays. Besides that, the sun in the morning is not too hot, so we can use it to sunbathe for quite a long time.
Regulating the solar system
Another function of the sun is as the center and regulator of the solar system. This function is the central function of the sun and its relation to other celestial bodies. Because with this sun, these planets have orbits around them and can get goodness from sunlight.
Those are some of the benefits that can be felt from the presence of the sun, the benefits of its light and heat, as well as the function of the sun itself. Apart from the benefits that have been mentioned, there are many more benefits of the presence of the sun that can be felt.
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Disturbances in the Sun
The active symptoms that exist in the sun or the activity of the sun itself often result in disturbances in the sun itself. These disturbances are as follows.
Lumps in the Photosphere (Granulation)
The lumps that arise due to the propagation of hot gas from the sun’s core to the surface. Thus, the surface of the sun is not flat but forms clumps.
Sunspots (Sun Spots)
These sunspots are areas where a very strong magnetic field appears. These spots are in the form of holes on the sun’s surface where hot gas comes out of the sun’s core, so they can interfere with radio wave telecommunications on earth.
The Flame of the Sun
The solar flare is the occurrence of gas scattering from the edge of the sun’s chromosphere. These flames can reach a height of 10,000 km. This flame is often called the prominence or “protuberant”. The flames consist of a mass of protons and electrons from hydrogen atoms that can move at high speeds.
The mass of these particles can reach the earth’s surface. Before it can enter the earth, the emission of these particles will be restrained by the earth’s magnetic field (Van Allen belt), so the speed of these particles decreases and moves towards the poles, then glowing particles are called aurorae. The scattering of these particles greatly disrupts communication systems on radio waves. Aurora in the southern hemisphere is called Aurora Australis, while in the northern part it is called Aurora Borealis.
Flare itself is an explosion of gas that is above the surface of the sun. Flares can cause interference with radio communication systems, because the gas eruption consists of gas particles that are electrically charged.