Get to know the 5 Theories of the Formation of the Universe

Theory of the Formation of the Universe  – Many scientists have debated about the existence of the universe. The presence of the universe in question is like where did the universe exist, when did the universe exist, how was the universe created, and so on. Scientists debate how to convey their ideas.

One of the ideas expressed in the 20th century was the big bang idea. The big bang idea suggests that the universe is infinite in size and that the universe came into being because of the big bang.

However, scientists with a materialist background do not agree with the existence of a Creator and still believe that the universe is composed of a collection of matter that is constant, stable, and unchanging. Scientists with a materialistic background assume that matter is a creature that really exists and deny the existence of all other creatures, except for matter.

Based on the idea that the universe has a beginning or not from something that does not exist. In other words, believe that the universe exists because it was created and through a process of creation.

Because of that belief, indirectly believe in the existence of the Creator. In simple terms, the concept of “exists from nothingness” is something that humans cannot understand or simply can be interpreted as humans cannot understand something because they have not had the opportunity to understand it.

The existence of the universe out of nothing is one of the greatest proofs of the creation of the universe. With this, it will help people understand and understand the meaning of life.

Expansion of the Universe

Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer. He has made historic discoveries in the field of astronomy. The discovery was disclosed in 1929. Hubble’s discovery occurred while he was watching the end of the spectrum of stars’ light turn red with a giant telescope. Because of the changing colors at the ends of the stars, he believed that the stars were moving away from the earth.

Long before the discovery of stars moving away from the earth, Hubble had made another discovery, namely that galaxies and stars were moving away from each other, not just from the earth. From the discovery of galaxies and stars moving away from each other and stars moving away from the earth, it can be concluded that the universe is constantly expanding.

An appropriate simile to make this discovery easier to understand is that the universe is likened to the surface of an exploding balloon. Then, every part that is on the surface of the balloon is separated from each other due to inflation. This parable applies to the expanding universe so that all objects in space are separated from each other.

Increasing or expanding the size of the universe proves that in terms of time, the universe can move backwards. Because it is proven that the universe can move backwards, it can also be interpreted that the universe originated from a “single point”.

From the calculations that have been done, it can be concluded that the “single point” is all the substance or matter that exists in the universe and has zero volume and unlimited density . The Big Bang was caused by an explosion originating from a “single point” explosion with zero volume. The result of this explosion is what caused the universe to form.

The theoretical unit used for exposure purposes is zero volume . In science there is such a thing as the concept of nothingness . The concept of nothingness is a concept that only states a point with zero volume. Because of this concept, it can be said that the universe was born from the concept of nothingness . Briefly the universe was created.

The expansion of the universe is proof that the universe was created from the concept of nothing. However, it was only in the 20th century that there was a scientific theory that stated that the universe was expanding or expanding.

In space there are various objects such as the sun, planets in the solar system, asteroids, and many more which are explained in the Mini Encyclopedia: The Universe.


Theories of the Formation of Nature

After various studies have been carried out by experts aiming to find out the formation of the universe, the research produces a theory. These experts have also expressed their opinion with the theories of the formation of the universe. There are various theories of the formation of the universe. Here are some theories of the formation of the universe.

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1. Big Bang Theory

The expert who first sparked or discovered this theory was Alexandra Friedman in 1922. She is a physicist from Russia. The content of the theory expressed is that the structure of the universe is always changing (dynamic).

Based on the big bang theory (Big Bang Theory), the universe consists of a very large mass and a very large density as well. Then, the core reaction causes the mass to explode and expand very quickly so that it moves away from the center of the explosion. The big explosion occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. This theory can be studied by Sinaumed’s in the book Big Bang Theory, The: Theory of the Formation of Natural Sutras

During its development, this theory was developed by an astronomer from the United States, namely Edwin Hubble. According to Hubble, at first the stars gathered in a point mass known as zero volume . However, at one point in time that zero volume exploded and expanded.

After a massive explosion at zero volume , all galaxies and stars experienced a shift in the light of the stars that approached the red spectrum. In other words, the shift that occurred as a result of the big bang caused the stars to move away from Earth and slowly drift away from each other.

However, the theory received rejection from one of the experts, namely Sir Fred Hoyle. The rejection of this theory occurred in the mid-20th century when Hoyle came up with the steady state theory. Hoyle through the steady state theory stated that the size of the universe is infinite and the universe has no time limit or will exist forever. It was because of this difference in ideas that the theory of the big bang or big bang was rejected by Sir Fred Hoyle.

2. Steady State Theory

Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, and Hermann Bondi are three autophysicists who discovered the steady state theory. The three men came from England and were discovered in 1948. According to the steady-state theory, the universe had no beginning and the universe will not end or will exist for all time.

If the big bang theory states that the universe is moving or always changing (dynamic). This is different from the steady state theory which states that the universe is fixed or unchanging (static).

When the universe expands there will be new materials that appear. Matter will appear in sufficient quantities to keep the universe in a stable state. After the new matter appears, new galaxies will form and the universe will remain unchanged.

The steady-state theory was very popular in the early 20th century. However, this theory was rejected by some cosmologists and other scientists. This rejection occurs because there is a truth related to the big bang theory and the universe has an age limit.

Not only are these two things causing this theory to be rejected, one thing is also causing this theory to be rejected, namely the existence of cosmic microwave radiation which has been predicted by models originating from the Big Bang theory.

3. Theory of Expanding and Compressing (The Oscillating Theory)

The expand and float theory was devised by Fred Hoyle. He comes from England and is an expert in the field of astrophysics. In this theory, we must understand that new galaxies will always appear and form to replace galaxies that no longer exist.

The content of the expanding and compressing theory is the chest of a cycle that occurs in the universe. Every one cycle will experience a mass expansion (expands) and a mass contraction (compresses).

Each cycle takes a long time, which is around 30 billion years. In this theory, the expansion occurs due to the reaction of the hydrogen nucleus which will eventually build other, more complex elements.

The way the expanding and compressing theory works is when the expansion process runs, galaxies and stars will form. After experiencing expansion, then the galaxies and stars will be compressed accompanied by the release of very high hot light.

4. Quantum Universe Theory

In 1966 the theory of the quantum universe was created by William Lane Craig. In this theory, the universe is stated to have existed from the beginning and will continue to exist throughout time. This theory also states that the universe does not have a vacuum. In other words, in the universe there are only subatomic particles.

5. Swinging Theory

The continuation of the big bang or big bang theory is the swing theory. Experts suggest that the motion of galaxies and stars is moving away from each other. After moving away, the galaxies and stars will show a slowing motion and stop until it shrinks under the force of gravity.

After slowing down to shrinking what will happen next is that the materials will condense and explode. All the processes that take place do not cause matter to be destroyed or created, but matter simply changes order.

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According to this theory, the deceleration process that occurs gives rise to a hypothesis which states that the universe has no edges and no boundaries.

Get to know the Galaxy

A collection of stars that make up a star system or order is called a galaxy. Stars, meteors, planets and other celestial bodies that are arranged in groups are part of the galaxy.

Galaxies are composed of several celestial bodies, and the celestial bodies that make up most of the galaxies are stars. In space galaxies are divided into several types viz. The Milky Way Galaxy, the Ursa Major Galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy and the Black Eye Galaxy.

1. The Milky Way Galaxy

In English the Milky Way Galaxy is called the Milky Way . This term is taken from the Greek “galaxias” and the Latin “via lactea” which means milk. The home for the solar system is the Milky Way galaxy because in the Milky Way galaxy there is the sun and planet earth. The shape of this galaxy is a spiral with a diameter of about 100,000 light years. This galaxy’s closest neighbor is 150,000 light years away in the southern sky and the galaxy’s name is the Magellanic Galaxy.

2. The Ursa Major Galaxy

The distance between the Ursa Major galaxy and the Milky Way is about 10,000,000 light years. This galaxy is elliptical in shape and has a large space. The position or location of this galaxy is in the sky in the northern hemisphere and this galaxy is very useful for fishermen because it can provide a benchmark for ships when sailing at night. Dubhe star is the brightest star in the Ursa Major galaxy.

3. Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy has other names, namely Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224. On clear nights, this galaxy can be seen with the naked eye or without tools to see it. When viewed, the galaxy will appear like a thin fog in the northern sky. The shape of this galaxy is a spiral. This galaxy contains about 1 trillion stars that are moving toward the Milky Way galaxy at a speed of 300 km/sec.

4. The Black Eye Galaxy

Another name for the Black Eye galaxy is Sleeping Beauty. For some astronauts, this galaxy can be seen using a telescope with a small size. There is a spectacular dark channel in the Black Eye galaxy. The channel can suck up dust from in front of the galactic core.

Learn interesting information about galaxies and stars and their facts through the book 100 Facts about Stars & Galaxies which is also equipped with the descriptions it has.


Galaxy Shape

There are two broad categories in the theory of galaxy formation, namely “top down” and “bottom up”. The “top down” theory is the theory of galaxy formation originating from celestial bodies that have protogalaxy elements (celestial body particles), then these celestial bodies group together and form galaxies. While the “bottom up” theory is the formation of galaxies that occur because a number of stars are close together and merge into one.

In general, the shape of galaxies in space is divided into three types, namely elliptical, spiral and irregular.

1. Galaxy With an Elliptical Shape

The shape of an elliptical galaxy is like a round to an oblong ball. While the structure of an elliptical galaxy, when seen, its shape is not very clear. What is contained in elliptical galaxies is interstellar material and its members consist of old stars. Examples of elliptical galaxies are the M87 galaxy (a giant galaxy in the constellation Virgo) and the Messiers 5 galaxy.

2. Galaxy With Spiral Shape

A galaxy with a spiral shape is the type of galaxy most people hear about. The beauty that exists in this type of galaxy is extraordinary. Spiral-type galaxies have several parts, namely the halo (the galaxy’s arms) and the bulge (the protruding central part of the galaxy). Members of the spiral galaxy are only young and old stars. An example of a spiral galaxy is

3. Galaxies with Irregular Shapes

Galaxies with irregular shapes have a lot of interstellar matter consisting of gas and dust. Members of galaxies with irregular shapes such as spiral galaxies whose members are old and young stars. Examples of irregular galaxies are the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud.

Related Books: 

1. Junior Scientist Encyclopedia: Science

2. Al Quran and Science


There are many theories that explain the formation of the universe. However, there are five theories for the formation of the universe, namely the Big Bang Theory, the Steady State Theory, the Oscillating Theory, the quantum universe theory, and the swinging theory.

In space there are four types of galaxies namely the Milky Way galaxy, the Ursa Major galaxy, the Andromeda galaxy and the Black Eye galaxy. While the shape of the galaxy is divided into three, namely the shape of a spiral, elliptical shape, and irregular shape.