Why Debating Texts Are Classified as Expositions – Surely Sinaumed’s already understands that debate and exposition texts are material in Indonesian language courses. Yep, both texts use valid data and facts before writing them according to the structure of the text.
Then, did Sinaumed’s know that the debate text is one of the types of exposition text? Therefore, it can be said that the debate text is a “child” of the exposition text.
why that thing could happen? What are the reasons behind the fact that the debate text is included in the type of expository text? So, so you don’t get confused, let’s look at the following reviews!
Reasons Why Debate Texts Are Included in the Exposition
Previously, we must know what debate text and exposition text are. Simply put, a debate text is a text that contains an argument by comparing the opinions of other parties related to a particular discussion. Meanwhile, expository text is an essay that is useful for conveying arguments with the aim of convincing others.
So, here are three reasons why the debate text is included in the expository essay.
1. Text Structure
The debate text and the exposition text actually have the same structure, you know … Namely, they contain statements of opinion, a series of arguments, and reaffirmations.
This statement of opinion or often referred to as a thesis “acts” as an essay opener. Then, a series of arguments that contain various arguments about a particular topic. Then, reaffirmation which contains conclusions from the previous explanation.
So, because both of them need arguments whose data must be valid, in conveying an opinion, it must also be accompanied by supporting facts so that the reader can be sure of your argument. Therefore, the debate text is classified as expository essay, because it is not permissible to have an opinion based on a particular topic.
2. Linguistic Rules
As with structure, debate text and exposition text also have more or less the same linguistic rules. The linguistic rules are related to the use of technical words in the text.
One of the language rules is to use persuasive words to influence and convince the reader, for example ” expected “, ” should “, ” necessary “, preferably , and so on.
3. Common Goals
Both the debate text and the exposition text have judgments, encouragement, opinions, and certain invitations to the reader to be sure of what has been conveyed through the writing.
Therefore, a debate text can be a type of expository text because there are three things in common between the two.
Recognizing Debate Texts
The debate text is one of the texts in the Indonesian material. This debate text can indirectly train students for writing, speaking, and listening skills.
According to Tarigan (2015), debate is an argument made to determine whether or not a proposal is good or bad, with the presence of two parties, namely as supporters or affirmative; and the other party as a denier. Through this opinion, it can be concluded that in a debate there must be two parties who have opposing arguments about a topic.
Furthermore, according to Semi (2003), debate is a skill of arguing by complaining or comparing opinions face to face. The meaning of the word “complain” does not mean something negative, but can also be interpreted as an activity to compare opinions with other parties regarding a topic being discussed.
Now, based on the understanding conveyed by these two figures, it can be concluded that a debate text is a text or writing that contains arguments, both pros and cons, based on data validity, related to the topic that has been given so that the reader can be sure and believe in what is said. has been stated in this article.
Debate Text Structure
- Introduction to Issues , this section will contain an introduction to the topic or issue to be discussed.
- Series of Arguments , in this section will contain a series of arguments or reasons that state whether the author agrees or denies the topic being discussed. The argument must be supported by valid data evidence.
- Reaffirmation , in this section will contain statements stating conclusions and reaffirming the arguments that have been presented previously.
Variety of Languages in Debate Texts
- Using standard language rules, both spelling and grammar (covering the formation of words, phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs).
- Arguments must be based on facts and acceptable to common sense.
- The arguments conveyed have one meaning that can and directly go to the target, in a systematic order so that they can form effective sentences.
- The selected vocabulary has real meaning.
Debate Text Language Rules
1. Using Mental Verbs
Please note that the debate text is an argumentative text, so that in writing it will use a lot of opinion sentences. Well, mental verbs that are usually found in debate texts, for example predict, assume, argue, guess, want, understand, know, agree, and so on.
2. Using Personal Pronouns
The debate text is indirectly a form of communication that involves two parties directly, so that in writing you have to use first person and second person pronouns. For example, we, I, we, you, and you .
3. Use of Conjunctions
As with other texts, debate texts must also have conjunctions in their writing. The conjunction needed is a causality conjunction, namely one that is convincing or conclusive. For example, cause, effect, so, thus , and so on.
In addition, chronological conjunctions are also needed or which express time relationships, for example before, finally, after, then , and so on.
4. Use of Sentence Definitions
If you look at the structure of the discussion text, at the beginning it will contain an explanation of a concept related to the topic or issue to be discussed. Therefore, there will be the use of sentences that state the definition of a thing, for example, that is, is, is, that is , and so on.
5. Use of Terms
The debate text has many focus themes, for example education, environment, to religion. So, in explaining the argument, it is necessary to use terms related to certain fields.
For example, in an environmental theme that takes the topic of illegal logging, it would be natural to use the words reforestation, afforestation and protected forest.
6. Use of Persuasive Words
Persuasive words are words that aim to influence and convince the reader or listener regarding the arguments presented. For example the words need, should, should, and expected .
Things To Look For In Compiling Debate Texts
A good debate text is when there are solid and effective issues, arguments, and conclusions. So, here are the things that must be considered in compiling a good debate text.
1. Problems or Issues to be Discussed
The issues that will be discussed in the debate text should be issues that are currently happening and which are likely to raise pros and cons. The criteria that determine the issue get the pros and cons are:
- Touching the emotional side of the public
- Get the attention of the masses in terms of humanity
- Issues are in demand and discussed by many people
2. Viewpoints or Arguments Presented
After determining the issues to be discussed, the next is the point of view or argumentation which will be structured in a concrete, logical, and scientifically justifiable manner.
In compiling this argument there must be two parties, namely:
- The pro party, namely the one who gives a statement of agreement related to the problem that has been determined.
- Counter parties, namely those who provide rebuttals or statements of disapproval regarding the issues that have been determined.
So, when compiling an argument, both the pros and cons, it must contain the following:
- The reasons stated are logical by showing a causal relationship related to the problem.
- The reasons stated are logical by showing real examples of these arguments.
- Can be trusted and can be proven that the arguments presented are true as they are, accompanied by valid evidence.
After compiling valid arguments, the last step is drawing conclusions. In compiling conclusions, it must be objective both from the pros and cons.
Getting to Know What Expository Text Is
After discussing the debate text, next is the exposition text. The exposition text is more or less the same as the debate text, because both have valid arguments in their delivery.
The most striking difference between these two texts is that the expository text does not try to convince the reader or listener of the arguments that have been presented. This is because the expository text only provides information and knowledge.
According to Kosasih (2016), expository text is a text that expresses opinions or ideas from the point of view of the author, and serves to convince other parties that the arguments they have conveyed are true and based on facts.
Then, according to Rusyana (2012), expository text is a type of essay that explains the main ideas so that it can broaden the reader’s knowledge.
Now, based on the understanding that has been conveyed by these two figures, it can be concluded that expository text is a text or writing that contains an explanation of the main contents of the author’s thoughts, ideas or ideas accompanied by facts so that readers can easily understand them.
Exposition Text Function
As with the debate text, this exposition text is also included in the type of text that is argumentative. Therefore, indirectly, expository text serves to raise awareness or provide information to readers and listeners.
Characteristics of Expository Text
- Writing that conveys knowledge or information related to a subject to readers or listeners.
- Does not affect the reader, so that it seems to leave the decision to the reader whether they will believe and believe in the arguments that have been presented.
- Not subjective and emotional in its delivery.
- It seems to be able to answer the questions about what, when, why, and how of the matter being discussed.
- Do not impose the reader’s attitude on the reader.
- Don’t take sides with any of the facts.
Expository Text Structure
Previously, it has been explained that the structure of the debate text and the exposition text are the same, so that the debate text can of course be included in the exposition text.
- Introduction to the Issue or Thesis
This section will contain an introduction to the topic or issue to be discussed. This section tends to introduce issues or even general opinions related to the issues to be discussed. Opinions expressed in this part of the thesis are usually general truths that cannot be disputed.
- Argument Series
This section will contain a series of arguments or reasons that state whether the author agrees or denies the topic being discussed. The argument must be supported by valid factual evidence.
- Reaffirmation or Conclusion
This section will contain statements stating conclusions and reaffirming the arguments previously presented, starting from the beginning to the series of arguments.
Expository Text Language Rules
Likewise with the rules of language, the debate text and exposition text have more or less the same things.
- Using statements that contain facts to prove the truth of the author’s argument.
- Using statements that contain expressions that are judging or commenting.
- Use of causality and chronological conjunctions.
- Use of mental verbs.
- Using standard language.
Types of Expository Text
According to Kurniasari (2014), exposition text has eight types, namely:
- Definition Exposition Text, namely writing that focuses on the theme or topic to be discussed.
- Process Exposition Text , that is, the writing contains certain processes related to the theme or topic being discussed.
- Classification Exposition Text , that is, the writing contains categories related to the theme or topic discussed.
- Comparative Exposition Text , namely writing that contains comparisons between the ideas or opinions of the author and other things.
- Analytical Exposition Text , namely writing that contains an analysis of a particular topic.
- Illustrated Exposition Text , which contains a simple description of a topic with other topics. Through this simple description, it will usually make the reader understand the intent of the author.
- Contradictory Exposition Text , which contains arguments that are contradictory to one another with regard to certain matters or topics.
- News Exposition Text , which contains notifications of an event that has occurred, such as news.
Well, that’s the explanation why the debate text is included in the exposition text. The similarity between the two texts is the use of arguments which must be based on the validity of data or facts, so that the writing of the arguments should not be arbitrary. Meanwhile, the difference between the two lies in their purpose, namely whether to entice readers to believe or not.
Book Recommendations & Related Articles
Joseph, Muhammad. (2020). Indonesian High School Learning Module: Content Analysis of Indonesian Class X Debates . Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.
Sihombing, YK (2020). The Use of the Learning Cycle Learning Model in Learning to Write Expositional Texts.
Rosdiana, DS (2018). Learning to Analyze Oriented Exposition Texts on Thesis Sentences Using a Problem Based Learning Model for Class X Students of SMA Negeri 27 Bandung in the Academic Year 2018/2019 (Doctoral dissertation, FKIP UNPAS).
Nurahmat, SD (2019). Learning to Analyze the Content of Debate Texts Oriented to Motions and Arguments Using the Creative Problem Solving Method in Class X SMA Nusantara Bandung in the 2018/2019 Academic Year . (Doctoral dissertation, FKIP UNPAS).