Argumentation Is: Definition, Characteristics, and Structure

Arguments are – When communicating with other people or when working with other people, sometimes each individual has their own arguments. Therefore, sometimes between one individual and another individual has a different point of view in responding to something.

Then, what exactly is meant by argumentation? Find the complete answer in this article, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Argumentation

Argumentation is the process of submitting and defending an opinion or conclusion using valid evidence or arguments and having strong reasons. The purpose of argumentation is to convince others that the opinions or conclusions put forward are correct or valid.

The argumentation process usually involves exchanging opinions or ideas with other people, where each party will try to defend its position by presenting evidence or arguments to support its opinion. Arguments can also be made orally or in writing, and can be done in various situations such as group discussions, debates, or presentations.

Yes, the notion of argumentation is a fairly general understanding and can be applied in various situations. However, in philosophy, the term “argument” also has a slightly different meaning. Arguments in philosophy are a series of premises (propositions that are considered true or accepted as a basis) and are commonly used to reach conclusions.

Each argument must have strong and valid premises so that the conclusion is also considered strong and valid. For example, if we want to put forward the argument that “all humans are the same”, then the premise we can use is “all humans are living beings who have the same needs” or “all humans are creatures created by God with the same characteristics. ”. Using these premises, we can reach the conclusion that “all human beings are equal”.

Maybe this is a little confusing, but basically the notions of argumentation and arguments are both related to the process of presenting and defending an opinion or conclusion using valid evidence or arguments and having strong reasons. It’s just that the term “argument” is more specific and more often used in philosophy, while the term “argumentation” is more general and can be used in a variety of situations.

Specifically, argumentation is the process of presenting and defending an opinion or conclusion using valid evidence or arguments and having strong reasons. The purpose of argumentation is to convince others that the opinions or conclusions put forward are correct or valid.

The argumentation process usually involves exchanging opinions or ideas with other people, where each party will try to defend its position by presenting evidence or arguments that support its opinion.

Definition of Argumentation According to Experts 

The following are some definitions of argumentation according to experts:

  • According to David Zarefsky

Argumentation is a communication process that aims to convince others to accept our opinion by using strong and accountable evidence.

  • According to Stephen Toulmin

Argumentation is a way to strengthen our position on something by putting forward a strong premise and defending it using valid evidence.

  • According to Roger L. Shuy

Argumentation is the process of submitting opinions or conclusions using evidence and arguments that can be accounted for, with the aim of influencing others.

  • According to Oswald Hanfling

Argumentation is a process that aims to reach an agreement about something by using strong and accountable evidence.

All of the meanings of argumentation mentioned above emphasize the importance of using strong and accountable evidence in the process of submitting and defending an opinion or conclusion. They also emphasize that the purpose of argumentation is to convince others that the opinions or conclusions put forward are true or valid.

Argumentation Structure

Argumentation structure is how an argument is packaged and presented logically so that it can be understood and accounted for. There are several structures that are usually found in argumentation structures, namely:

1. The purpose of the argument

The author presents arguments to achieve a certain goal, such as persuading the reader about something.

2. Premises

Premises are facts or assumptions that are considered true and used as the basis for drawing conclusions.

3. Hypothesis

The hypothesis is a possibility that is considered true and tested to validate the premise.

4. Conclusion

Conclusion is a conclusion resulting from the premises and hypotheses being tested.

6. Example

Examples are examples that show how the premises and hypotheses apply in everyday life.

7. Counterarguments

Counterarguments are arguments against the arguments presented and are considered to have the same strength as the arguments presented.

8. Rebuttal

Rebuttal is an answer or response to a counterargument that tries to show that the argument presented is stronger than the counterargument.

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By understanding the structure of this argument, we can better understand how an argument is built and justified, so that it can help us make strong and logical arguments.

The Characteristics of Arguments

Argumentation is the process of expressing one’s opinion or opinion by using sufficient reasons or evidence to support that opinion. In an argument, someone will try to convince others that their opinion is right or better than the opinions of others. Here are some features of the argument:

1. An opinion or idea

Every argument must have an opinion or idea to be conveyed. This idea can be something new or a pre-existing opinion.

2. Reasons or evidence

Each argument must have sufficient reasons or evidence to support the opinion expressed. These can be facts, data, examples, or conclusions from previous research or studies.

3. Denial or rejection of other opinions

In an argument, someone will usually try to reject or refute other opinions that are contrary to their own. This is done to show that the opinion conveyed is stronger and better than other opinions.

4. The goal is to convince others

The main purpose of argumentation is to convince others that the opinion conveyed is correct or better than other opinions. Someone who makes an argument must be able to present sufficient reasons and evidence to convince others.

5. Use of appropriate language

In an argument, it is important to use the right language and according to the context. This will help to explain ideas clearly and make arguments easier for others to understand.

Things to Look For in Arguments 

In an argument, it is important to pay attention to several things, such as:

1. Purpose

Make sure that we know what our purpose is from presenting the argument. Do we want to convince others that our opinion is correct or just want to explain something to others.

2. Audience

Consider who our audience is, do they already have knowledge of the topic we are going to cover, or are they new to the topic. This is important so that we can present arguments in a way that suits the abilities and knowledge of the audience.

3. Premises

Make sure that the premises (propositions that are considered true or accepted as the basis) that we use in our arguments are valid and justifiable. A strong premise will make the conclusions we propose stronger too.

4. Logic

Use proper logic in presenting our arguments. Make sure that the conclusions we submit are reasonable conclusions and are in accordance with the premises we use.

5. Emotions

Do not let emotions rule our arguments. As presenters of arguments, we must be able to maintain objectivity and defend our arguments in a rational and logical way, not in an emotional way or cornering other people.

By paying attention to these things, we can present effective and high-value arguments.

Types of Arguments

 

The following are some types of arguments that are often used in Indonesian:

1. Logical argumentation

Logical arguments are arguments based on verified facts and data. The purpose of this argument is to prove a truth in a rational and objective way.

2. Emotional arguments

Emotional arguments are arguments based on one’s feelings and emotions. The purpose of this argument is to influence other people’s opinions in an irrational way, but in a way that manipulates their emotions.

3. Ethical arguments

Ethical arguments are arguments based on moral values ​​that are believed by someone. The purpose of this argument is to influence other people’s opinions in a way that refers to values ​​that are considered right and good by society.

4. Contrast argument

Contrasting arguments are arguments that compare two different sides of a problem. The purpose of this argument is to provide a broader picture of an issue and help others to make a more informed decision.

5. Persuasive arguments

Persuasive arguments are arguments that aim to influence other people’s opinions in a way that persuades or invites them to agree with someone’s opinion.

6. Expository argumentation

Expository argumentation is an argumentation that aims to provide information about a problem in a clear and organized manner. The purpose of this argument is to give other people a better understanding of an issue.

Argumentation Example

Examples of Logical Arguments

The following are some examples of logical arguments:

  1. “If we spend more money on organic groceries, then we will get greater long-term benefits, such as better health and a healthier environment.”
  2. “Based on verified data, countries that adopt an open education system have lower poverty rates compared to countries that do not adopt the system. Therefore, we should also adopt an open education system in Indonesia.”

Examples of Emotional Arguments

An example of an emotional argument is an argument that uses emotions or feelings to try to convince another person. The following are some examples of emotional arguments:

  1. “You have to help us save the animals from forest fires. Just imagine how shocked and saddened they were when the fire broke out.”
  2. “I can’t imagine how it would feel if our children had to live in an unsafe environment. We have to do something right now to improve the environmental conditions in our city.”
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Examples of Ethical Arguments

In an ethical argument, someone will present his opinion on an issue related to moral values ​​by using reasons that are considered strong and rational. The following are some examples of ethical arguments:

  1. Torture of detainees is an unethical act because it harms a person’s humanity. While torture may be used as a way to obtain information, it is unjustifiable as it causes unnecessary suffering to detainees.
  2. The use of animals in cosmetic tests is unethical because animals do not have the ability to understand or consent to such tests. The use of animals in cosmetic tests not only harms the animals, but also does not provide significant benefits to humanity.

Examples of Contrast Arguments

To provide examples of contrasting arguments, the writer will make several premises and develop them into arguments that are the opposite of these premises.

Premise 1: Higher education in our country is very expensive, so only the rich can afford it.

Contrast: While it is true that the cost of higher education in our country is quite high, there are many scholarship programs available to students who have good academic achievements.

Apart from that, there are also several higher education institutions that offer affordable tuition fees for poor students. So, higher education is not only available to wealthy people, but also to students who have good academic achievements and need financial assistance.

Premise 2: The use of single-use plastic should be banned because it harms the environment.

Contrast: While it is true that the use of single-use plastics can be detrimental to the environment, there are several advantages offered by single-use plastics as well. For example, single-use plastics can help reduce the use of natural resources, such as wood, which are needed to produce goods that can be used over and over again. In addition, single-use plastic is also more practical and easy to carry everywhere.

So, we shouldn’t completely ban the use of single-use plastics, but it’s better if we look for ways to reduce the negative impact on the environment, such as by inviting people to be wiser in using single-use plastics.

Examples of Persuasive Arguments

The following are examples of persuasive arguments:

  1. “Reducing the use of plastic is actually very easy. Simply by bringing reusable shopping bags or choosing products that have recyclable packaging, we can help reduce plastic waste which is harmful to the environment. Apart from that, by making wise choices in buying products, we can also save money that could actually be used for more important things.”
  2. “Choosing products that are made in a responsible and environmentally friendly way is a wise decision. Apart from helping to preserve the environment, we can also help strengthen responsible industries and have a positive impact on society. So, before buying something, consider whether or not the product was made in a responsible way.”

Expository Argument Example

In expository arguments, the writer will usually express an opinion or argument about something to be explained, then develop the argument by presenting relevant facts and information. The following are examples of expository arguments:

Example 1:

Opinion: In my opinion, the habit of eating fast food regularly is not good for health.

Argument: Fast food is fast and convenient, but it is also often high in fat, salt and high in calories. Regular consumption of fast food can increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes and obesity. In addition, fast food also rarely contains the nutrients the body needs such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Therefore, consuming fast food regularly is not good for health and should be avoided.

Example 2:

Opinion: I think that online learning programs are the best way to learn today.

Argument: Distance learning has many advantages compared to face-to-face learning. First, distance learning is more flexible because students can study anytime and anywhere, as long as there is an internet connection. Second, distance learning is also more efficient because students can choose the material they want to learn and adjust the pace of learning according to their abilities.

Third, distance learning is also more cost-effective because you don’t have to pay for transportation or living in a boarding house. Therefore, I think that distance learning programs are the best way to learn today.

Conclusion

An argument is a statement or a series of statements that try to convince others of the truth of an opinion or idea. Arguments consist of premises or grounds that underlie the statement, and conclusions or conclusions derived from these premises.

In logic and rhetoric, an argument is a way of showing that a statement is true or not true by using logical and rational evidence or reasons. Arguments can be formed in various forms, such as deductive arguments, inductive arguments, and analogical arguments.

Arguments can also occur in discussions or debates, where people are involved in exchanging ideas and statements that are interconnected with the aim of solving a problem or reaching an agreement. Arguments can occur verbally or in writing, and can occur in various places, such as in the classroom, at work, in the family, or in the community.

So, Sinaumed’s, our article about the meaning of argument has been completed. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful and can add to your insight, Sinaumed’s. sinaumedia as #FriendsWithoutLimits, participates in providing knowledge and information, therefore sinaumedia presents books that can add to the knowledge and information that readers need.

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Author: Mutual

Reference:

  • https://www.sampoernauniversity.ac.id/id/teks-argumentasi-Jadi/
  • https://www.merdeka.com/jabar/argumentasi-ada-teks-yang-contains-ideas-with-facts-know-how-and-its-structure-kln.html
  • https://lsfdiscourse.org/brief-studies-arguments/