Arguments: Definition, Components, and Their Types

In the life we ​​live, it is not always in accordance with other people’s opinions. Therefore, in social interaction, sometimes there are arguments. Argument is someone who defends opinion. On this occasion, we will discuss more about the argument. So, read this article to the end, Sinaumed’s.

 

Definition of Argument

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In living our daily lives, of course we need to interact with other people, just like talking. In this interaction, usually our arguments or other people’s arguments are included. In life in this world sometimes it’s good for us to listen to other people’s arguments, even though not all of other people’s arguments are true.

In social life, expressing opinions is something that cannot be avoided. In order for this opinion to convince others, it must be accompanied by arguments. Sometimes, someone is mistaken for giving an argument when they are just making a statement. Arguments are the part that can always form a discussion.

Meanwhile, the meaning of argumentation based on terms is something that is often put forward when expressing an opinion.

That way, an argument can be interpreted as something that strengthens an opinion, so that an opinion is easier to accept. However, the arguments we convey are not always taken for granted by those who listen. It is possible that our argument can be countered by other arguments, so that argument cannot be avoided.

Meanwhile, arguing is something that is often encountered in everyday life. Arguing does not always mean attacking or criticizing someone. Arguments are statements that can be used to support a point of view.

That way, a person or group of people can get another point of view from an issue being discussed. In fact, in Islam, it is explained about the etiquette of opinion.

Based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), an argument is a reason to strengthen or reject an opinion, position, or idea. Meanwhile, arguing is defined as arguing by mutually defending or rejecting each other’s reasons.

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that the argument has two purposes, namely strengthening one’s own opinion or weakening and breaking the opinion of others.

Arguments can also be used to reject a position, idea or thought.

Knowing the right and proper way to argue is something that must be understood. Especially if you are often involved in a discussion forum or perhaps want to present something.

Arguments from an Islamic Perspective

Of course, the argument aims to be applied by Muslims in arguing. During the conversation to interact in submitting arguments we are encouraged to argue in a good way.

From what we do to express opinions in good words, Allah SWT explains this statement as it is in the word of Allah SWT.

As the word of Allah SWT in the Qur’an Surah Al-Baqarah Verse 286 namely:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ ٱللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا ٱكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَآ إِن نَّسِينَآ أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَآ إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِۦ ۖ وَٱعْفُ عَنَّا وَٱغْفِرْ لَنَا وَٱرْحَمْنَآ ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَىٰنَا فَٱنصُرْنَا عَلَى ٱلْقَوْمِ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ

Lā yukallifullāhu nafsan illā wus’ahā, lahā mā kasabat wa ‘alaihā maktasabat, rabbanā lā tu`ākhiżnā in nasīnā au akhṭa`nā, rabbanā wa lā taḥmil ‘alainā iṣrang kamā ḥamaltahụ ‘alallażīna ming qablinā, rabbanā wa lāmḥlan mātam lātu bih, wa’fu ‘annā, wagfir lanā, war-ḥamnā, anta maulānā fanṣurnā ‘alal-qaumil-kāfirīn

It means:

“Allah does not burden a person but according to his ability. He gets the reward (from the good) that he earns and he gets the punishment (from the crime) that he does. (They pray): “O our Lord, do not punish us if we forget or we are wrong. O our Lord, do not burden us as heavy as You burdened those before us. O our Lord, do not take upon us what we cannot bear. Forgive us; forgive us; and have mercy on us. You are our Helper, so help us against those who disbelieve.”

Argument Component

An argument is an attempt to make more than a statement. Inside an argument is a series of related statements that represent support for the main statement. This is nothing but to convince other people that what is said and confirmed is true.

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Before arguing, of course it is important to understand what are the basic components that make up an argument, namely premises, inferences, and conclusions. Here’s the explanation:

1. Premise

Premises are statements in the form of facts that explain reasons and or evidence to believe a claim or inference. Here’s an example of an argument with premises and a conclusion:

  • If you want to find a good job, you have to work hard (premise)
  • You really want to find a good job. So you have to work hard (conclusion).

The first two sentences here are the premises of the argument, and the last sentence is the conclusion. Providing this argument means offering premises as reasons to accept the conclusion. To understand more clearly, here’s a simple example of an argument:

  • The pilot earns a lot of money (premise).
  • I want to make a lot of money (premise).
  • I must become a pilot (conclusion).

Usually, the challenge in arguing is to come to a conclusion that connects the premises. here’s another example:

  • Doctors earn a lot of money. (premise)
  • With a lot of money, one can travel a lot. (premise)
  • Doctors can travel. (conclusion, from 1 and 2)
  • I want to travel a lot. (premise)
  • I must become a doctor. (of 3 and 4)

Here we see two different types of claims that can occur in an argument. The first claim is a factual claim, and it is meant to offer evidence.

The first two premises above are factual claims and usually, not much time is spent on them, whether the claims are true or not.

2. Inference

The inference or claim is what is resolved at the end of the argument. However, in a simple argument, there may be no inference, but only consists of premises and conclusions.

3. Conclusion

Conclusion is the reasoning of an argument or often also called final inference. To present an argument, a claimant must offer a follow-up statement that at least, in theory, supports the claim.

Because, an argument aims to offer reasons and evidence. If the inference gets a statement that supports it, then the argument succeeds. Vice versa.

Argument Types

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In general and specifically, arguments can be divided into several types. In general, arguments are divided into, among others, deductive arguments and inductive arguments, as follows:

1. Deductive Arguments

A deductive argument is an argument which, if true, will include conclusive evidence to support the truth of its claim.

Because the premise is strong, a claim made after the premise has been conveyed is no longer a possibility, but a certainty. We have one example that you may have seen on television or maybe somewhere.

For example: “All humans are mortal. Socrates is human. Therefore, Socrates is human.”

The first two sentences in the example above are the premises that support the claim in the last sentence. In a deductive argument, the claim cannot be true if the premises are not true. So, there are also arguments that can be called deductively invalid.

2. Inductive Arguments

This inductive argument includes premises that, if true, can prove the truth of the claim. So, what’s the difference then, from the deductive one? The difference is, here there is still a possibility for the argument to be proven right or wrong.

In an inductive argument, the claim that is concluded is only an estimate whose certainty is not yet known. So in drawing conclusions from this argument, it is necessary to make observations and observations of the premises provided.

For example: “So far, I have noticed that many people with broad shoulders and tall stature are professional swimmers. So, I concluded that everyone with broad shoulders and height is an athlete in swimming.”

With the premise of body shape, the above argument states a claim that is probably true that everyone with this body is an athlete in swimming.

So, further specific arguments can be divided based on the topic, for example ontological arguments and political arguments. Here’s the full explanation:

3. The Ontology Argument

The ontological argument is an argument that concludes that God exists, by appealing to important, analytical, and a priori premises. A priori itself means knowledge that is not based on certain experiences.

4. Political Arguments

We often encounter political arguments, not only on TV but also on social media that you use every day. Political arguments usually offer a series of reasons for carrying out a solution to various political problems.

Argument Tips Can Work

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A statement is not simply an argument no matter how many times someone repeats the statement. According to ThoughtCo , to make an argument, the person making the claim must offer further statements that, at least in theory, support the claim.

If the claim is supported, then the argument is successful. If the claim is not supported, then the argument fails. The purpose of an argument is To offer reasons and evidence.

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To create an argument that works and can break other people’s opinions, then you can apply the steps below.

  1. Always focus on overturning the opinion of the person. In other words, when arguing, don’t attack the person. That way, you will see more insight.
  2. Stay calm and patient because by doing this, you can think clearly, so you can respond to other people’s arguments.
  3. Use polite and courteous language so as not to offend others.
  4. The arguments presented must be based on existing evidence or facts.

Expository Text Structure

Expository text must pay attention to the content, structure and language of the text. The source of the author’s essay is obtained from the results of observations or observations, research and experience. The main idea of ​​expository text contains the identification of a problem, arguments and knowledge to be read.

To make an exposition text there are several stages that must be passed, namely determining the topic to be discussed, compiling an outline and then developing the framework into a text. After developing the sentences, the writer reviewed the contents for improvement.

The exposition text is prepared based on statements of opinion (thesis), arguments, and restatements. The thesis section contains an opening paragraph explained by the author. The argumentation section is in the form of a paragraph containing reasons and supporting statements.

This argumentation section contains data and facts. Lastly is the re-affirmation which is at the end of the paragraph. This sentence is to repeat the statement and convince the reader of the truth.

The following is an explanation of the structure of the exposition text quoted from the textbook ” Exposition Text and Its Tools ” by Sulastriningsih Djumingin, namely:

Opening

The opening is a sentence that contains the initial view of a topic. This view is optional.

Thesis (opinion)

This expository text sentence is the part that contains the author’s opinion. The thesis section discusses a topic in question.

Statement of Opinion

Statement of opinion is a sentence that contains ideas, ideas, opinions, assumptions, arguments explained by the author of an event.

Argument

The argument contains supporting thesis in the form of evidence included by the author. In writing an argument, the text does not only consist of one position. Argumentation aims to strengthen the writing so it requires data findings, facts, and statements from experts.

Reaffirmation of Opinion

Reaffirmation of opinion can also be called a closing paragraph which contains reaffirmation, the author uses a different sentence. The purpose of the closing sentence is to emphasize the argument paragraph, adding recommendations and suggestions. That way, the listeners of the argument can understand the contents of the arguments that have been conveyed.

Arrangement of Argument Paragraphs

Argumentation is a type of paragraph development in writing written with the aim of convincing or persuading. In writing content arguments it can be in the form of explanations, proofs, reasons, or objective reviews which include examples, analogies, and cause and effect.

The purpose of the argument paragraph is for the reader to believe that the idea, idea or opinion is true and proven.

The following is the arrangement of the argument paragraphs, namely:

1. Introduction

The first arrangement is the introduction. With this introduction, it aims to attract the reader’s attention, then make the reader more focused on the arguments presented, and to show the basis or reasons for the arguments put forward.

2. The Body of the Argument

The next argument paragraph is the body of the argument. The body of this argument has the goal of proving a truth in the argument so that the conclusions reached will be correct according to the initial arrangement. Arguments that are arranged in this body must be analyzed, compiled, observed and must use facts and logical thoughts.

3. Conclusion or Summary

The final arrangement is a conclusion or summary which has the aim of proving to the reader that the argument originates from the truth conveyed through reasoning, as a factual and logical thought.

From the discussion above, an argument is another person’s opinion that aims to defend one’s own opinion or break the opinion of others. Thus the discussion about the meaning of arguments to tips for successful arguments break other people’s opinions. Hopefully all the discussion above can add insight to your argument.

If you want to find books about arguments or debates, then you can get them at sinaumedia.com .

As #FriendsWithoutLimits we always try to give the best. To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information.

Author: Yufi Cantika Sukma Divine