Abiotic Components and Other Ecosystem Forming Systems

Abiotic Components and Other Ecosystem Forming Systems – In an ecosystem there are forming components that are interrelated with one another. The components that make up the ecosystem are divided into two kinds, namely abiotic components or dead components and biotic components or living components.

The abiotic component is a physical or chemical condition within the ecosystem environment, while the biotic component is a component that lives and resides in an ecosystem, for example animals and plants.

Definition of Abiotic Components

Abiotic components are all forms of inanimate objects that exist on the surface of the earth and provide benefits and also influence human life and other living things.

Even though the abiotic component is an inanimate object, this component still has an important and necessary role for the survival of organisms in an ecosystem. Therefore, both abiotic and biotic components in an ecosystem are related to one another.

Indirectly, the abiotic component also has an influence on the determination of living things and natural selection for creatures that are able to adapt.

For example, by determining the availability of one or several abiotic components, it will be seen which organisms are able to adapt and survive.

Role and Function of Abiotic Components

Abiotic components or non-living elements have an important role in the formation and balancing of ecosystems. The influence of abiotic components on the sustainability of the ecosystem has a role directly or indirectly on the survival of the organisms in it.

Abiotic components also have a close relationship with biotic components in the success of an ecosystem. The two factors cannot be separated, so if one of the factors experiences a problem, problems can occur between one another.

The main function of the abiotic component is as a factor that has the greatest influence on the reproductive capacity of a species of organism or living thing in an ecosystem. This can happen because the survival of the organism will not be optimal if there are no factors from the abiotic components that can support its life.

For example, if abiotic components such as water, air, humidity, soil, rocks, and sunlight do not function properly, it will affect plant survival.

Sunlight is the most necessary factor for the process of photosynthesis. If the amount of sunlight is insufficient, the plant will die because it is unable to cook its own food.

If no plants survive, plant-eating animals will also be in danger of extinction. This will lead to an unbalanced ecosystem.

Various Types of Abiotic Components

Abiotic components also have an important role in meeting the needs of other components in an ecosystem. The abiotic components include water, air, soil, rocks, sun, climate and so on.

The following is an explanation of various examples of abiotic components, including:

1. Water

Water ( Hydrogen hydroxide) is one of the most vital components needed by all living things. Humans themselves have approximately 70 percent water content in their bodies. The function of water is as a protector and conductor of energy in the bodies of living things.

The water needs of an organism cannot be equated with the needs of other organisms. In addition, the conditions or places of residence between one organism and another also have different water availability. It also affects the way organisms live in a place.

For example, in a desert environment where there is little water availability, plants adapt to the natural conditions there. For example, like a cactus plant that grows thorn-shaped leaves and has narrow pores that are useful for reducing evaporation.

2. Sunlight

Sunlight is one of the abiotic components that have an important role to help the photosynthesis process in plants take place. In addition, almost all living things need sunlight because they contain vitamins needed by the body.

Sunlight can also affect humidity and air temperature in an area which results in conditions of air pressure. Indirectly, all of these abiotic components are interconnected with each other.

3. Air and Air Temperature

Air is an abiotic component which is the primary need of all organisms whose function is for the respiratory system. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide is the result of the respiration of living things and is produced by humans and animals.

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Carbon dioxide is needed by plants to help sustain the process of photosynthesis. In addition, the earth is also protected by a layer of air called the atmosphere.

While the air temperature in question is the degree of heat of an object shown using a certain quantity. Air temperature can affect the metabolism of biotic components. All living things have certain temperature limits to survive.

4. Wind

Wind is a flow of air that comes from the rotation of the earth and also because of differences in air pressure around it. Wind has an important role in influencing the temperature of the environment and helping the process of evaporation or evaporation for organisms.

5. Humidity

Humidity is the result of the concentration of water vapor in the air. Humidity can directly affect climate and indirectly affect the growth of living things, especially for plants.

6. Climate

Climate is a condition or condition of weather in a certain area over a long period of time. Climate can be formed as a result of the interaction of various other abiotic components, such as water, air, temperature, rainfall, humidity, sunlight and others.

Climate can affect the distribution of organisms throughout the earth. Climate also has a close relationship with soil fertility and plant survival.

For example, the Indonesian region has a tropical climate so that it has ecosystems with a wide variety of living things and also dense forests or can be called tropical rain forests which are not owned by other regions with non-tropical climate conditions.

7. Mineral Salts

Mineral salts are compounds that are in the soil. The function of mineral salts is to help metabolic processes and also the growth of an organism.

8. Degree of acidity or pH

pH is a measure of the level of acid or base in an object that can be measured using a scale of 0-4. For example, the pH value of the soil is very suitable for growing plants with a pH value ranging from 5.8 to 7.2. Good pH levels can also be influenced by the use of fertilizers, rainfall, plant root activity and also the breakdown of minerals in the soil.

9. Rocks and Soil

Abiotic components in the form of rocks and soil also have a very important role in the distribution of organisms with various physical structures, pH, and mineral content in them.

Rocks and soil cannot be separated, rocks without soil cannot be occupied by living things, and vice versa. In addition, the type of soil, the composition of soil particles (texture), the degree of acidity (pH), and also the content of mineral salts (nutrients) can affect the quality of the soil itself.

10. Topography

Topography is the layout of a place and views of longitude and latitude. Differences in topography can also affect humidity, air pressure, sunlight and air temperature in a place. Topography can also describe the distribution of an organism.

Those are ten examples of abiotic components that have the most vital influence in an ecosystem. The abiotic components which are physical and chemical factors can also be referred to as ecological factors.

Definition of Biotic Components

The biotic component is a component contained in an ecosystem and in the form of a living organism. There are various types of biotic components, including animals, plants, humans, even micro-organisms.

Studying biotic components is very important to understand more about the concept of food chains in ecosystems and the environment in a clearer way.

Each biotic component has its own role and function to maintain an ecosystem form. Humans as the main biotic component have a major influence on the development, spread, or even the destruction of other biotic components. Humans play an important role for the survival of animals or plants.

Biotic components or living things live in their respective habitats. Habitat is a place or environment that is suitable for certain living things to breed and sustain life.

Biotic Components Based on Their Roles and Functions

Examples of biotic components are zebras, grass, and trees that are in one environment and need each other. Every living thing has its own role and function which can be called nisia.

The biotic components can be divided into four based on their nisia or roles and functions. Among them are producers, consumers, decomposers and detrivores which will be explained in more detail below:

1. Manufacturer

Producers are biotic components that are at the top level. This is because producers are able to meet their own needs by making food for themselves.

Another definition of a producer is an organism capable of compiling inorganic substances (not containing living materials) into organic (containing living materials) as its own food.

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Producers are referred to as autotrophic organisms. Autotrophic organisms are organisms that in the process of making their food require assistance from sunlight which is commonly called photosynthesis. Living things at the top level are usually occupied by green plants that have chlorophyll.

Examples other than green plants that are included in the biotic component of producers, namely:

  • Phytoplankton, namely plants that are able to make their own food in large quantities so that they can be a food source for animals in fresh water and salt water.
  • Members of protist plants in water that have a very small shape and live in a hover or can also be called aquatic producers.
  • Algae, namely autotrophic organisms that are considered not to have organs like other plants.
  • Moss
  • Blue-green algae
  • Several types of bacteria

2. Consumers

Contrary to the producer component, the living things of the consumer component are unable to make their own food and are dependent on other living things.

The consumer component is referred to as heterotrophic organisms, namely humans, animals, fungi and microbes are also consumer groups because they still depend on other living things to fulfill their need for food.

Consumers are divided into three types seen from the way they eat, including:

  • Herbivore, is a type of living creature that eats plants. For example cows, goats, horses and other creatures. Living things of this type are usually called primary consumers.
  • Carnivora, is a type of living creature that consumes the flesh of other creatures. Carnivores are living things at the second level, for example, tigers, crocodiles, dragons and other creatures.
  • Omnivores, is a type of living creature that consumes everything both plants and meat. Examples are humans, rats, pigs, and other creatures. Living things of this type are called top consumers, especially humans.

Based on the level, consumers are divided into three levels, namely as follows:

  1. Primary Consumers, consumers who consume directly from themselves (producers). These primary consumers are all types of herbivores as well as omnivores. Examples are goats, horses, cows, butterflies, and so on.
  2. Secondary Consumers, namely consumers who consume primary consumers. These secondary consumers are some types of carnivores and omnivores, such as tigers, lions, chickens, frogs, snakes, pangolins and so on.
  3. Tertiary consumers, namely consumers who consume secondary consumers. Tertiary consumers consist of carnivores and omnivores. Examples are kestrels, whales, octopuses and so on.

Producers and consumers have a relationship or bond that cannot be separated, the two components are interdependent on one another. In other words, consumers can affect the survival of the producers themselves.

For example, the carbon dioxide cycle produced by animals and humans will be needed by plants. The carbon dioxide can be used to help sustain the process of photosynthesis. While consumers also need producers as their food.

3. Decomposers

Decomposers can be referred to as decomposers. Decomposers are living things that get their food from other living things that have died.

Decomposers are organisms that have the function of breaking down waste or leftovers from living things that have died. Decomposers are also called decomposers, which make organic substances decompose and experience recycling again and form nutrients.

Organisms that are included in decomposers usually have a small shape and are in the soil, water and air. Examples are bacteria and fungi.

Although small, this type of decomposer component also has an important role in life on earth and supports the formation of good ecosystems.

4. Detrivores

Detrivora or also known as detritus is a type of organism that eats organic particles. The biotic component of the detritus type is the breakdown of weathered plant and animal tissues.

Examples of organisms that include detritus are:

  • Snails, which are shelled and coiled organisms when they have reached the adult stage.
  • Earthworms, which are a type of tube-shaped animal and have a body in the form of segments.
  • Centipedes or centipedes are nocturnal insects that have a pair of legs on each segment of their body. These insects include venomous insects.
  • Keluwing or the highest, which is a segmented animal that has about 30 segments with a pair of legs on each segment. This animal also belongs to the group of millipedes.
  • Sea cucumbers have another name for sea cucumbers, which are invertebrate animals that can be consumed and live in almost all waters, especially in the West Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

That’s enough of a summary of the components that make up the ecosystem, hopefully this is useful.