Types of Rain – You are certainly familiar when you hear the word rain. Surely what immediately comes to mind when you hear the word rain is flood, muddy, and the atmosphere becomes more serene because of the decreasing air temperature which makes the atmosphere cooler depending on how long the intensity of the rain lasts. However, you yourself do not know, it turns out that rain is divided into several types that have been seen and occurred directly on earth.
The rain that we discuss here is not just water that falls from the sky, but we will try to get to know more closely what kinds of rain have fallen to earth.
Before we discuss the various types of rain, it’s good if we first understand the definition of rain itself below.
Definition of Rain
Rain or in scientific terms is called liquid precipitation. Unlike non-liquid precipitation such as snow, ice and crevices, rain requires a thick layer of the atmosphere to reach temperatures above the melting point of ice around and on the Earth’s surface. On earth, rain is the process of condensing water vapor in the atmosphere which turns into water droplets that are heavy enough to fall, usually reaching the earth.
Two processes can occur simultaneously that can cause the air to become more cloudy before rain occurs, namely cooling the air and adding water vapor to the air. Virga is the amount of rain that falls to the earth, but evaporates before it reaches the earth.
Precipitation is formed by the collision of water droplets or ice crystals with clouds. Raindrops vary in size from oval, pancake-shaped (large beads), to tiny balls (small beads).
Moisture moves along a three-dimensional region of temperature difference. Additionally, moisture is known as a weather front and is the main method of producing rain. If the moisture is sufficient and experiences an upward movement at that time, it will rain from convective clouds (clouds with a strong upward movement) as cumulus (thunderstorms) which can gather in narrow rain bands.
In mountainous areas, heavy rains are possible if the valley slopes to the wind on the windward side of the surface at elevation, forcing the moist air to condense and fall as rain along the ridges. On the far side of the mountains, especially in desert climates, it may rarely rain. This is because the dry air caused by runoff from valleys causes the air masses to become hotter and drier.
The movement of the trump monsoons, or Tropical Convergence Zone, brings monsoons to savannah climates. Rain is the main source of fresh water in much of the world, creating conditions suitable for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power generation and field irrigation. Rainfall is calculated using a rain gauge. Rainfall is calculated actively by weather radar and passively by weather satellites.
The impact of urban heat islands causes an increase in the volume and intensity of rainfall downstream of urban areas. Global warming can also cause changes in precipitation around the world, including wet weather in eastern North America and dry weather in the tropics.
Rain is a major part of the water cycle and is the main source of fresh water on the planet. The global average annual rainfall is 990 mm (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help distinguish between climate zones. Antarctica is the driest continent on earth. In other areas, rainfall also decreases with methane, iron, neon and sulfuric acid.
Indonesia itself is one of the tropical countries with two seasons, namely the rainy season and summer. The rainy season usually lasts from October to March, and the hot season lasts from April to September.
When the rainy season comes, the intensity of rain becomes more frequent at any time or can even start from morning, afternoon, evening to night. Meanwhile, the intensity of rain this season is also different, in some places it is very heavy, in some places it is just drizzling.
Rainfall is the amount of rainwater that falls on the surface of the earth in a certain area in a certain period of time. Rainfall can be measured based on a certain period of time, be it daily, monthly or yearly.
Rainfall itself can occur due to several factors. The factors that affect rainfall in Indonesia are as follows:
1. Distance from water source
The closer to the sea, the more rainfall. This is because the cloud condensation will melt before reaching a place far from the sea, water, rain will often occur in the sea area and vice versa.
2. Comparison of temperature between land and sea
If the temperature on land activity is higher than the ocean, then rain will often occur in the waters and vice versa.
3. Wind direction
Wind plays a role in moving clouds from one place to another. Areas with little wind tend to experience less rain.
The higher an area or area, the lower the rainfall. This is because altitude can affect air temperature.
The areas that receive the least rainfall are those at low latitudes or near the equator. The farther from the equator, the less rain.
6. The wider the area
The wider an area or area, the less rainfall in that area.
7. Mountains and mountain ranges
Mountains are a determining factor of rainfall. This is because mountains and mountain ranges become a barrier for clouds to reach the area behind the mountains. If the clouds reach the mountains, they will continue to rise and not stop until they pass over the mountains. That way, the area around the mountains will have low rainfall.
Kinds of Rain
There are several types of rain which we will discuss below which occur based on the process of occurrence.
1. Frontal Rain
The first type of rain is frontal rain. Frontal rain is a type of rain that occurs due to a meeting between a large enough warm air mass and a large enough cold air mass as well. From that meeting, this rain is called frontal rain. In addition, the meeting between the two masses also causes turbulence.
Not only can turbulence occur, but frontal rain that comes from the meeting between the two masses can also cause the temperature to suddenly turn cold. Then, from the frigid temperatures it produces condensation and produces frontal rain.
Frontal rain can be considered quite dangerous because it can produce lightning simultaneously in the form. The duration of this frontal rain is estimated to last for several minutes or even up to several hours. While areas or areas where frontal rain often occurs are areas with moderate latitudes.
Therefore, when frontal rain occurs, we should immediately find a place to take shelter to avoid unwanted things. Even better, if we start our activities again after the frontal rain is over.
2. Convective Rain
Convective rain is a rain process that occurs due to a heat dissimilarity between the air layer and the ground surface. Higher up in the atmosphere, the air with a high temperature will turn into cold air, until the water vapor condenses and finally begins to form cumulus clouds which fall as rain.
However, this type of rain does not occur all over the area, but only in a small part of it, so you may only see heavy rain in some areas and not see heavy rain in the surrounding areas.
This type of rain is also known as heavy rain. The origin of this rain is from convective clouds, such as cumulonimbus clouds. As the name suggests, this rainfall is very heavy and occurs with intensity that can change quickly.
In general, this type of rain only lasts a relatively short time. This is because the horizontal range of convective clouds is limited. In addition, this rain usually occurs in the tropics.
Meanwhile, in the middle latitudes, this convective rainfall is intermittent and often associated with clinical boundaries, such as warm fronts, cold fronts and flat fronts.
3. Orographic Rain
Geological or orographic precipitation occurs on the windward side of mountains and is caused by the large-scale movement of moist air over mountains, resulting in adiabatic cooling and condensation. In mountainous areas, it usually has relatively stable winds (such as trade winds). In addition, mountainous areas also have a wetter climate and are often more pronounced on the downwind side of the mountains than on the downwind side.
Orographic rain is a type of rain that occurs due to the straight upward movement of the wind containing water vapor. The wind takes its way up to high areas on the mountain, the air temperature becomes cold, causing water vapor to condense which then rains down around the mountains. This rain causes a rain shadow (one side of the mountain is not exposed to geological rain).
Sea breezes often occur in hilly or mountainous areas because this process is created by incoming winds that push the air towards the hills and mountains or tropical rainforests where various species of animals live.
Then, the air above the hill began to cool. When it reaches moisture, it slowly condenses into clouds, which then fall like raindrops on the surface of the earth.
4. Monsoon rains
Monsoon rain is a type of rain caused by monsoons or winds that cause rain and a dry season. Monsoon winds blow from mainland Asia to Australia with seasonal variations. When these winds cross the oceans, there is a lot of moisture and rain. These rains usually fall in parts of India, Southeast Asia and some other areas.
Monsoon rains are seasonal rains caused by monsoons. In Indonesia, rains are due to the east monsoon which causes cold winds to fall from October to April during the rainy season. Winter winds blow from Australia to Asia. These winds bring clouds and heavy rain because it is winter in Australia.
5. Cyclonic Rain
Cyclone rain can have a positive effect on all living things and is expected by all living things on earth. Usually occurs in areas crossed by the equator. This rain started with very dark clouds. The defining feature of these rains can be seen as sudden dark clouds that produce very heavy downpours.
This rain is caused by warm air, high ambient temperatures and rotational winds caused by the meeting of the northeastern and southeastern trade winds.
6. Acid Rain
Acid rain is a type of rain that occurs because carbon dioxide in the air (CO2) is dissolved in rainwater. The results of these compounds will turn the water more acidic with a lower pH than usual, below 5.6. Meanwhile, normal rainwater has a pH of 6 to 7.
The cause of acid rain can be volcanic eruptions or the burning of fossil fuels from processes in power plants and motorized vehicles, machinery, heavy equipment fuel, manufacturing industries, refineries and others.
This rain is beneficial for plants and animals because it can accelerate the decomposition of minerals in the soil. This rain accelerates the process of iron corrosion. However, this rain has a bad impact on people’s lives.
If the intensity is high, feeding can change the composition of the soil and water, making it unsuitable for plants and animals.
7. Artificial Rain
Unlike other types, this rain is man-made with techniques to create more rain. This is usually done because it never rains or to extinguish the fire which usually occurs in forest fires.
This rain reduction method undergoes a physical process, namely by involving the process of collision and agglomeration (collision and agglomeration) which is then processed by the process of ice formation or ice nucleation. Enough water clouds are needed for rain to fall to the ground. Also, some seeds can absorb moisture or form frost.
Benefits of Rain
Rain can give a blessing or a good impact because it can be a function of water for the life of living things. That means, rain can affect the survival of every living thing in this world. The benefits of falling rain, among others:
- Rain can enrich soil types and become one of the soil-forming factors.
- Rain becomes a reserve of water when the dry season arrives
- Rain is a source of clean drinking water
- Rain plays an important role in various aspects of human life
- Rain is also able to guarantee the feasibility of life for living things on this earth.
Bad Effects of Rain
The adverse impact that is produced if the rain that comes with a large intensity of rainfall in the environmental area lacks water catchment areas is the overflow of river water, which causes flooding and results in types of floods such as flash floods, lava floods, mud floods or tidal floods. In addition, rain is also a major factor in the occurrence of disasters such as landslides as a result of soil erosion in the layers of soil in the earth’s crust or as a result of the impact of illegal logging and many other natural disasters caused by rain.
Therefore, in order to minimize the possibility of adverse effects caused by rain, let us always maintain the function of the environment for humans and make countermeasures to prevent flooding in several ways, including:
- Protecting the lake.
- Carry out forest sustainability.
- Carry out reforestation on types of deforested forests or reduce the impact of forest destruction.
- Make enough types of irrigation.
- Maintain air sustainability.
- Maintain water sustainability.
- Maintaining the sustainability of natural resources.
From all the discussion above, it can be said that every rain that occurs is usually based on the location of the area. However, there are several types of rain that do require us to take shelter in order to avoid unwanted things.
Thus a review of the types of rain. For Sinaumed’s who want to learn all about rain, the water cycle and other natural sciences, you can visit sinaumedia.com to get related books.
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Author: Pandu Akram