Various Theories of the Formation of the Solar System

The solar system is an arrangement of various celestial bodies that revolve around the sun which is the center. The composition in the solar system itself is diverse and consists of planets, satellites, dwarf planets, meteoroids, planetoids or asteroids, and also comets.

Based on the existing order, there are eight planets that have the closest to farthest distance from the sun, consisting of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The planets circle or surround the sun through their respective trajectories and orbits.

However, did Sinaumed’s know how the existing solar system was formed? Several experts expressed their opinions regarding this matter which we can see through the theory of the formation of the solar system which will be discussed here. Check out the following information.

What is the Solar System

The earth which is home to humans is in a system that can be called the solar system. The solar system itself is one of the star systems in the Milky Way galaxy.

The solar system itself is a unit consisting of the sun which is the center of the solar system surrounded by planets, moons, meteors, comets, and various other celestial bodies which are continuously moving. In the solar system, the sun is the only celestial body that can emit its own light. Meanwhile, various other celestial bodies can only reflect light.

Sinaumed’s can also learn interesting facts about the existing solar system through the book Fun Questions and Answers About the Solar System which answers all questions about the solar system with detailed, concise and clear answers.

Book Description

Filled with questions based on children’s curiosity about science in the world. For example “What is a shooting star?”, “Why does a comet have such a long, flaming tail?”, “How many astronauts have landed on the Moon?” These questions will be answered with detailed, concise and clear answers.


Theory of the Formation of the Solar System

1. Vortex Models

The first theory of the formation of the solar system is the vortex model. Where is the first modern cosmological hypothesis theory put forward and introduced by a French philosopher and mathematician in 1642 named Rene Descartes.

He stated in his theory that the existing solar system originated from a cloud of rotating particles resembling a whirlpool with an orbit close to a circle.

Initially, the location of the Sun, which is in the center, and the prospective planets are located in the main vortex or disk of the material that forms it, while the existing satellites are located in additional vortices around the vortices of the prospective planets.

You can learn about the solar system and its various members starting from the sun, various planets, and much more through the book Exploration of the Solar System by A. Gunawan Admiranto.

Description Buku

For thousands of years, humans have been fascinated by the universe and the celestial bodies that inhabit it, which is why astronomy is one of the oldest branches of science. The celestial bodies that concern humans the most are the celestial bodies that are members of the solar system because their position is close enough so that the uniqueness of each of these celestial bodies can be easily observed even with the naked eye. The development of science and technology has so far revealed more and more mysteries covering celestial bodies in the universe, including the solar system, although there are still many unsolved mysteries.

This book reviews the solar system and its members starting from the sun, planets, and small members. The discussion is made popular so that readers who do not have an astronomy background can understand it easily. In addition, a QR-code is included for each discussion that points to a Youtube site so that the description of a particular topic will be clearer by viewing a film or animation on that link. The appendix to this book contains scientific refutations of the flat earth “theory”, a pseudo-scientific hypothesis that has strangely resurfaced recently after being buried for centuries.

2. The Nebular Hypothesis

The nebula theory was first put forward by a Swedish astronomer named Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734 to be precise. Later by a German scientist named Immanuel Kant, the idea of ​​the theory was welcomed back in 1755 through his book entitled Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels.

Then in 1796, this theory was supplemented by a French scientist named Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace in his book entitled Exposition du système du monde.

The second theory of the formation of the solar system is the nebula hypothesis. Where in this nebula theory it is stated that the solar system originates from the process of condensation or clumping of matter mist and has the form of material in the form of a mixture of gas and dust which has a much larger size when compared to the size of the solar system.

These various materials can often be found in the universe. Over time, the existing material spins and rotates and cannot be separated from the interaction of gravitational forces.

The nebula theory also reveals how the mass of matter collects at the center. This is because the rotation makes the center denser and also in the end it gets hotter which then forms a protostar. This process is also known as primary condensation or primary clumping.

Meanwhile, in the disk wings a condensation process also occurs or what can be called the next agglomeration which has the form of a ring of material that forms a protoplanet to a proto-satellite.

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In certain situations, if the existing nebula has a very large mass, there will also be condensation stages that occur repeatedly. The process that occurs is called the fragmentation process.

3. Planetesimal Hypothesis

The third theory of the formation of the solar system is the planetesimal hypothesis. This theory emerged after an astronomer from the United States named Forest Ray Moulton in 1900 suggested and demonstrated the discrepancy between the hypotheses of the nebula theory and the results of observations based on research.

Furthermore, in 1904 to 1905, together with a geologist named Thomas Crowder Chamberlain, he offered a new idea which was named the planetesimal hypothesis. With his observations of the shape of the spiral nebula, it further strengthened his view.

In a 2015 Encyclopaedia Britannica, planetesimals are defined as any of a group of bodies that have theorized to have joined in forming the Earth with other planets after condensing from diffuse concentrations of matter that existed in the early history of the solar system.

The blobs with the largest size at the center of the gyre turn into the sun, while some of the blobs that have a relatively smaller size turn into planets that revolve around the sun together or evolve around the sun.

4. The Tidal Theory

The fourth theory of the formation of the solar system is the tidal theory. This theory was first introduced by Georges-Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon. In this theory it is stated that the existing solar system originated from the sun’s material that was thrown after it collided with a comet.

However, the tide theory was later corrected by James Hopwood Jeans who was an astronomer from England in 1917. According to the tide theory, he stated that the existing solar system was thought to have formed as a result of the passing of a star near the sun.

This is what causes some of the material in the sun to be sucked in and thrown out which makes the various planets form.

5. The Double Star Theory

The fifth theory of the formation of the solar system is the multiple star theory. Where Ray Lyttleton in the 1930s suggested and concluded that the sun was originally a multiple star system. Later, the sun’s partner collided with another star.

The result of the explosion produces residue that eventually forms a planet. There is also the next alternative, namely the three-star system and two sun companion stars colliding and eventually becoming the planets that exist today.

To understand more about the ins and outs of the solar system, the structure of the earth, and also other things related to the existing solar system, Sinaumed’s can read the book Earth and the Solar System by Danang which is below.

Book Description

The Solar System is a unified system that contains a collection of celestial bodies consisting of the sun, and all objects bound by its gravitational force. Specifically, in our solar system, the unity of the system consists of the Sun, 8 planets including the earth, satellites of each planet, and millions of other celestial bodies (asteroids, meteors and comets). Then, why is this book entitled Earth and the Solar System, isn’t the earth itself part of the solar system?

This book is titled so because apart from discussing the solar system it also discusses planet Earth in detail. So by reading this book we can not only learn about the solar system, but we can also learn about the ins and outs of planet earth, the structure of the earth, parts of the earth such as mountains, deserts, atmosphere, seas, rivers, soil, as well as various forms of phenomena. common nature on earth. This book can be used as a source of teaching materials for Natural Sciences so that it can be used by both students and teachers. Full review and easy to understand.

6. Interstellar Cloud Theory

The sixth theory of the formation of the solar system is the theory of interstellar clouds put forward and stated by a Soviet astronomer named Otto Schmidt in 1943.

In studying this theory, many Soviet astronomers also joined and focused on this theory. Where, Lyttelton also participated in modifying this theory based on the mechanism of the clumping of matter clouds similar to planetesimals.

In the interstellar cloud theory, if the sun passes through a dense cloud of material. With the process of withdrawing the material, this is what makes the disk of matter around the sun form.

7. The Dust Cloud Theory or Proto-Planet

The seventh theory of the formation of the solar system is the theory of dust clouds or protoplanets. This theory was put forward by an astronomer from Germany named Carl von Weizsaecker in the 1940s who through this proto-planet theory expressed his opinion about how the existing solar system was formed.

This dust cloud theory was perfected again in the 1950s by Gerard P. Kuiper, where he made improvements to various previous theories. This theory itself is the theory that is most widely accepted by many people, this is because this theory is considered to meet the conditions that are found, both inside and outside the solar system.

The protoplanetary or dust cloud theory itself is based on the sun and its planets originating from a gas fog. The existing gas fog is spread thinly in the sky in large quantities.

With the influence that comes from the intermolecular forces of attraction in the gas mist, it slowly turns the fog into a lump which over time becomes solid. The situation itself is caused by the rotating and irregular motion of the gas in the fog collection.

However, the motion then gradually becomes slow and rotates which makes the fog dense and flat. One of the existing lumps experienced a condensation in the middle, while several other small lumps drifted around the central environment. The lump in the middle is what we know as the sun.

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8. The Great Explosion or Big Bang Theory

The eighth theory of the formation of the solar system is the theory of the all-powerful explosion or also known as the big bang theory. This theory was expressed by Ralph Alpher, George Gamow, and Robert Herman in 1948 which stated that the existing universe has infinite dimensions, where the universe has no beginning and is also eternal.

With its basis in materialist philosophy, this view then refutes the Creator theory, in which the Big Bang theory itself states that the universe exists as a constant, immutable and stable collection of matter.

However, with the development of science and technology in the 20th century, this primitive concept was destroyed. Then, at the beginning of the 21st century, where a number of observations, calculations, and modern physics experiments were carried out, it succeeded in producing a conclusion, namely that the entire existing universe, along with the dimension of time, appeared as a result of a giant explosion that occurred within a certain period of time, which occurred in an instant. .

The existing nature then becomes matter, which then turns into matter that is very small in size and dense, the mass itself has great pressure and is very heavy. This was due to a core reaction which then resulted in a large, violent explosion.

The mass then scattered and continued to grow over a fast period of time and moved away from the center of the explosion which formed various groups with much smaller specific gravity and continued to experience movement away from the existing center point.

The big bang itself occurred when all the matter in the cosmos, with its great density and very high temperature, came from a very small volume. The self-existent universe was born from the existence of a physical singularity under extreme circumstances.

The theory of the gigantic explosion or the big bang theory itself also strengthens the opinion that the universe that exists today did not exist at first, but about twenty billion years ago it was created from nothing.

This event was then known as the gigantic explosion “Big Bang” which formed the entire universe to be precise about fifteen billion years ago. This theory also states that the universe itself was created from nothingness from the results of an explosion that existed at a single point.

9. Float Theory

The ninth theory of the formation of the solar system is the buoyancy theory. This theory itself was first expressed by the association of geologists Frankfurt from Germany which is called the theory of continental drift and drift.

This theory was also first popularized in book form in 1915 which had the title Die Entstehung der Konfjnenfe und Ozeane which means the origin of the oceans and continents.

The book then caused great controversy among geologists, where until finally the situation subsided precisely in the sixties after Wegener’s theory of continental drift received a lot of support.

Wegener put forward this floating theory himself based on various considerations, as follows.

1. There are similarities between the contour lines on the east coast of the North American continent and the South continent with the contour lines of Africa and the west coast of Europe. The similarity of the contour line patterns on the coast itself shows that basically the continents of North and South America as well as Europe and Africa were formerly bento lands that were located adjacent to each other.

Through the facts of the geological formations that exist in the parts that meet and their similarities. Circumstances themselves managed to prove its correctness. Where the geological formations that exist along the coast of West Africa that extends from the cape of South Africa and Sierra Leone are the same as the geological formations that exist on the East coast of Africa, from Bahia Blanca and Peru.

2. The various continents were also formerly referred to as the Pangea Continent which later broke up due to the movement of the large southern continent which experienced westward and northward movement towards the equator.

The area itself is then moving at a speed of 36 m/year moving away from the European continent while the Madagascar Islands are moving away from South Africa at a speed of 9 m/year. Based on this event, there were many stretches of oceans and continents that floated separately.

The Atlantic Ocean itself also became wider and wider because the American continent was still moving westward, which caused various folds in the earth’s crust to form mountain ranges stretching from the south and north along the coast of South America. as well as North.

The extraordinary seismic activity that occurred along the St. Andreas, which is located near the west coast of the United States. The boundary of the Indian Ocean is increasingly pressing to the north. Where the existing Indian subcontinent continued to narrow and approach the Eurasian Continent, which eventually led to folds in the Himalayas. The movement of the continent itself is still ongoing and is evidenced by the widening of the gaps in the ocean’s interior.

So, that’s a brief explanation of the various formations of the solar system that can help Sinaumed’s better understand and know the origin of the existing solar system. You can also learn more about various other celestial bodies through the various books available at sinaumedia, as #SahabatUnlimits, sinaumedia will always provide books with quality and useful choices. Buy the book right now!

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