sinaumedia.com– A solar eclipse occurs when the position of the moon is between the earth and the sun so that it appears to cover part or all of it. The solar eclipse itself does not occur in every phase of the new moon, because the moon’s orbit is tilted 5° to the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth’s orbit around the sun) so that the moon’s position is often not in the same plane as the earth and the sun. An eclipse only occurs when the moon is close enough to the ecliptic plane at the same time as the new moon. These two events occur on different schedules, the new moon occurs once every 29.53 days (iqtirani or synodic month) while the moon crosses the ecliptic twice every 27.21 days (draconic month). Therefore, solar and lunar eclipses only occur when the two events are close together, namely during the “eclipse season”.
The term central eclipse is often used as a term that includes total, ring, or mixed eclipses, because generally in these eclipses the line connecting the center (“central”) points of the sun and the moon touches the earth’s surface. A central eclipse begins and ends with a partial eclipse, and these transitional phases are called “contact” points, namely:
- First contact: when the leading edge of the moon (west edge) appears to “touch” the east edge of the sun for the first time. After the first contact, the moon begins to cover the sun and begins a partial eclipse.
- Second contact: when the back edge of the moon (east edge) touches the east edge of the sun, thus initiating a central (total or annular) solar eclipse.
- Third contact: when the leading (western) edge of the moon leaves the west edge of the sun, ending a central solar eclipse and the return of a partial eclipse.
- Fourth contact: when the back (east) edge of the moon leaves the west edge of the sun, so that the moon completely no longer covers the sun and the eclipse ends.
The National Aeronautics and Space Agency (LAPAN) said that from 2020 to 2100 there will be 13 solar eclipses that will occur in Indonesia. Here are four types of solar eclipses that you need to know about, including:
- a total solar eclipse, which is when the moon completely covers the sun so that the corona (which envelops the sun and is usually much dimmer than the sun) becomes visible. In the event of a total eclipse, the total eclipse only appears in a small “path” on the surface of the earth.
- An annular solar eclipse, which is when the moon is right in the middle of the sun and the earth, but the size appears smaller than the visible size of the sun. As a result, the sun’s rim appears as a very bright ring and surrounds the moon which appears as a dark circle
- A mixed solar eclipse or a hybrid between a total eclipse and an annular eclipse. At some parts of the earth’s surface you can see a total eclipse, while at other points you can see an annular eclipse. Mixed eclipses like this are quite rare.
- A partial solar eclipse occurs when the moon is not exactly in the middle of the line between the sun and the earth, so it only partially covers the sun. This phenomenon is usually visible at many points outside the path of a total or annular eclipse. Sometimes, what is seen on earth is only a partial eclipse because the umbra (the shadow that causes a total eclipse) does not intersect with the earth and only passes through the area above the polar regions.
Apart from the solar eclipse, people around the world will be presented with various natural phenomena that adorn the sky throughout 2020. Starting from the appearance of Venus, to meteor showers. Meteor showers are an astronomical phenomenon that occurs when a number of meteors are seen shining in the night sky. This meteor occurs because of the fragments of space objects called meteoroids, which then enter the Earth’s atmosphere at high speed.
Meteors are generally only the size of a grain of sand, and almost all of them disintegrate before reaching the Earth’s surface. The debris that reaches the Earth’s surface is called a meteorite. Meteor showers generally occur when the Earth crosses near the orbit of a comet and passes through its debris. The Meteor Data Center has recorded about 600 suspected cases of meteor showers, of which about 100 have been confirmed. The following details natural phenomena that can be seen from Indonesia. However, the following observation times are adjusted to the location of Jakarta using the West Indonesian Sinaumed’s time zone. What are they? Check out the full details below!
4 JANUARY 2020 : QUADRANTID METEOR RAIN
The Quadrantid meteor shower bombardment marks the first celestial natural phenomenon in Indonesia in 2020, on January 4 to be precise. The National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) explains that meteor showers occur because the earth encounters passing celestial bodies and rock dust that is carried into the earth’s atmosphere. This meeting resulted in a friction between the Earth’s atmosphere and meteoroids coming from outside the Earth’s atmosphere. This celestial body passes by Earth because it also orbits the Sun. This celestial body burns out with a heat of 1,650 degrees Celsius when it enters the atmosphere. This burning process that the human eye sees as a falling meteor. “This friction causes heat which destroys the meteoroid and produces heat and light that appears in the form of streaks across the sky. Usually this meteoroid burning event takes place at an altitude of 70-100 km from the Earth’s surface. Are you one of those who witnessed this phenomenon at the beginning of last year’s Sinaumed’s?
JANUARY 10, 2020 : MOON eclipse
There will be four lunar eclipses throughout 2020. These eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon are almost aligned and the Moon hides in Earth’s shadow. When will the four lunar eclipses visit Earth? Here are the schedules and areas that Sinaumed’s can observe:
- Wolf Moon Eclipse, January 10, 2020. This eclipse can be observed in Asia, Australia, Europe and Africa.
- Strawberry Lunar Eclipse, 5 June 2020. This eclipse can be observed in Asia, Africa and Australia.
- Lightning Moon Eclipse, July 5, 2020. This eclipse can be seen in South America, North America and Africa.
- Frosty Lunar Eclipse, 29-30 November 2020. This eclipse can be seen in South America, North America, East Asia and Australia.
18 FEBRUARY 2020 : MARS HID BEHIND THE MOON
As this unusual celestial event. The moon will slide in front of Mars. At the same time, the orbits of the Moon and Mars are moving toward their closest point to Earth. In Jakarta itself, this event will be seen in the sky at 01.55 WIB – 05.46 WIB. Are you one of those who witnessed this phenomenon, Sinaumed’s?
9 MARCH 2020 : SUPERMOON
Supermoon is a full moon phenomenon that makes Earth’s satellite look very big, close and bright. If you want to see the Moon increase in size dramatically, look east at moonrise or west at moonset. There are three supermoons that will occur in 2020, namely Super Worm Moon (9 March 2020), Super Pink Moon (8 April 2020) and Super Flower Moon (7 May 2020).
MARCH 2020: THE MORNING STAR SHINES BRIGHT
In March 2020, you can see the planet Venus, which is often called the morning star, showing its bright light. This space phenomenon will be clearly visible, especially from midnight to early morning. One of the signs is the bright white twinkling star in the middle of the Pleiades constellation, Sinaumed’s!
APRIL 2020 : APPEARANCE OF THE PLANET VENUS FROM EARTH
In early April 2020, Venus will appear in Earth’s sky. This phenomenon is like what happened in April 2012 and will happen again in early April 2028. With a telescope, the crescent of Venus will be a sight for the public by displaying a golden white color. Planet Venus can be seen from 18.08 WIB to 20.40 WIB Sinaumed’s.
7 APRIL 2020: SUPERMOON
The supermoon phenomenon appeared in 2019 and can be witnessed very well in various places around the world. Apparently, this celestial phenomenon will reappear in 2020 between February and March. However, astronomers themselves say that the peak of the supermoon will occur on April 7 2020, as the time when the Moon is at its closest point to Earth in 2020. The Moon will be about 356.9 kilometers from Earth. The point at which the Full Moon is closest to Earth will produce a large series of high and low ocean tides. However, unfortunately this natural phenomenon will not be seen from Jakarta Sinaumed’s.
21 APRIL 2020 : METEOR RAIN
2019 is not a good year to observe meteor showers. Because the moon’s light is too bright to be able to observe other celestial phenomena. But 2020 looks even more promising as the Moon will step aside as these meteor showers occur. The three most promising meteor showers to watch in 2020 are:
- Lyrid meteor shower, April 21-22, 2020
- Leonid meteor shower, April 16-17, 2020
- Geminid meteor shower, 13-14 December 2020
21 JUNE 2020: THE RING SOLAR Eclipse
Another celestial phenomenon that occurs every year is the phenomenon of annular solar eclipses. December 26, 2019 was the last moment for an annular solar eclipse and it is said that it will reappear on June 21, 2020. Unfortunately, it is predicted that Indonesia will not be able to witness it and only certain countries can witness this event. The first solar eclipse of 2020 will be visible from parts of Africa, Arabia, Pakistan, northern India, southern China, Taiwan, the Philippine Sea and the Pacific Ocean. However residents in Asia, Africa and Northern Australia can still witness a partial solar eclipse which occurs because the Moon will pass in front of the Sun, but the size of the Moon will not cover the Sun. As a result,
21 JULY 2020 APPEARANCE OF THE PLANET SARTUNUS
Since Earth is an inner planet, every one day of the year our planet is between the Sun and the other outer planets. This phenomenon is called opposition. On that day, the outer planet will appear very bright from Earth and can be seen using a telescope. In 2020, Planet Saturn and Planet Jupiter will be in opposition with Earth, in the same week. Planet Jupiter opposition will occur on July 14, 2020. Meanwhile, Saturn’s opposition will occur on July 20, 2020, so prepare your telescopes. The best time to observe Planet Saturn from Earth, in this case Jakarta, is 18.30 WIB to 05.25 WIB Sinaumed’s.
AUGUST 12 2020 : PERSEID METEOR RAIN
The Perseid meteor shower that occurred in 2019 is called one of the greatest meteor shower events in history. This celestial phenomenon is said to appear again on August 12, 2020, with a much better and more magnificent appearance. One of its attractions is the treat of 100 meteors per hour with traces of bright light sparkling in the sky. Observe before 00.16 WIB until 05.40 WIB Sinaumed’s.
OCTOBER 2020 : APPEARANCE OF THE PLANET OF MARS
As in 2018, 2020 will be a good year for Planet Mars. Planet Merak will be on the opposite side of the Sun on October 13, 2020. Mars will appear brighter than Planet Jupiter. From Jakarta, Planet Mars will be visible at 19.12 WIB. The high brightness level of Planet Mars on September 29 2020 and October 28 2020 will replace Jupiter as the second brightest planet. Planet Mars will be the third brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Planet Venus Sinaumed’s.
31 OCTOBER 2020: BLUE MOON PHENOMENON
Halloween night, 31 October 2020, will feel different with the appearance of a sky phenomenon in the form of a blue moon. This event arises because the position of the moon is at a point across from the earth. As a result, the sun creates a blue illusion on the moon’s surface which triggers this Sinaumed’s phenomenon.
NOVEMBER 16-17 2020: LEONID METEOR RAIN
The Leonid meteor shower at its peak will display 15 meteors per hour in clear skies without an overly bright Moon and without too many clouds. Meteor showers can be observed from 00.23 WIB until dawn around 05.04 WIB, Edufrends.
13-14 DECEMBER 2020: GEMINID METEOR RAIN
The peak of the Geminid Meteor Shower will occur on December 14, 2020. On December 14, the earth’s sky will be showered with 60 to 120 meteors per hour. In contrast to 2019 when the Full Moon becomes a bright object that interferes with the visibility of meteors. This time the sky will be clear so that the meteors can be seen more clearly. The meteor shower will be seen in Jakarta at 19.59 WIB and can still be enjoyed until 05.09 WIB Sinaumed’s.
DECEMBER 14, 2020: TOTAL SOLAR CLOSURE
One of the most amazing natural phenomena, the total solar eclipse, will grace the sky on December 14 2020. Unlike the ring type solar eclipse, this phenomenon occurs when the Earth, Moon and Sun are in a parallel position and the Moon manages to cover all parts of the Sun. Unfortunately, this solar eclipse will only be visible in a few countries, namely South America, namely Argentina and Chile. Some areas in this country can even enjoy a moment of darkness for 2 minutes and 9 seconds on Sinaumed’s.
21 DECEMBER 2020 – GREAT SOLSTICE
This phenomenon is a very rare phenomenon, because it has never happened again since 2000, and will only happen again in 2040. On December 21, 2020 Planet Saturn and Planet Jupiter will be in a very close position (only 0.06º apart) after sunset. Astronomers even call this phenomenon an ‘apulse’ and it’s really just a matter of perspective. Planets Jupiter and Planet Saturn may be hundreds of millions of kilometers away from each other, but from Earth, these giant planets look like they are merged with Sinaumed’s.