Get to Know the 5 Human Senses and Their Structures and Functions

5 Human Senses – Humans in carrying out their daily activities need stimulation from their environment. In responding to or responding to stimuli that come from outside, the human body needs tools that can help respond to these stimuli. The organs of the body are called the senses.

Humans generally have five (five) senses that are very functional in responding to stimuli. The five senses that function properly will make it easier for our body to respond according to desire or instinct.

Therefore, these five senses can be regarded as organs of the human body that can connect the brain with other members of the body. Members of the human body will respond according to what is ordered by the brain.

However, do you know what the five senses are in humans and what their functions are? In this article, the discussion of the five senses will be discussed in more depth. So, happy reading and see the explanation of the five senses below.

1. Sense of Sight (Eyes)

The first five senses to be discussed are the sense of sight or eyes. This eye is on the part of the human face which is located below the forehead and there is the right and left of the nose. This eye is needed by humans in sending stimuli to be sent by the brain. The stimulus comes from what we see.

1.1 Functions of the eye

As we know that the main function is to see, but if discussed more deeply, the function of the eye is quite a lot. This is the function of the eye, apart from seeing.

1.1.1 Focusing on an object

When looking at objects that are near or far, you need clear vision in order to be able to represent what object is being seen. For some people to see or focus on objects requires glasses. This is because the person’s eyes are unable to focus on objects that are farther or nearer.

1.1.2 Adjust the incoming light

The light entering the eye must be adjusted because excessive light entering the eye can damage the eye. In addition, the adjustment of the light on the eye can be used to see the time, whether it is still morning, afternoon, evening or night.

1.1.3 Can be used as a medium of communication

Contact eye maybe you’ve heard that term. Eye contact can be said as a communication made through the eyes. For some people will know other people’s behavior just from eye contact. One behavior that can be seen by eye contact is lying.

2.1 Structure of the eye

Do you know what structures are in the eye? If not, this article will discuss eye structures. Following is an explanation of the eye structures that you need to know.

a) Sclera

The sclera is the part of the eye that functions to cover the entire eyeball, except for the cornea. The sclera is composed of connective tissue with strong fibers and is slightly opaque white in color. This sclera can be said to be the part of the eye that is not transparent to light.

b) Choroid

The choroid is the layer of the eye that is in the middle in which there are blood vessels. Blood vessels function to provide nutrition and oxygen to the eye, especially the eye retina. The choroid is dark in color because it functions to protect the eyeball from various kinds of disturbances, such as excess light.

c) retina

The retina is the part of the eye that is in the form of a layer and is very sensitive to light stimuli. All parts of the retina have connections with nerve cells whose fibers can form the optic nerve veins that extend to the brain.

In the retina there is a bone where the bone functions as a protector for the eyeball as well as a place for the existence of the eye. The bones in the retina are called the orbital bones.

d) Lens

The lens is the part of the eye that lies behind the iris and pupil. This part of the eye functions to focus light and objects on the retina. The lens has a flexible and transparent tissue. If you wear glasses, it is certain that your eye condition is nearsighted or farsighted.

e) Iris and pupil

The iris is the part of the eye or the lining of the eyeball which is located on the cornea. While the pupils are the muscles of the eye that can shrink and enlarge or close and open when light enters.

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Basically the function of the iris and pupil is the same because the two parts are related to each other. The function of the iris and pupil is to adjust the light that enters the eye. Meanwhile, the pupil serves to

f) Macula

The macula is the part of the eye whose center functions as vision to make it clearer. In addition, the macula also functions as a light receiver. Therefore, the condition of the macula must be paid close attention so that vision and control of light entering the eye are not disturbed. The macula itself

g) Cornea

Cornea is the part of the eye that is shaped like a transparent dome. In addition, the cornea functions as forming the outermost part of the eye and as a door for light coming in and out from outside.

2. Hearing Sense (Ear)

Panda’s second sense that will be discussed is the sense of hearing or commonly called the ear. The ear has a special ability to detect various kinds of sound vibrations as well as to maintain balance.

2.1 Ear function

The function of the ear is divided into two, namely listening to sounds and balancing the body.

a) Listening to sounds

Serves to hear and recognize sounds. The sound that can be heard by humans is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. If humans listen to sounds of more than 20,000 Hz, the eardrum will rupture.

b) Balance

In this case, the balance in question is that the information received by the ear can be conveyed to the brain in a balanced way. Thanks to this balance function, changes in the speed of sound can be handled properly.

c) A place to beautify yourself

Ears become a place of jewelry by means of piercing. Jewelry that is placed on the ear has been around for a long time, especially in women.

2.2 Structure of the ear

The structure of the ear is divided into three parts, namely the outer, middle and inner parts.

a) The outside

The outer ear is the part of the ear that functions to receive various kinds of sound vibrations. In this middle part there are two ear organs, namely the auricle and ear canal. The two organs have different functions, but are related to each other.

The auricles have the function of receiving or responding to sounds in the environment. The shape of this auricle is irregular and in this auricle organ there is cartilage and fibrous tissue.

The ear canal has the function of conveying sound vibrations so that they reach the tympanic membrane. This ear canal has a size of approximately 2.5 cm and the outer third of the ear canal is cartilage and two thirds is inside in the form of bone.

b) Middle section

The middle part of the ear is the part in the form of a small chamber containing air and in it there is the eustachian tube . This part of the middle ear functions to continue sound vibrations that originate from the outer ear to the inner ear.

The sound vibrations are associated with pharyngeal receptors in the ear. Not only that, the middle ear also has three auditory bones, namely the hammer ( malleus ), anvil ( inclus ) and stirrup ( stapes ). The hammer and anvil move as one bone because they are held together by ligaments.

c) The inside

The inner ear is the part in which there are many organs that can help the ear work. The inner ear is composed of the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth.

This membranous labyrinth has five main parts, namely the three semicircular canals, the utricle, the saccule, the cochlea or cochlea, and the ampulla.

3. Sense of Touch (Skin)

The third sense that will be discussed is the sense of touch or skin. It seems you already know that this skin is the outermost part of the human body. With this skin we will feel various things. In fact, the skin can be used as a protector of the human body from various kinds of disorders.

3.1 Functions of the skin

Apart from being a touch tool, the skin also has other functions that can be beneficial to the human body. These functions will be explained below.

a) A place to sweat

As a place where sweat water comes out. The sweat that comes out of the skin is the result of evaporation taken from the heat that is around the body. With the release of sweat, the heat temperature in the body will decrease.

Sweat contains water and salts. In addition, sweat has two glands that can help the process of sweat coming out of the skin. First, the eccrine sweat glands, these glands are located all over the body, but are usually most numerous on the palms, soles, and face.

Second, apocrine sweat glands, these glands are in the armpits and around the genital area. Apocrine sweat glands generally have an unpleasant odor because they come from bacterial activity which is broken down by organic components.

b) place to store fat

If you ask where is most of the human body fat stored, then the answer is skin. Fat stored in the skin is in a layer of skin called the hypodermis which is located at the bottom of the dermis layer of skin.

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c) Regulating body temperature

The hot human body temperature will be lowered by sweating. Vice versa, when the body temperature is cold, the body can feel warmth on the skin.

d) Where vitamin D is formed

Sunlight will produce UV A and UV B , both contents are the result of solar radiation. UV A rays are solar radiation that can penetrate the skin to the deepest parts. Meanwhile, UV B rays are solar radiation that cannot penetrate the skin and are very beneficial for the formation of vitamin D.

3.2 Structure of the skin

The structure of human skin consists of three parts, namely the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. For more details, see the explanation as follows.

a) Epidermis

The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin which is formed from the corneum layer and the malpighian layer . The corneum layer is a layer of skin that is dead and can be peeled off, then replaced with new skin cells.

Meanwhile, the malpighi layer is a skin layer formed from the spinosum layer and the germinativum layer . In addition, the malpighi layer contains the pigment melanin which gives color to the skin. In other words, human skin color depends on the melanin content .

b) Dermis

The middle layer of human skin is called the dermis. Within the dermis layer are blood vessels, nerve endings, hair roots, sweat glands, and oil glands.

These sweat glands will produce a lot of sweat, even every day the sweat that can be released can reach 2,000 ml. At very high temperatures or heat, these sweat glands will become active and the capillaries in the skin will widen. At the time of the capillaries, the process of removing water and metabolic waste becomes easier.

c) Hypodermis

The deepest layer of human skin is called the hypodermis and is under the dermis layer. There is a lot of fat contained in this layer. Stored fats function as food reserves, retain body heat, and protect the body from various kinds of collisions.

4. Sense of Smell (Nose)

The fourth sense that will be discussed next is the sense of smell or nose. The nose is located between the senses of sight or eyes. This one sensory organ is very important, especially in smelling aromas.

2.1 Functions of the nose

The nose in humans has 3 functions, namely as a respiratory organ, smelling, and filtering air.

a) Respirator

As we know that the respiratory system must begin with the nose. After the air enters the nose, it will then enter the lungs. From the lungs, the process of oxygen circulation will occur.

b) Smell

You surely already know that you smell an aroma, whether it is pleasant or not, of course, through your nose. Therefore, it can be said that the nose is the five senses that function to smell. The nose can smell odors because it has odor receptors. The location of this receptor is in the nose or more precisely in the olfactory nerve.

c) Filter the air

Air that enters the nose if not filtered will be very dirty. Therefore, the nose has hairs that function to filter incoming air. In addition, in the nasal passages there is also a mucous membrane whose function is to moisten the nose.

2.2 Structure of the nose

The structure of the nose is divided into two parts, namely the inner nasal cavity and the upper nasal cavity.

a) The inner cavity

The inner cavity of the nose has a partition separating the nasal cavity, the partition is divided into two parts, right and left. The inner nasal cavity is also divided into three locations, namely the roof of the nasal cavity, the lower nasal cavity, and the sides of the nose. At the top, covered with a thin plate. Meanwhile, at the bottom is lined with the roof of the nose. For the side of the nose lined with coral nose.

b) Upper cavity

The upper nasal cavity has the main function of smelling. In short, the smell that is smelled will then be received by the olfactory mucus that has receptors. From the smelling mucus, it will proceed to the smelling bubbles. From here the smells will be received or responded to by the brain.

5. Sense of Taste (Tongue)

The last five senses to be discussed are the sense of taste or the tongue. The tongue is an organ of the human body which is located in the mouth or more precisely at the bottom of the mouth. The tongue is an organ that has bones which only consist of a collection of muscles.

2.1 Functions of the tongue

There are three functions of the tongue in humans, namely as a taster, turning food around, and forming letters.

a) As a taster

The main function of the tongue is to taste. Try to imagine what it would be like if humans didn’t have a tongue, they certainly wouldn’t know the various kinds of flavors that exist. The tongue can taste five kinds of tastes, salty, spicy, sweet, bitter and sour.

b) Turning food over

When you are chewing food, usually the food will be turned back and forth. This is due to facilitate the process of mastication and help to swallow food.

c) Forming letters

When someone mentions a letter, it certainly requires the help of the tongue. One letter that definitely needs a tongue is the letter “R”.

2.2 Structure of the tongue

These special receptors are closely related to chemical stimuli. These receptors have a surface covered with a layer of epithelium and the specialized receptors contain mucous glands and taste buds.

There are up to 10,000 taste buds on the tongue, isn’t that a lot? The taste buds on the tongue are made up of groups of sensory cells on which there are protrusions or papillae . This bulge is located on the upper surface.

These protrusions can be categorized into several forms, namely the shape of the thread ( circumvalata ), the shape of the plains ( foliata ), and the shape of the mushroom ( fungiformis ).