Understanding of Individuals – Humans as individual beings need to be understood in terms of the individual itself. The word “Individual” comes from the Latin word, ” individuum ” which means “undivided”. So, is a term that can be used to express the smallest and limited unit.
Humans as individual beings have physical and spiritual elements, physical and psychic elements, body and soul elements. A person is said to be an individual human while those elements are united in him. If the elements are no longer united, a person is not called an individual. Every human being has its own uniqueness and special characteristics, no human being is exactly the same. From so many people, it turns out that each one has its own uniqueness.
The definition of an individual is a combination of phenotypic and genotypic factors. Genotype factor is a factor carried by the individual since birth, it is a hereditary factor. If an individual has physical characteristics or character traits that are carried since birth, he also has physical characteristics and character or traits that are influenced by environmental factors (phenotypic factors). Environmental factors (phenotype) play a role in the formation of a person’s special characteristics.
The term environment refers to the physical environment and the social environment. Physical environment such as the surrounding natural conditions. Social environment refers to the environment in which an individual interacts socially. We interact socially with family members, with friends, and larger social groups. The special characteristics of a person can be called personality. Each person has a different personality that is influenced by innate factors (genotype) and environmental factors (phenotype) that interact continuously.
According to Nursid Sumaatmadja (2000), personality is the entire behavior of an individual which is the result of the interaction between bio-psycho-fiscal (physical and psychological) potentials that are carried from birth with a network of environmental situations, which are revealed in actions and deeds and psychological mental reactions, if it gets stimulation from the environment.
He concluded that environmental factors (phenotype) play a role in the formation of a person’s special characteristics. Each individual has inherent characteristics and characteristics ( heredity ) and characteristics obtained from the influence of the environment. Innate characteristics are hereditary characteristics possessed since birth, both related to biological factors and social psychological factors.
Nature and nature are terms commonly used to explain individual characteristics in terms of physical, mental, and emotional aspects at each level of development. A newborn baby is the result of two family lines, the father’s line and the mother’s line. Since conception or the conception of a new life, it is continuously influenced by various stimulating environmental factors.
Definition of Individual
The word “individual” comes from the Latin language, i ndividium which means something that cannot be divided or a small limited unit. This describes humans as individual beings because physiologically humans have an independent nature that does not have an organic dependency on others.
In fulfilling the essence of the notion of individuality, humans will always try to develop their personal abilities, such as the ability to survive, communicate, and so on. Humans as individual beings are equipped with intellect, thoughts, and emotions. It is this ability that makes man a monodualist being, a being that is responsible for himself.
As individual creatures, humans are one of God’s creations that have physical (body) and spiritual (soul) elements. These elements cannot be separated and become an individual shaper. When those elements are no longer united, a person is no longer said to be an individual being. Every human being has certain uniqueness and characteristics, no human being is exactly the same in this world, even identical twins have different characteristics.
Humans as individual beings are a combination of two factors, namely phenotypic and genotypic factors. Genotype factors are factors that humans carry from their parents, or also called hereditary factors. This factor is carried by man since he was born on this earth. These factors affect human physical traits such as skin color, height, hair shape, etc., and also psychological traits, such as quiet, active, etc.
Meanwhile, phenotypic factors are factors that form individuals that come from the environment. It cannot be denied that the environment can affect human character. Although basic attitudes have been formed through genotype factors, it is the environment that determines whether these traits can develop or not.
The two factors interact and form a special characteristic of an individual called personality. The understanding of humans as individual beings is that humans have rights over themselves that are adjusted by the social conditions or environment around them. These are all closely related to the environment through society, through personality, through the senses, gender, and social status.
Definition of Individual According to Experts
During his life, an individual goes through stages starting from baby, child, teenager, adult, until he experiences old age. To protect each individual’s rights, the government issues a policy on the protection of the rights of each individual without exception (Human Rights). Every individual is also entitled to his personality including in thinking and acting. For example, someone needs education or guidance and direction.
The concept of individual is a term that can be used to express the smallest and limited unity.
2. Dr. A. License
The definition of individual is “people” or something that is a whole that cannot be divided again, a limited unity.
3. MJ Langeveld
Every human child, human being is born with the potential to be different from others, or to be (like) himself. There is no identical individual on the face of the earth, that two twins that come from the same egg are commonly said to be like betel nut split in two, similar and difficult to distinguish one from the other, only similar but not identical, let alone identical.
4. Martin Luther
The concept of individual comes from the word individum (Latin), which is a small unit that cannot be divided again. According to the sociological concept, an individual means a human being who lives independently. Individuals as creatures created by God in themselves are always equipped with life equipment that includes body, taste, ratio, and harmony.
- Raga, is a special form of the human body that can distinguish one individual from another, even with the same essence.
- Rasa, is a human feeling that can capture objects of movement from things in the universe or feelings related to beauty.
- Ratio or common sense, is a human equipment to develop oneself, overcome everything that is needed in every human being and is a tool to digest what is received by the five senses.
- Rukun or life association, is a form of socialization with humans and living side by side with each other harmoniously, peacefully and complementing each other. This pillar is what can help people to form a social group that is often called community.
5. Sujatmiko Eko
The meaning of individual is one person; private person (separate from other people). Organisms that live on their own, are physiologically independent (do not have an organic relationship with each other). Individuals are the smallest unit of society.
In social science, the concept of individual also means the smallest part of a group of society that cannot be separated into smaller parts. For example, a family consists of father, mother, and children. Father is an individual in that social group, which can no longer be divided into smaller units.
Individual comes from the Greek word ” individium ” which means “undivided”. In social science, the understanding of the individual is related to the character with the life and soul that is plural and plays a role in human social life. The individual is a limited unity, that is, as a single human being, not as a whole human being.
It can be concluded that an individual is a human being who has a special or specific role in his personality. There are three aspects in an individual, namely the physical organic aspect, the spiritual psychological aspect, and the social aspect. Where the aspects are related to each other. If one is damaged, it will damage other aspects. When the pattern of behavior is almost identical to the behavior of the masses concerned.
The process that increases the characteristics of individuality in a person to himself is called the process of individualization or self-actualization. In this process, individuals are burdened with various roles that come from the conditions of living together, which eventually emerges as a group that will determine the stability of a society.
Individuals in their behavior according to their personal patterns have three possibilities, namely deviating from the collective norm, losing their individuality, subjugating the collective, and thirdly influencing society. Thus, human beings are individual beings not only in the sense of the whole body and soul, but are special individuals, according to their personality patterns and abilities.
Another definition of an individual is a single person; private person (separate from other people). Organisms that live on their own, are physiologically independent (do not have an organic relationship with each other).
Basically, each individual has different characteristics. Individuals who join together will form a group or community. The individual will have the same characteristics as the group when he joins.
Each individual has special characteristics that are different from other individuals, such as physical shape, intelligence, talent, desire, feelings and have their own level of understanding/meaning towards an object. So, the individual is the internal condition of a human being who functions as a subject.
Humans as individuals have three instincts, namely:
1. Survival Instinct
The instinct to maintain survival has given rise to various needs. One of the most basic needs is the physiological needs consisting of eating, drinking and protection. All these needs are obtained from the human environment, and in utilizing the environment requires technology.
Technology can be defined as the means or tools used by humans to fulfill their needs. So technology does not only include modern equipment or machines. Arrows for hunting, shifting cultivation and other simple tools or means are included in the technology. Human needs are very diverse and these needs are easier to fulfill if individuals live in groups with other individuals.
2. Instinct to Defend the Continuation of Livelihood of Descendants
The instinct to protect the offspring, demands the need for a sense of security ( safety need ), both from the disturbance of uncomfortable weather, wild animals or other humans. Clothes made from various types of materials and models adapted to the weather conditions. Housing with various materials and forms, is basically an effort to obtain a sense of security from various disturbances.
As for the diversity of materials and models used, it depends on the environment. Like houses in tropical areas are generally made of wood or bamboo with a triangular or conical roof model and often the bottom does not directly touch the ground, but is stilted or vaulted. In moderate climates, many houses are built from bricks/soil, with flat roofs, while in cold regions the Eskimos make houses from ice with a bare shape. All that depends on the weather and the raw materials available in the environment.
In addition to meeting the biological needs of humans, marriage on the other hand is also a reflection of the individual’s dependence on other individuals and the instinct to continue the lineage.
3. Curiosity and Seeking Satisfaction
Every human being has an instinct to be curious about something around them, whether it is the natural environment or other human environments. There are natural differences such as land, hills, mountains; differences in the distribution of plants and animals; physical differences in humans such as black, white, tanned, tall, short and so on; human cultural differences such as when it comes to eating, some eat with their hands, spoons, forks and knives; differences in clothing, livelihood, house shape and so on.
All that has pushed people to find out. The question “what, why, how, and who” has given birth to a system of knowledge, which is then organized into a system through certain rules, thus giving birth to knowledge.
This knowledge is basically to meet the spiritual/inner needs of man, while the application of knowledge in the form of methods and tools to meet the needs of human life is called technology. So, technology is a variety of ways or tools to meet human material needs.
The Difference between Individual Humans and Social Beings
1. Humans as Individuals
An individual is a person or a human being as a whole. Whole here is defined as a quality that cannot be divided. It is a unity between the physical and the spiritual that is attached to a person. The two cannot be separated to support and fulfill human needs, both as individuals and communities.
The knowledge and technology that individuals possess is not entirely the result of their own experience, but more from learning and imitating others. Therefore, in fulfilling the instinct of curiosity and seeking satisfaction, it cannot be separated from group life.
2. Humans as Social Beings
Humans are creatures that cannot immediately adapt to their environment. During infancy, humans are completely dependent on other individuals. He learns to walk, learn to eat, learn to dress, learn to read, learn to make things and so on, needs the help of other adults.
According to Malinowski, one of the figures of anthropology from Poland stated that the dependence of individuals on other individuals in their group can be seen from human efforts in meeting biological needs and social needs that are done through cultural mediation.
A sense of security specifically depends on the presence of protection systems in the house, clothing and equipment. Protection in general, in the sense of interference with other groups, will be easier to create if people are in groups. In order to create the security and comfort of this group life, rules and social controls were created about what can and cannot be done by each member of the group. In addition, it is also determined who has the right to organize the life of the group to achieve common goals.
Individuals have the characteristics of having a mind and self that is able to determine reality, interpret the situation, determine actions from outside and within themselves. Can be interpreted as an individual communication process in interacting and relating. Individuals will not have a clear identity without the existence of a society that is the background of the individual marked by where the individual tries to place his behavior in accordance with the norms and culture of the environment, such as in Indonesia the individual upholds polite behavior, and is ethical in socializing.
Individuals are always in a group, the role of the group is to mature the individual into a person, whose process depends on the group and the environment can be a supporting factor in the process as well as an obstacle to the process of becoming a person. Supporting factors and inhibiting factors can also be based on the individual himself.