30 List of Hijaiyah Letters: Definition, Vowels, Writing, and Their Roles

List of Hijaiyah Letters – Hijaiyah letters are important for Muslims. Because hijaiyah letters are the basis for reading the Koran. Usually learning hijaiyah letters begins when we are small. In childhood, hijaiyah letters will be taught through the Iqra book.

Hijaiyah letters are the main requirement in reading the Koran. Because this letter is the basis for the formation of words and sentences in the Qur’an. If you already know the hijaiyah letters, of course you will also be able to read the Koran.

In the Al-Quran, these hijaiyah letters do not stand alone, but are connected to one another. There are several hijaiyah letters that can be connected and cannot be connected. You must be able to distinguish and read letters that have been connected and which have not been connected. The unspliced ​​and unspliced ​​letters have some differences as well.

To get to know more about what hijaiyah letters mean, hijaiyah letters vowel, how to teach, and what is the role of hijaiyah letters. Let’s look at the reviews below.


This book introduces children to the forms of hijaiyah letters using objects, animals and plants. Children can while learning to write hijaiyah letters and also color the sheets, because each activity sheet is provided in black and white. Children can learn to recognize hijaiyah letters in a way that is more fun and in accordance with their imagination.

Definition of Hijaiyah Letters

Hijaiyah letters are letters of a kind of alphabet. Hijaiyah letters are commonly used for writing in the Koran. Because as the basis for writing the Koran, it means that all Muslims must know it.

Hijaiyah letters are the basis for forming words and sentences in Arabic. The hijaiyah letters are taken from the Arabic language الهجائية which means spelling or spelling. Not only is it used in the Quran, but this hijaiyah letter is also used in everyday writing of the Arabic language.

This hijaiyah letter has terminology rules that are different from other alphabets. This letter is written from right to left, in contrast to the alphabet which is written from left to right as you are reading right now. Hijaiyah letters have a total of 29 letters, and have different writing and reading methods depending on vowel and tajwid

List of Hijaiyah letters and how to read them

Hijaiyah letters have a total of 29 letters. Each of these letters has its own way of reading. The following will be presented in the form of a table filled with 29 hijaiyah letters along with how to read them.

No Hijaiyah letters How to read Latin transliteration
1. ا Alif No crest
2. ب Ba’ B
3. ت Ta’ Q
4. ث tha’ TS
5. ج Jim J
6. ح Ha’ H
7. خ Kha’ KH
8. د Dal D
9. ذ Dzal Dz
10. ر Ra’ R
11. ز Za’ Z
12. س Sin S
13. ش Syn sy
14. ص Shad sh
15. ض Dhad DH
16. ط Tha’ th
17. ظ zha’ ZH
18. ع ‘Ain Vowels in quotation marks (‘a, ‘i, ‘u)
19. غ Gains GH
20. ف Fa’ F
21. ق Qaf Q
22. ك caf K
23. ل Lam L
24. م Mim M
25. ن Miss N
26. و Wow W
27. ه Ha’ H
28. ء Hamzah Vowels enclosed in quotation marks (a’, i’, u’)
29. ي Yes’ Y
30. لا lam alif  

The explanation from the table regarding the hijaiyah letters and the pronunciation in Latin is not completely correct, because the hijaiyah letters have differences in their pronunciation. The difference is in the pronunciation of the letters read. In the pronunciation of this letter is called makhraj or articulation. You can study this Makhraj with an ustadz or a Koran teacher.

Why Should You Learn Hijaiyah Letters?

Hijaiyah letters are very important to learn for Muslims, this is because these letters are the basic letters for reading the Qur’an. It’s a shame if Muslims can’t read the Koran. For that, like it or not, we have to learn these hijaiyah letters so we can read the Al-Qur’an. Usually these hijaiyah letters are taught when we are small.

For this reason, if your child still does not understand hijaiyah letters and reading the Qur’an, it is better to teach them immediately. Remembering that small children are usually easier to accept something new, for this reason this is the right time to teach hijaiyah letters to children. What’s more, getting used to reading the Qur’an from an early age to children is one of the steps to educate children to be pious and pious children.

Hijaiyah Learning Aid Tool

You may need some books or tools that can be used to assist you in conveying hijaiyah letters and how to learn the Qur’an. We highly recommend the following books for you to own:

1. Boardbooks

The Boarbook entitled “Hello Toddler Sali Saliha: My Hijaiah (Boardbook)” will help children recognize and memorize hijaiyah letters, the child will be invited to recognize and play through the games in this book.

See also  difference between ship and boat

2. Smart Poster Hijaiyah

Posters that are very suitable for hanging on bedroom walls, on study tables or on blackboards. The advantage is that the child will see the posters regularly and help memorize hijaiyah letters.

3. Hijaiyah Letter Card

Apart from being in the form of boardbooks and posters, the method of learning to memorize hijaiyah letters can also use letter cards. With the card method you can invite the child to play and learn at the same time, so that the child doesn’t get bored easily and is more effective at memorizing hijaiyah letters.

4. Hijaiyah Letter Book

If your little one likes reading, maybe this hijaiyah letter book will be suitable for your baby. The contents are packaged as attractively as possible so that children like them don’t get bored easily and are interested in continuing to read them.

Hijaiyah Letter Harakat

Harakat is used in hijaiyah letters to make it easier to read Arabic letters. This vowel has a role in determining the sound of each letter like the vowels in the alphabet. Examples such as reading a, i, and u. The vowels in hijaiyah letters have 9 kinds. The following is the hijaiyah vowel.

1. Fathah

Fathah is a vowel that has the form of a small oblique line which is located above the hijaiyah letters. This fathah vowel emits the sound “a”. Every letter that has a vowel fathah above it will be read with the vowel a.

Example: جَ ثَ تَ بَ اَ

So, with the vowel fathah in the hijaiyah letters above, it is read as a, ba, ta, tsa, ja.

2. Dhamma

This dhammah vowel has a shape like the letter waw ( و ) but is small in size which is located above the hijaiyah letters. When a hijaiyah letter has this vowel above it, the letter will be read with the vowel “u”.

Example: رُ زُ دُ خُ حُ

So, the hijaiyah letters above which contain the vowel dhammah are read as ru, zu, du, khu, hu.

3. Kasra

Kasrah is a vowel that looks like a small oblique line which is located under the hijaiyah letters. When a hijaiyah letter has this vowel below it, the letter is read with the vowel “i”.

Example: طِ ضِ صِ شِ سِ

So, the hijaiyah letters above have a kasrah sign at the bottom of the letter so that they are read as thi, dhi, shi, syi, si.

4. Breadfruit

Breadfruit is a vowel shaped like the letter ha ( ه ) which is placed above the hijaiyah letter. This breadfruit turns off a hijaiyah letter. Letters that have the vowel breadfruit above them are only read like consonants.

Example: سْ لْ كْ قْ فْ

So, the letters above which have the vowel breadfruit will be turned off, so they are read as s, l, k, q, f.

5. Fathahtain

Fathahtain can also be called tanwin fathah. This vowel has the form of two small oblique lines located above the hijaiyah letters. The letter above which has this vowel can be read as -an.

Example: قً فً غً عً ظً

So, the letters above have fathahtain marks at the top of each letter, so they can be read qan, fan, ghan, ‘an, zhan.

6. Dhammatain

This Dhammahtain can be called tanwin dhammah. This vowel has a combined form of the vowel dhammah and breadfruit, and has a position above the hijaiyah letters. Letters that have this vowel will be read as -un.

Example: وٌ نٌ مٌ لٌ كٌ

So, the hijaiyah letters above have the vowel dhammahtain which, when read, becomes wun, nun, mun, lun, kun.

7. Kasrahtain

Kasrahtain can be called tanwin kasrah. This vowel has the form of two small oblique lines which are located under the hijaiyah letters. Letters that have this vowel will be read as -in.

Example: طٍ اٍ ءٍ يٍ ذٍ

So, hijaiyah letters that have the vowel kasrahtain underneath can be read as thin, in, in, yin, dzin.

8. Tasidid

This tasyid can also be called a syaddah. This vowel has a shape like the head of the sin letter which is above the hijaiyah letter. Letters that have this tasydid sign will be emphasized. This means that the letter is read as having two consonants.

Example: مَدَّ مَرَّ اَ وَّ اَ نَّ اَ مَّ

So, hijaiyah letters that have tasydid signs will be emphasized to become madda, marra, awwa, anna, amma.

9. Long Reading

The vowels above can be symbols so that the letters can be pronounced long. This sign usually uses letters that have the same vowel as their respective vowels, such as the letter alif with the vowel fathah, the letter ya’ breadfruit with the vowel kasrah, and the letter waw breadfruit with the vowel dhammah. Each letter that has this ending can be pronounced in length.

Example: بَتيْ بَجُوْ بُكُوْ بَتَا سَبَا

So, hijaiyah letters that contain certain letters that previously contained vowels fathah, kasrah, and dhammah can be read as batii, bajuu, Bukuu, bataa, sabaa.

This book contains an introduction to hijaiyah letters and numbers which are equipped with examples of Arabic vocabulary. In addition, it is also equipped with attractive and colorful illustrations. The illustrations are in the form of everyday objects that represent hijaiyah letters or numbers that are being introduced. The ring that binds these cards can be removed so that parents can use these cards freely. When you’re done using it, the card can be tied back with the iron ring so that it stays neat and doesn’t get scattered.

See also  How to Become a Pilot, Duties and Career Paths of a Pilot

Writing hijaiyah letters that are connected and not connected

In writing, the hijaiyah letters have two differences, namely being spliced ​​and not spliced. The point is that there are hijaiyah letters which in writing can be connected and cannot be connected.

In addition, there are also several letters that have different shapes after being connected and before being connected. For more details. Let’s look at the following reviews.

1. Hijaiyah letters that can be connected before or after the letters

Hijaiyah letters in this category have provisions that they can be connected to the previous letter if it is in the middle of a sentence. Then, this letter can be connected with the previous letter if it is in the middle and at the beginning of the sentence. Hijaiyah letters like this can also be interpreted as flexible letters, meaning they can be connected to any position.

The hijaiyah letters include:

ببب – تتتت- ثثث – ججج- ححح – خخخ – سسس – ششش – صصص – ضضض – ططط – ظظظ – عععع – غغغ ففف –   ققق – ككك – للل – مممم ننييه – هيهه –

2. Hijaiyah letters that cannot be connected with the following letters

Hijaiyah letters in this category cannot be connected with the letters after it. If one of the letters in this category is in the middle of the sentence and at the beginning of the sentence then the letter will not be connected with the letter after it even though the sentence is not finished. However, this letter can still be connected with the previous letter.

The hijaiyah letters include:

ا – د – ذ – ر – ز – و

Teaching hijaiyah letters

As we know that hijaiyah letters must be learned from an early age by Muslims in order to be able to read the Koran fluently. Therefore, as adults, you can teach this to your children or younger siblings from an early age.

There are many methods for teaching hijaiyah letters to children. You can teach the Baghdahdiyah method, the Iqra’ method, the A’ Ba’ Ta’ Tsa’ method, the Asy-Syafi’iy method, and other methods.

In this teaching there must be learning about writing and also pronunciation. To learn enough that’s just introduced. If it’s a little fluent, then you can teach things like tajwid and other rules.

Besides that, you can also guide him to listen to the recitations of the Koran so that he is also trained in how to read properly and correctly. This hearing exercise is also effective for children.

The Importance of Learning Hijaiyah Letters

Learning hijaiyah letters is very important, especially for Muslims. By learning hijaiyah letters, it will make it easier for you to read the Koran. In this learning, of course, it must be supported by listening to Al-Quran recitations from other people. The more you hear it, the more you know how to pronounce it properly and correctly.

Not only reading, of course you also have to be good at writing. Not infrequently when at school Muslims are given the task of writing fragments of letters in the Koran. This makes you also have to be able to write hijaiyah letters properly and correctly.

Learning hijaiyah letters can also improve your mastery of Arabic. If you can already read and write it, you can if you want to learn its meaning. Of course, it will be easier if you already know how to read and write it first. This of course increases your mastery of the language.

The Role of Hijaiyah Letters in Arabic Writing

Hijaiyah letters certainly have an important role in Arabic writing. In ancient times, Arabic script was used as part of the Arabic-Malay language. Most of our ancestors used to use it to write even though they still read it in Indonesian.

We can find this Arabic-Malay writing now in the National Library. You can visit it to see various Arabic-Malay writings in various media such as bamboo, leaves, and others.

In addition, as has often been said, this hijaiyah letter is very important for Muslims so that it is easy for them to read the Koran. By mastering hijaiyah letters, it will be easier and more frequent for you to read the Koran.

If you don’t study it, of course you as Muslims should be ashamed, because the Koran is the source of the Islamic religion which we must read and understand its contents. The Qur’an is a guide for us so that our behavior remains in accordance with the rules that Allah has set.

Using Arabic will also make it easier for you if you want to go to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. You will find it easier to socialize with Arabs easily. You can also read the writings and know their meaning while in Mecca. Of course it’s nice to be able to learn languages ​​other than Indonesian.


This book contains the introduction of hijaiyah letters and numbers, which are complemented by the introduction of everyday objects, in which the first letter of the object is the letter being introduced to the little one (in Arabic). Each animal object in this book is accompanied by a description in the form of a short narrative. This information is useful as a guide for parents in explaining the object to their little one. Illustrations are presented in the form of photos so that they are very easy for children to recognize.