Active and Passive Sentences: Definition, Characteristics and Examples

Definition and Characteristics of Active Sentences and Passive Sentences – A sentence is a unit of language in the form of a word or a series of words that can express a complete meaning and can stand alone. In addition, a sentence can also be interpreted as the smallest unit of language that expresses the contents of thoughts conveyed in writing or orally. When expressed orally, sentences can be delivered loudly or softly, voices rise or fall, and so on.

Whereas if it is expressed in writing, the sentence is delivered in Latin written form, using capital letters, and using a period at the end. Based on the relationship between subject, predicate, and meaning value, sentences are classified into two, namely active sentences and passive sentences.

Active and passive sentences apply to all languages ​​in the world that are used by everyone in any part of the world including Indonesia. The existence of a sentence is important considering its function as a builder of a more complete structure of language meaning. You can find sentences when you read writing, whether it is published in print media or in mass media such as the internet or social media. From the many sentences you read, you can find out which are active sentences and which are passive sentences. Then what is the definition of active sentences and passive sentences and how are they classified in Indonesian grammar? Here’s an explanation.

Definition of Active Sentences and Passive Sentences

Before getting to know more about active sentences and passive sentences in Indonesian grammar, what do they mean? Active voice can be interpreted as a sentence where the subject performs an activity or action and uses certain verbs in the activity or action. This sentence is very easy to understand because most of it can be found in daily reading texts that are enjoyed.

Its existence is very useful considering that this sentence can convey messages or information more clearly and more precisely to the recipient. It is called an active sentence because the subject in this sentence can only do something to the object because of an intermediary.

Active voice serves to provide an explanation of the activity or action that someone is doing or has done something. The existence of a subject, predicate, and usually added with information is emphasized in its use in conversation or in writing. This sentence needs to be maximized in its use, especially for those who are learning or studying Indonesian, be it writing or delivering it.

While passive sentences are sentences in which the subject gets treatment, action, or giving certain verbs in their activities or actions. In other words, passive sentences show that the subject is the part that is the goal of an action that is being or has been done. In the passive sentence structure, the subject becomes the part that is subject to an action or activity. The subject in the passive sentence does not have the position of the actor, but the role of the actor is held by the object.

Basically, the two sentences are contradictory in their usage. However, both of them have a relationship where active sentences can be changed to passive sentences and vice versa. A passive sentence can also be changed into a passive sentence. Both active sentences and passive sentences, both are connected to each other.

Characteristics of Active Sentences and Passive Sentences

Active sentences and passive sentences have different characteristics for some of their uses in writing or orally. The characteristics of active sentences are as follows.

1. Me- or predicate affixes

The affixes me- or ber- in active sentences have an important role because they can distinguish them from other sentences, including passive sentences. This affix is ​​located in the predicate of the sentence which describes or describes an action performed by the subject. The predicate in the active sentence is a verb that indicates an activity carried out by the subject. The presence of affixes makes the predicate change into a worn verb. The meaning of the verb aus is a word that does not require affixes because if affixes are added, they will become ambiguous and have no meaning.

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Predicate affixes also make the sentence to be conveyed unclear and not in accordance with the purpose to be conveyed. Some verbs include eating, sleeping, bathing, going home, and so on. These words if given affixes, then the meaning will be very much different. If you find the word aus in a sentence or in a series of sentences, it is almost certain that it is an active sentence.

2. Subject Performs Action Directly

Active voice indicates that the subject is taking or has taken a direct action which makes it easy for the reader to understand the author’s intent. With this, the meaning that is sometimes in the author’s writing can be more perfectly conveyed to the recipient so as to reduce differences in perception.

3. Have an SPOK (Subject-Predicate-Object-Description) or SPK (Subject-Predicate-Description) Pattern

The pattern of the subject followed by the predicate and the object plus the description may be familiar to you because this material is studied in Indonesian. In writing or conveying active sentences, the order of the pattern must be followed in order to provide clear and correct information. Active sentences can be in the form of SPOK or also in the form of SPK, depending on how the author or delivery wants to convey in a particular sentence.

Some things that must be considered when identifying the presence of passive sentences are as follows:

1. Affixes ter-, di-, ter-an, ter- kean to the predicate

The affixes in passive sentences indicate the subject in the sentence acts as a party subject to work or acts as a victim. If the affixes above in the predicate are found in a sentence, then the sentence is included in the passive sentence.

2. The Subject Does Not Take Action Directly

If in the active sentence the subject is the party that does the action directly, it is different from the passive voice. In this sentence, the subject changes to the party subject to an action. The position of the subject in the passive sentence is the object in the active sentence and vice versa.

3. Having Pronouns that Can Show a Possession

Pronouns that show belonging in the first, second, or third person are called personal pronouns. In the formation of a sentence, personal pronouns can join the subject or object and the predicate with the object. If the personal pronoun joins the predicate and the object, then it can be ascertained that the sentence is included in the passive sentence. In addition, the part of the object is usually marked with the word “by” or “with”, but this has no effect. Because, the presence or absence of the word does not change the meaning of the passive sentence.

Types of Active Sentences and Passive Sentences

In its structure, active sentences can be divided into four, namely transitive, intransitive, semitransitive, and dwitransitive.

1. Transitive Active Sentences

This sentence is a sentence that requires an object in the sentence arrangement in order to complete the sequence. In its use, the transitive can be changed to passive by changing the verb into the passive form with affixes. In addition, to change it to be passive, the position of the subject and the object must be exchanged so that the arrangement becomes more precise. The order of the sentences is subject-predicate-object.

2. Intransitive Active Sentences

Intransitive active sentences are sentences that are the opposite of transitive, where the object is an element that is not needed in its composition. Instead of losing the role of the object, adverbs or complementary words are added to it. Sentences can be arranged into subject-predicate-adverb or complement. The loss of the position of the object makes this sentence irreversible in the passive.

3. Semitransitive Active Sentences

This sentence is a sentence that does not require an object in a series of sentences and can only be followed by complementary elements. Semitransitive active sentences cannot be changed into passive sentences because there is no object in them.

4. Dwitransitive Active Sentences

The last active sentence is a dwitransitive where this sentence is formed from additional objects and complements in the sentence. Due to the presence of an object in it, it can be changed into a passive form.

Passive sentences based on the predicate and object can be classified into four. The four types of sentences are as follows.

1. Transitive Passive Sentences

Transitive passive sentences are sentences that are composed of a series of subject-predicate-object followed by adverbs or complementary words. If it is not followed by an adverb or a complement, it is not too problematic because it can already be assembled into a complete sentence.

2. Intransitive Passive Sentences

This sentence is a passive voice without an object. The existence of the object is replaced by an adverb or a complement word. So that the sentence pattern formed becomes a subject-predicate-adverb or a subject-predicate-complementary word.

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3. Passive Action Sentences

Passive action sentences are sentences in which the position of the predicate acts as a form of activity or certain action. Affixes can be added to the predicate in the form of di or in the form of di-kan depending on the context of the sentence to be arranged.

4. Passive Sentences of Circumstances

While the passive sentence is a condition where the predicate plays a role in the form of circumstances. The affixes to predicates arranged in a series of sentences can be an.

Difference between Active Sentences and Passive Sentences

Active sentences and passive sentences in language basically do not have many striking differences in their use. However, the use with other accompanying sentences is what distinguishes the two, both in Indonesian, English, and others. For example, the use of active sentences and passive sentences in English must follow a form of English grammar structure which is quite complicated.

The form of both must follow the rules as in the form of simple present tense, past tense, perfect tense, past continuous, and so on. Meanwhile, in Indonesian, the rules for using both are not as complicated as in English.

Broadly speaking, active sentences and passive sentences have 3 fundamental differences seen from the sentence structure. The three differences are as follows:

a. The subject in the active sentence is the party that does the work, while the subject in the passive voice is the party that is subject to the work.
b. The predicate in active sentences usually has the affixes ber- or me, while in passive sentences they are ter-, di-, ter-an, ter- impressed.
c. Active sentences usually do not require by or with phrases, in contrast to passive sentences which usually require by or with phrases.

Examples of Active and Passive Sentences

Here are some examples of active sentences according to their classification.

1. Transitive Active Sentences

a. Farmers are hoeing rice fields.
Farmers are positioned as the subject, hoeing is the predicate as a verb, while rice fields are the objects that are hoeed by farmers.

b. Monkey eats banana
The word monkey is the subject, eat is the predicate and includes the word aus because it doesn’t need an affix, and banana is the object in the sentence above.

2. Intransitive Active Sentences

a. Buffalo bathing in mud
Buffalo is a subject, bathing is a predicate, and in mud is an adverb that shows the location of a place.

b. The athlete competes with enthusiasm
The word athlete is a subject, competing is a predicate word, and with enthusiasm is a complementary word.

3. Semitransitive Active Sentences

a. Children playing happily
The word children is a subject, playing is a predicate, while happily is a complement.

b. The workers work very hard
The workers are in the position of the subject, the word work is a word that has the position of the predicate, and very hard is a complement.

5. Dwitransitive Active Sentences

a. Dad bought a new bicycle
for his sister.
b. Mother is shopping for vegetables and meat for dinner.
Mother is a word that shows the subject, shopping is a word that shows the predicate, vegetables and meat are objects, while for dinner is a complementary word.

Meanwhile, below are some examples of passive sentences based on the object and the predicate.

1. Transitive Passive Sentences

a. The car has been repaired by Ayah
Car is the subject, has been repaired is the predicate, and the word by Ayah is the object.
b. The banana is eaten by a hungry monkey.
The banana shows the subject, eaten is the predicate, the monkey refers to the object, and the hungry is the auxiliary word.

2. Intransitive Passive Sentences

a. The shirt was inked yesterday afternoon.
The word clothes is the subject, exposed is the predicate, and the word yesterday afternoon shows a complement.
b. The cat is trapped in a cage.
The cat is a subject, confined is a predicate, while in a cage is an adverb that indicates a place.

3. Passive Action Sentences

a. The result of my work was made by my brother.
The word that was made by my work shows the subject, made is a predicate with the affix di- which is a form of action, and by my brother is an object.
b. The building was torn down by the government.
The building refers to the subject, torn down is a predicate with the affix di- indicating a form of action, while the government is an object.

4. Passive Sentences of Circumstances

a. That person had an accident because he was drowsy.
That person refers to the subject, accident is a predicate indicating a condition with the affix affix, and because sleepy is a complementary word.
b. The house was flooded last month
The house is the subject, flooded is a predicate that shows the condition with the affix of ke-an, while last month shows the word complement.

That’s a review of active sentences and passive sentences in Indonesian. Studying these two sentences can increase your ability to speak Indonesian and indirectly help you preserve it in everyday life. Besides that, you also have to use it properly and correctly as a form of love for language and the intent and message in it can be conveyed perfectly. In fact, learning your mother tongue is one of the most enjoyable things.

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