Passive sentences are – When writing sentences in Indonesian, of course there are a lot of variations. In fact, with the selection of the right sentence, it can produce a paragraph that is easy to understand. In Indonesian, sentences can be divided into two types, namely passive sentences and active sentences.
These two sentences are often used by many Indonesians. In addition, passive sentences and active sentences have been taught since we were still in elementary school. Talking about these two sentences must be very long, so on this occasion, we will only discuss passive sentences.
Then, do you already know about passive sentences? If you haven’t or you forgot about the discussion about passive sentences, then you can refer to this article, Sinaumed’s.
Definition of Passive Sentences
Passive sentence is a type of sentence which states that the subject in the sentence receives the action from the object. In a passive sentence, the subject does not take action, but accepts the action. An example of a passive sentence is The book was written by him .
Using passive sentences can have an effect on the way the reader or listener captures the information in the sentence. In the example above, the main focus is on the book and who wrote it, not who did the writing action.
However, passive sentences can also be less effective in conveying information. Active voice, which puts the subject in the position of taking action, is easier to understand and more effective in conveying information. An example of an active sentence from the example above is “ He wrote the book ” (He wrote the book).
In general, passive sentences are more often used in scientific or legal texts, while active sentences are more often used in everyday communication. However, the use of passive or active sentences depends on the context and purpose of communication. In simple terms, it is an explanation of the passive voice, its use depends on the context and purpose of communication. However, in formal writing such as reports or essays, it is better to avoid using the passive voice as they are less effective at conveying information.
Passive Sentence Structure
In Indonesian, a passive sentence structure is a sentence structure that uses the verb “to use” (used as the passive form of the verb “to use”) and shows that the subject of the sentence receives the action of the verb. For example:
- This book is used by them. (They wear this book.)
- The cake was baked by mother. (Mom baked the cake.)
- The house was built by carpenters. (The carpenter built the house.)
Note that in passive sentence structure, the subject of the sentence is usually unknown or unspecified. If you want to state the subject specifically, then we can add the preposition “by” in front of the subject. Example:
- This book is used by those who have borrowed it.
- The cake was baked by my mother in the kitchen.
- The house was built by a famous carpenter in this town.
Passive sentence structure in Indonesian consists of several elements, namely subject, predicate, and actor. The subject in the passive voice is the person or thing that receives the action or actions taken by the actor. In the example “Order received by me by courier”, the subject is “order”.
The predicate in the passive sentence is a verb that shows the action or action taken by the actor. In this example, the predicate is “accepted”. The actor in the passive voice is the person or thing that performs the action or action. In this example, the culprit is the “courier”. Actors in passive sentences are usually indicated by the word “by” after the predicate.
In general, the passive sentence structure in Indonesian is “accepted (predicate) + by (subject) + by (performer)”. It should be remembered that in Indonesian the passive voice is not as popular as in other languages, so in the appropriate context the active voice is used.
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Back to discussing passive sentences again, Sinaumed’s. In the next discussion, we will discuss about the types of passive sentences. So, keep reading this article until it’s finished.
Types of Passive Sentences
Passive sentences are sentences where the subject does not perform the action given by the verb (verb), but the subject accepts the action. In the passive voice, the doer of the action is usually not named or placed in front of the subject.
Passive sentence layers are different from active sentences. According to the comments of experts such as Kridalaksana (1993) explains that there are 2 types of passive sentences, namely the subject is a sentence that has an object or subject that is carrying out activities. There are also passive sentences without a subject because they are not the main focus. In contrast to Sugono’s comments (2009), passive sentences consist of the prefix di-, passive sentences with the prefix di- plus an actor, and passive sentences with the prefix ter-.
Transitive passive sentences are sentences that indicate that the subject receives the action of the object. In transitive passive sentences, the subject of the sentence is in the passive position and the object of the sentence is in the active position. Examples of transitive passive sentences: The cake was eaten by the boy . (The cake is eaten by the boys.)
Semitransitive passive sentences are sentences that indicate that the subject in the sentence accepts the action of the object, but does not indicate who is doing the action. An example is The book was read by the students . (The book is read by the students.) In this sentence, the subject “the book” receives the action of the object “the students,” but it does not indicate who specifically performs the reading action.
Passive sentences are sentences where the subject receives the action of the object in the sentence. For example, The ball was kicked by the boy . In this sentence, the subject “ball” receives the action “herded” from the object “boy”.
Passive sentences are sentences that describe that the subject receives action from the object. Passive state is a form of passive sentence which describes that the subject is in a certain state or condition. For example: The book is being read by the student (the book is being read by students). In this sentence, the subject (“book”) receives the action (“being read”) from the object (“student”). The passive state here is “being read” which indicates that the book is being read.
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After knowing about the types of passive sentences, then in the following discussion, we will discuss the characteristics of passive sentences.
Characteristics of Passive Sentences
In Indonesian, there are several characteristics that can be used to identify passive sentences. Following are some of them:
1. Passive sentences use the auxiliary verb “used” or “in” before the second form of the verb
For example: “My order was processed by the cashier.” (passive voice) “The cashier took my order.” (Active sentence)
2. The subject of the passive sentence is the object of the action being performed
For example: “My order was processed by the cashier.” (The subject is “my order”)
3. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
For example: “My order was processed by the cashier.” (The object is “cashier”)
4. Passive sentences do not indicate the culprit
For example: “My order was processed.” (Not shown who processed the order)
5. The verb in the passive voice is always the 2nd form of the verb (done)
For example: “My order was processed by the cashier.” (The verb is “processed”)
Remember that the passive voice doesn’t always have to contain the auxiliary verb “used” or “in” before the second form of the verb. There are several verbs that automatically form passive sentences without the need to use the auxiliary verb, such as “understood”, “known”, “reported”, and so on.
The Difference between Passive Sentences and Active Sentences
Passive sentences and active sentences are two types of sentences that differ in form and function.
Active voice shows the subject doing the action. In active sentences, the subject is at the front of the sentence and is followed by a verb that shows the action taken by the subject. For example: “John reads a book” (John = subject, read = verb).
The passive voice shows the subject receiving the action. In passive sentences, the subject comes at the end of the sentence and is followed by the verb that is accepted by the subject. For example: “The book was read by John” (book = subject, read = verb).
In general, active sentences are used to convey focus on the action performed by the subject, while passive sentences are used to convey focus on the result of the action or the object that receives the action.
Keep in mind, the passive voice also needs a “by” to show who is doing the action. However, passive sentences are often considered less effective in everyday communication because they are more complicated and less clear than active sentences.
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Passive sentences are sentences in which the subject does not perform the action governed by the verb, but the subject accepts the action. In passive sentences, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.
The passive voice is often used to emphasize the object of an action, or to avoid mentioning who performed the action. For example, the sentence “ The box was carried by John ” emphasizes the box as the object of the act carried, while the sentence “ The crime was committed by an unknown suspect ” disguises who did the action.
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