Direct Sentences and Indirect Sentences – When you want to write a short story or other prose framework, does Sinaumed’s ever pay attention to what type of sentences are appropriate to use? Yep, the process of writing is not only about expressing ideas and forms of written language , but also having to consider what sentences are appropriate. In all kinds of sentences, there are direct sentences and indirect sentences. Does Sinaumed’s still remember the Indonesian material?
Direct speech and indirect speech have different forms. In fact, some people often distinguish it from the presence of quotation marks that fill the two types of sentences. Then actually, what are direct sentences and indirect sentences? What are the distinguishing features between the two? What about other types of sentences other than direct and indirect sentences? So, so that Sinaumed’s understands these things, let’s look at the following review!
Definition of Direct Sentence
Basically, direct speech is a sentence that is directly spoken by a speaker. According to Kosasih (2017), states that direct speech is a sentence that carefully imitates something someone has said. Usually, the quotation section will be in the form of interrogative sentences, declarative sentences, or imperative sentences. Then, Asul Wiyanto (2019) also argues about the definition of direct speech, which is a sentence that tells how what a third person has said is what it is. When these words are written, the original words will be enclosed in double quotation marks.
In direct sentences in the form of news sentences, it will later contain events or events from the source directly. When written down, it will later imitate, quote, or repeat the words of the source, which of course will be enclosed in double quotation marks.
Characteristics of Direct Sentences
In a direct sentence it has the following characteristics:
- In direct sentences, sentences are usually marked with double quotation marks (“….”).
- The first letter in the quoted sentence will be capitalized.
- Excerpts and accompanying sentences are separated by commas (,).
- Direct sentences in the form of sequential dialogue must use a colon (:) in front of the direct sentence.
- In the quotation section, it is common to find interrogative sentences, declarative sentences, and imperative sentences.
Direct Sentence Structure
The structure of writing a direct sentence is usually very simple, in the form of:
- “[statement uttered by subject]” (,) [verb beginning with lowercase letter] [subject].
Example: “Yesterday Arkie did the math group assignment”, said Felix.
- [Subject] [verb] (,) “[statement made by the subject beginning with a capital letter] [punctuation mark]”
Example: Felix says, “Yesterday Arkie did the math group assignment.”
However, there are several sources which state that the structure of writing a direct sentence is in the form of:
Example: Meta says, “Open that window so it doesn’t get hot!”
Example: “Let’s go now!” shouted Claire angrily at her friends in the school field.
Example: “Sir, you are asked to come” said Luke, “to the Biology lab room later at 11 o’clock.”
Direct Sentence Examples
- “I will watch the concert today”, said Sabda.
- “Do not move!” the police snapped at the thief.
- Luna said, “Farel will clean the windows the day after tomorrow.”
- “Who hasn’t brought their group assignments today?” asked the teacher before starting math class.
- “Ida, you are called Mrs. Heni”, said Clara, “was told to meet him at the teacher’s office.”
Definition of Indirect Sentences
Basically, this indirect sentence will not use quotation marks. According to Kosasih (2017), indirect sentences are sentences that report something on someone’s speech. The quotation section will be in the form of a news sentence. Then according to Abdul Chaer (2018), indirect sentences are a change from direct sentences, namely those that are not directly spoken by a speaker. The definition of indirect sentences is also stated by Asul Wiyanto (2019), that indirect sentences are sentences that convey the content or intent of the words of a third person. So, in this indirect sentence, don’t imitate directly as it is.
Characteristics of Indirect Sentences
In an indirect sentence, there are the following characteristics:
- Do not use double quotation marks (“….”)
- Intonation seems to level off and decrease at the end of the sentence.
- The actor who states the utterance can change depending on the context of the sentence, namely: the first person pronoun becomes the third person. The second person pronoun becomes the first person.
- Has an assignment word in the form of: so, because, that, for, about, so that, and others.
- In the quotation section, it is usually in the form of a news sentence.
Indirect Sentence Structure
As with direct sentences, this indirect sentence also has its own structure, namely in the form of:
[subject] [predicate] conjunction] [the word spoken by the subject]
Example: Kynan said that yesterday Fara had gone to school
Examples of Indirect Sentences
- Neo told me to open the gate later if a packager comes.
- Mrs. Dewi said that the man who had just passed was her new husband.
- Mother asked Karina to immediately buy salt for her at the next shop.
- The father said that the electricity must be turned off before 10 o’clock at night.
- The doctor told Lisa not to eat spicy food like seblak anymore.
The difference between Direct Sentences and Indirect Sentences
Actually, between direct sentences and indirect sentences, the most striking difference is whether there are double quotation marks (“…”). Direct sentences are in the form of news sentences that contain events or incidents from other sources, by directly imitating, quoting, or repeating the words from that source. Meanwhile, indirect sentences are a variety of news sentences that contain events or events from other sources but the structure has been changed by the speaker, namely by not imitating or saying it directly again.
So, here are some differences between direct speech and indirect speech.
|Words that are quoted or spoken, will be preceded and ended using double quotation marks (“….”)
|Do not use double quotation marks (“…”)
|The intonation of the quotation has a higher pitch than the accompaniment.
|The intonation of reading is flat, not much different between the part of the accompanying sentence and the contents of the sentence being quoted.
|The first letter used after double quotation marks (“….”) is capitalized and ends with punctuation according to the type of sentence.
|There is a change in pronouns.
|The closing double quotation mark (“…”) will be written after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence.
|Everything is in the form of news sentences.
|Direct sentences in the form of sequential dialogue must use a colon (:) in front of the direct sentence.
|Usually there will be the words “that”, “because”, “for”, “so”, “about”, and certain other words that come after the accompanying sentence.
Know Other Sentence Types
Before discussing other types of sentences, it is better if Sinaumed’s understands what sentences are. Basically, a sentence is one of the elements of language in the form of a series of words. In the sentence will usually show the contents of the thoughts of the author in full. The basic pattern of a sentence is Subject + Predicate + Object + Adverb or Complementary. The predicate in a sentence does not have to be a verb or verb, but also nouns and adjectives.
Sentence is the smallest unit of language in spoken or written form that expresses the author’s thoughts as a whole and ends with final intonation, aka dot (.). Sentences are also the basic composition of a discourse. That is, a discourse will only be formed if there are two sentences or more which are located sequentially and are based on discursive rules.
The types of sentences commonly used in a text can be reviewed based on certain things, starting from:
- Predicate type
- Place the predicate
- Completeness of the elements
- Expansion of the elements
- Number of patterns
- The speaking aspect
- The culprit
Types of Sentences According to the Type of the Predicate
- Verb Sentence
That is a sentence whose predicate is formed from the existence of a verb or verb. Example: Rafa rode his new bicycle this morning.
- Noun Sentence
That is a sentence whose predicate is formed from a noun or noun phrase. Example: Kynan is a girl .
Types of Sentences According to the Location of the Predicate
- Normal Sentences
That is a sentence whose subject precedes the predicate. Usually, the sentence pattern in this type of sentence is the basic pattern, namely SPOK. Example: Yudha notes the teacher’s questions.
- Inversion Sentence
That is a sentence where the predicate comes before the subject. Example: Mr. threw the trash away.
Types of Sentences According to the Completeness of the Elements
- Minor Sentences
Namely a sentence that consists of only one central element. That is, there is only one word but it is able to show the meaning of the sentence. Example: “Close!”, “Help!”, “Hurry!”.
- Elliptical Sentence
That is a sentence in which one of the central elements is omitted because the reader must have understood it even though the element is not present. Example: He is going to Jakarta, but I am going to Bandung. – He will go to Jakarta, but I will go to Bandung.
In the second sentence, the word “went” in the clause can be omitted and the meaning will remain the same.
- Major Sentence
Namely a sentence that contains at least two central elements which consist of a subject and predicate (SP) or can even be more than that, for example given a description (SPOK). Example: Nature (S) will leave (P) tomorrow morning (K)
Types of Sentences Based on the Expansion of the Elements
- Core Sentence
Actually, this core sentence is a major sentence which only consists of two main elements to become its central element, namely the core element of the subject and the predicate element. The characteristics of the main sentence are as follows:
- Consists of two words.
- Normal intonation.
- Has the usual arrangement.
The twins, who were born, died after being treated for sixteen days in an incubator.
Key sentence: the child died.
- Transformational Sentence
Namely a core sentence that has received expansion. Example:
Key sentence: He’s gone
- He’s leaving
- He will go with me
- He will go with me tomorrow morning
Types of Sentences Based on the Number of Patterns
- Single Sentence
That is a sentence that only consists of one sentence pattern or one clause only. Sentence patterns in this type are formed by the subject and predicate. However, there are also more complete patterns, namely subject, predicate, object, complement or description. Example: Raka comes home from school.
- Compound Sentences
Namely a sentence consisting of two sentence patterns or two even more clauses. This compound sentence can usually be formed from the combination of several single sentences. In this type of sentence, it can be classified into three types, namely:
- Equivalent compound sentences, which are connected by equivalent conjunctions.
- Multilevel compound sentences, which are connected by unequal conjunctions.
- Mixed compound sentences, which are connected by equivalent and unequal conjunctions with three or more clauses.
Types of Sentences Based on the Actor
1. Active Voice
That is a sentence whose predicate does a job. The main characteristic of this sentence is that the predicate is a verb starting with me(N) and ber-. Example: Fikri is reading.
2. Passive Sentences
That is a sentence whose subject is imposed by the work. Usually, the predicate in this type of sentence will start with at- or ter-. Example: The ball was kicked by Arkie.
3. Direct and Indirect Sentences
a) Direct Sentences
Namely sentences in the form of news sentences that contain events or incidents from other sources, by directly imitating, quoting, or repeating the words from that source. Example: Adi says, “Collect the picture books today!”
b) Indirect Sentences
Namely a variety of news sentences that contain events or incidents from other sources but the structure has been changed by the speaker, namely by not imitating or saying it again directly. Example: Mr. Agus said that we are all asked to immediately go to the school hall now.
So, that’s a review of what direct and indirect sentences are and the types of sentences that writers usually use in order to express their ideas. Does Sinaumed’s often use these direct and indirect sentences when writing a paper?
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