How to Write Direct and Indirect Quotations – Indonesian is one of the subjects that is often underestimated by students at school. As the mother tongue, many students think that they have mastered the language they have often used since they could speak it.
However, in reality, there are still many of them who experience mistakes when writing or speaking Indonesian. This could be caused because they do not take Indonesian lessons seriously, causing unnecessary mistakes.
Get to know Direct Quotations and Indirect Quotations
One of the mistakes that can be found, this time in writing scientific report texts, is when they write direct quotations and indirect quotations. In fact, how to write direct quotations and indirect quotations is not that difficult to understand, you know.
Before learning how to write direct quotations and indirect quotations for scientific texts, it is better for Sinaumed’s to know and understand the two types of writing in advance. Here’s an explanation.
Direct quotation is a form of quotation that copies directly from the original text source, without making any changes in the writing. When writing a direct quote, Sinaumed’s also needs to include the source of the quote, which is usually listed at the beginning or end of the sentence.
In addition, direct quotations also have 2 types, namely long direct quotations and short direct quotations. Long direct quotes are 40 words or more , and can take up to 3 lines of a paragraph . While short direct quotations have a word count below 40, and the number of lines does not reach 3 lines.
Contrary to a direct quote, an indirect quote is a type of quote in which Sinaumed’s is allowed to change the content of the quote, without losing the essence and intent of the related quote. Of course, Sinaumed’s is also required to include the source of the quote.
There are 2 options when writing indirect quotes. The first is to paraphrase the quote, which is to replace a number of words and sentences without changing the meaning of the quote. The second way is to summarize, summarize, and conclude the contents of the quote .
How to Write Direct and Indirect Quotations
If Sinaumed’s already understands what direct quotations and indirect quotations are, we can enter into a discussion of the steps and how to write direct and indirect quotations.
How to write direct and indirect quotes is not difficult, really. However, there are still a number of things that must be considered, starting from the format of writing and how to cite. Here are the basics that must be considered for writing direct quotations and indirect quotations.
In general, sources of quotations are taken from scientific journals, books or other scientific works. Even so, Sinaumed’s can also adapt from websites on the internet, provided that the website presents facts that can be validated as proof of their truth.
The Basics of Citation Writing
Apart from that, there are also things that need to be considered by Sinaumed’s, especially regarding the correct format for writing citations. This writing format applies both to writing direct quotations and writing indirect quotations. Here’s the presentation.
- Write the author’s name from the source quote
If you cannot find the original author of the citation, you can write down the name of the publisher or the name of the organization that wrote the citation. The following is an example of writing the author’s name for the source of the quote:
- Sumadiria (2005)
- Oxford Paperback Dictionary (1979)
- Procedure for writing citation sources
There are at least 4 ways that you can apply in writing citation sources. The writing of this quote depends on whether Sinaumed’s wants to include the page where the quote was taken or not. Here’s an example of 4 sources of quotation writing:
- Duraid (2007)
- Djuraid (2007:19)
- (Djuraid, 2007)
- (Djuraid, 2007:19)
- Put the source at the end of the sentence
This way of writing is a way that is generally used in writing quotations. Sinaumed’s can also combine sources with writing sentences. Here are two examples of both writing quotes:
“Learning media are all forms of physical tools that can present messages for learning either through books, films, tapes, and other educational media” (Briggs, 1970) , or;
Briggs (1970), expressed the opinion that “learning media are all forms of physical tools that can present messages for learning either through books, films, tapes, and other educational media.”
- Citing 2 authors citation sources
There are times when Sinaumed’s finds 2 authors who make up the quoted sources. If you find this case, Sinaumed’s simply adds an “and” (&) between the two authors. The rest, can follow the rules previously explained. Here’s an example of writing:
Doug Newson & James A. Wollert (1985:11), said “news is anything that people want and need to know or more broadly the public.”
- Quoting what has been previously quoted
Sometimes, writers quote the writings of other writers in their writings. In this situation, Sinaumed’s could claim that this quote has been quoted by another author. Here’s how to write it:
“News is a report about events that occur that the public wants to know, with actual characteristics, occurring in the reader’s environment, regarding prominent figures, as a result of these events affecting the reader.” (Nasution, quoted in Aliet, 2008).
- Citing many different sources
Sinaumed’s can also cite 2 different sources, and put them in the same sentence. The trick is to separate the two sources with a semicolon (;), and sort them alphabetically. Here’s an example of writing:
“Money is something that is commonly used in transactions or a medium of exchange, and has the ability to transform and change the social world towards the arithmetic world and is used as the purest means of reification.” (AC Pigou, 1949; Georg Simmel, 1900).
How to Write a Direct Quote
As already discussed, direct quotations have 2 types in writing, namely long direct quotations and short direct quotations. Both also have their own way of writing, and can be adjusted according to Sinaumed’s’ needs in writing these 2 types of citations. Here’s the presentation.
1. Writing Long Direct Quotations
What needs to be considered in writing long direct quotations is the writing format. The following are things that need to be applied in writing long direct quotes:
- Spaces are single spaces.
- Quotations are not incorporated into the text, but are written separately.
- Writing quotes do not use quotation marks.
- Writing sources of quotations only needs to state the name of the author, year of publication, and pages if necessary.
- Text writing is made indented.
To clarify the format for writing long direct quotations, here’s an example of text from a related writing style:
There is not as much information about the marine environment as information on land, because of how wide the sea surface is. This is in accordance with the statements of a number of experts (Austin, 1988; Prager and Earle, 2000). they say:
The ocean is the world’s largest habitat in which there are still many secrets that have not been revealed. The sea covers more than two-thirds or seventy percent of the earth’s surface. The total area of the sea that covers the earth is 3.61 x 108 km 2 , with an average depth of 3,800 m and provides about 97 percent of the total space for life on earth.
2. Writing Short Direct Quotations
Short direct quotations also have their own writing format, which is different from writing long direct quotations. The following explains the procedure for writing short direct quotations that Sinaumed’s can apply:
- Quotations are unified or aligned with the text.
- Quotations must be written using quotation marks.
- Writing sources of quotations can be placed at the beginning or end of writing. If writing sources at the beginning of the sentence, the author’s name is placed outside the parentheses. If writing sources at the end of the sentence, the author’s name is placed in parentheses along with the year and page number.
Below is an example of writing a short direct quote to clarify how to write this type of quote:
The word technology can lead to the topic of art, as explained by Capra (2004), namely “technology is one of the systematic discussions of applied art or carpentry. This refers more to Greek literature mentions of Technologia which comes from the word techne, which means art discourse.”
How to Write an Indirect Quote
As is the case with how to write direct quotations, indirect quotations also have a number of rules that need to be considered so that they are not mistaken in writing. As already mentioned, Sinaumed’s has 2 options for writing indirect quotations, namely by paraphrasing or summarizing the contents of the quoted source.
1. How to Paraphrase an Indirect Quote
Paraphrasing is a method for rewriting a sentence or paragraph, without losing the content or meaning contained in the text, in this case, the source of the quote. Sinaumed’s changes the word structure and the diction in it, without changing the meaning the author wants to convey.
Here’s an example if you want to try paraphrasing an indirect quote:
“An adult is someone who has completed his growth and is ready to accept his position in society along with other adults.” (Elizabeth Hurlock, 1991).
Text after paraphrasing:
Based on the thoughts of Elizabeth Hurlock (1991), it can be concluded that adults are people who have ended the process of development and growth, and are able to live side by side with other adults in the social life of society.
2. How to Summarize for an Indirect Quote
As Sinaumed’s knows, summarizing is the process of taking the essence of a text or conversation, and eliminating explanations that are considered less important and do not have any effect on the essence of the related information.
Below, you can see an example of the process of summarizing the sources of a quote, to write an indirect quote.
“Communication is a form of human interaction that influences one another, intentionally or unintentionally. Not limited to forms of communication using verbal language, but also in terms of facial expressions, painting, art and technology.” (Shannon & Weaver, 1949)
Text after summarizing:
Shannon & Weaver (1949), argued that communication is human interaction to influence one another, using various mediums in the process.
How to Write Quotes from the Internet
Basically, it is not recommended to take quotations from the internet, especially for scientific writing purposes. Sinaumed’s probably already knows that not all writing on the internet comes from valid and verifiable sources.
Even so, there are still a number of websites that can be verified, so that they can be used as a source for quoting writings. If Sinaumed’s manages to find a related website, here’s how to write a quote that comes from the internet.
- Re-ensure that the website has valid information for scientific work. This must still be done so that scientific work does not have errors in conveying information.
- Look for the author’s name and the year the article was published on the website . This author’s name will later become the source of the author who is included when quoting writing from the website .
- The rest, the process of citing sources from the internet is the same as citing writings from other scientific works. Here’s one example of writing a quote whose source comes from the internet:
Russia’s attack on Ukraine had an impact on world oil prices. This is in line with Siladitya Ray’s statement (2022), which revealed that global stock markets continued to be rocked by the deepening conflict in Ukraine, while global crude oil prices had reached a 14-year high.
Purpose and Reasons for Quoting
So far, we’ve learned how to write direct and indirect quotes correctly. But, Sinaumed’s might think, why quote other writings? Can’t we write scientific papers with only our own thoughts?
Believe it or not, quoting has several reasons and purposes, all of which will be useful to help simplify the process of writing scientific papers. If you narrow it down, the purpose or reason for quoting other writings is divided into 2. The following is a brief explanation regarding the reasons and reasons for quoting.
- Citing writing with the aim of supporting facts, concepts, and ideas contained in scientific work, by using other facts according to the topic of the writing.
- Quoting writing with reasons adds to the explanation in scientific papers. This of course adjusts to the topic being discussed. Additional explanations can be placed directly in the text, or in footnotes.
When we quote from a scientific work, we must write down the complete source from where we quoted the statement in the bibliography. This is something that should not be missed at the end of the scientific paper writing process. If Sinaumed’s does not write down a complete bibliography regarding the results of the quotations taken, it is possible to be considered as falsifying facts, because the source of the writing is not very clear and cannot be proven true or not.
Enough articles discussing how to write direct and indirect quotations. Hopefully with this article, Sinaumed’s can minimize or even eliminate mistakes in quoting an article for scientific work purposes.
Of course, there is much more knowledge from us, sinaumedia, #SahabatUnlimits, that we want to share with Sinaumed’s . If you are interested in deepening your knowledge in any field, Sinaumed’s can visit the www.sinaumedia.com website to find books according to your interests and interests.
Author: Adrianto Sukarso