Characteristics of Observation Report Text and Complete Explanation

The characteristics of the text of the observation report – In general, the text of the observation report is a text that contains a general explanation or a text in the form of a report based on what a person gets from observations. The text of the observation report contains contents regarding the classification of the observed species based on certain criteria.

Basically, the text of the observation report is a text that describes an object in its characteristics, shape and general characteristics. The observed objects can be animals, plants, objects, humans, social, cultural or even events that occur with reference to facts, objectives or existing realities.

The characteristics of the observation report text are actually almost the same as the description text, but there are some fundamental differences. In order to understand more clearly the characteristics of the observation report text, see the explanation further in this article.

Understanding the text of the Observation Report

According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), the text of the observation report is a manuscript that has the original word form of the author.

If interpreted literally, the meaning of the report is everything that is conveyed, complained about and reported. Meanwhile, observation can be interpreted as an observation activity that has the task of carrying out a careful review.

As a text that has the form of a report, a report can be understood as a general way of communication carried out by researchers or experts with the aim of conveying information to the fullest.

This is what then makes the report must be written in accordance with the type and form of documents that contain facts and information about a problem. Meanwhile, observation can also be interpreted as a tool used to be able to determine the size of the behavior of certain individuals.

Observation is often interpreted as a tool used to perform a calculation on an activity process that is observed by someone. According to Margono, the word observation is defined as observation as well as recording which is carried out systematically and is related to various signs that appear on the object of research.

This is what makes the notes or text of the observations contain various facts found by the observer in accordance with what was seen and heard.

From the explanation of reports and observations, it can be concluded that the text of the observation report can be interpreted as a note or script written in accordance with the observation activities.

Observation report texts are generally used to obtain in-depth research results on humans, animals, objects, plants, culture, social or on certain environmental conditions. The text of the observation report in general also contains various kinds of facts that can be proven scientifically.

Characteristics of Observation Report Text

As explained earlier, the observation report text actually has characteristics that are almost the same as the description text. However, both are different types of text. Then, what are the characteristics of the observation report text that are different from the descriptive text? Here’s an explanation.

1. Arranged systematically

The characteristics of the first observation report text is that the text is arranged systematically. It can be understood that the text of the report on the results of observations has an order according to the structure of the text of the report on the results of observations.

2. Contains an explanation from a scientific point of view

The text of the observation report is a text that contains an explanation using a certain scientific point of view. The text of the observation report has the task of being able to present the information that has been obtained based on the results of observations in accordance with the facts that actually occurred during the observation process.

Various kinds of information that has been collected cannot be simply presented, but must be scientifically proven.

3. Contains a discussion of certain objects or situations

The third feature of the observation report text is that the text contains a discussion of a particular object or situation that is discussed in general.

There are various kinds of objects used as observations in the text of the observation report, ranging from humans, animals, plants, ecosystems, social, culture to the environment.

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4. Has a detailed section of an object

The results of the text of the observation report contain the details of the parts of an object written by someone. The details of the sections referred to in the text of the observation report are a form of classification as well as information about the characteristics of an object used as an observation.

For example, there is a student observing the growth of sprouts. Then the characteristic that can be obtained from the sprouted object is that it has the form of a plant that belongs to a type of legume that lives around the tropics, has hairy stems, is green and brown in color.

5. The text of the observation report must be prepared using standard and clear language

The text of the observation report is a text composed by someone in order to be able to convey information to the general public. Because of this, the text of the observation report must be prepared using standard and clear language.

When writing a text report on the results of observations, a writer is required to understand the use of correct and good language, so that the results of the report can be clearly understood by the general public.

Apart from its purpose, the text of the observation report is scientific writing, so the authors are also required to use standard language so that the report is easier to understand.

In addition to the five characteristics of the text of the observation report, according to a book entitled Getting to Know the Types of Text (2019), the text of the observation report has the following characteristics:

  1. Must contain facts.
  2. Fully written and thorough.
  3. Report text is objective.
  4. Does not include deviant aspects, contains prejudice or partiality.
  5. Presented attractively using clear and logical language.

If observed at a glance, of course, Sinaumed’s will find some similarities in the characteristics of the text of the observation report with the description text. However, when examined further, both have different characteristics and goals.

The content of the observation report text is a description of an event in general that has a universal and global nature. Examples are the characteristics of a rose, the growth of a butterfly, the growth of a frog and so on. The results of observations can be in the form of habits, appearance or patterns of all parts.

Meanwhile, descriptive text describes a special event or phenomenon that has unique and individual characteristics. Descriptive text only explains or describes specific objects that occur at certain times.

Another feature of the observation report text that distinguishes it from a description text is that it is universal in nature, results from recent observations or research, uses good and correct Indonesian, discusses a single object and does not have a concluding section.

Observation Report Text Structure

In order to understand more about the observation report text, Sinaumed’s needs to know the structure of the observation report text.

1. Title 

The first part and the part that is quite important in the text of the observation report is the title. This title section is usually placed at the front and before the initial paragraph. The title can usually be a characteristic or characteristic that informs about the overall or outline of the contents of the text and the observations that have been made by the author.

2. General Statement

The second structure of the observation report text is a general classification. The general classification contains the outline of an object phenomenon that is being discussed in the text of the report.

In the text of the observation report, the general classification has the task of being able to introduce various kinds of information that will be presented to the general public or readers of the report text.

3. Part Description

In the third part of the text of the observation report, there is a section description. The description section generally contains various descriptions of the object or phenomenon being observed.

An example is when there is a researcher who researches or observes plants, the information that must be presented in the text of the report must be able to introduce roots, fruit, physical flowers and other data related to the object of observation.

4. Description of Benefits

The final observation report text structure is a description of the benefits of the written report text. The description of benefits contains various kinds of benefits as well as some special characteristics of the object being reported. In the description of the benefits, in general the author will also present a conclusion that can represent all the information contained in the text of the report on the results of these observations.

Purpose of Compiling Observation Result Report Text

As with other report texts, the observation report text is of course structured to fulfill certain objectives. One of the purposes of compiling a text of an observation report is to obtain information or an explanation of a problem based on a particular scientific point of view.

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The observation report text also has another purpose, namely to present various kinds of observations that have been made by the author to the reader accompanied by explanations in a systematic, in-depth, accurate and of course in accordance with the facts.

In addition to these two objectives, the text of the observation report has several other objectives. Here’s the explanation:

1. Information on classification 

The text of the observation report contains a variety of important information obtained from the observations and has been adjusted based on certain criteria.

Activities from observations made by the author can be objective or systematic. So that the writer can find an answer or hypothesis for a problem raised in the text of the report.

2. Based on facts

The purpose of preparing the text of the observation report is to present information about something based on the criteria and facts that existed in the field when the writer made the observations.

3. Draw conclusions 

After successfully determining the object of research from the results of observations, the writer can draw a conclusion that has benefits as learning material and increases knowledge. The conclusion of the observation report text is the same as the conclusion of the observation report text.

Language Rules of Observation Report Text 

It has been explained previously, that the text of the observation report is a scientific paper. So that the arrangement can not be haphazard. Authors must comply with the rules for preparing scientific papers, such as using standard and good language.

The information contained in the text of the observation report also contains data obtained by the author during the observation and can be proven scientifically.

The language rules used in the preparation of the observation report text are the style of language that is typically used in a report text or manuscript. Therefore, this linguistic rule is a differentiator between one type of text and another.

In compiling the text of the observation report, the writer will use a lot of nouns or noun phrases. Then the writer will also use a lot of nouns followed by descriptions.

For example in the following example sentences:

“The food is in the kitchen.” In this sentence, the noun is food and is included in the group of nouns or noun phrases. While the word in the kitchen has a function as a descriptive word, which is rich to explain the previous word.

So, the phrase in the sentence “food in the kitchen” is all the food in the kitchen. To make it clearer, consider the language rules used in the text of the observation report:

1. Relational verbs

The language rules used in the first observation report text are relational verbs. Relational verbs are generally used in certain terms in certain fields.

Examples of relational verbs are consisting of, called, constituted, classified, included and so on. Meanwhile, an example of the use of relational verbs in sentences is the following, “a pencil is an object that includes writing instruments.”

In the observation report text, not only use relational verbs, but also often use active verbs. Words that are included in active verbs generally do not have many affixes. Examples are drinking, sleeping, eating.

2. Conjunctions 

In compiling the text of the observation report, the writer usually uses conjunctions. The use of connecting words in the text of the observation report will be found a lot. Examples of addition conjunctions are as well as, and.

Then, there is also the use of equation conjunctions, for example, the words however, but, whereas, but, equations. There are also optional conjunctions such as or.

3. Using many scientific terms

As explained earlier, that the text of the observation report is a scientific paper. In the text of the report, it contains the results of observations and facts found by the author and must be scientifically proven.

For this reason, the linguistic rules used in the text of the report on the results of subsequent observations are to use many scientific terms. This scientific term will help the writer explain the object or event he observes.

Examples of scientific terms are symbiosis, degenerative, mutualism, osteoporosis, carnivore or others.

4. Main sentence 

Finally, the linguistic rules used in the text of the observation report are the main sentences. The main sentence used in the text of the observation report is to compile and present information.

Then, after using the main sentence, the description will be continued by using an explanatory sentence which contains detailed information reported in several paragraphs.

Thus the explanation of the characteristics of the observation report text and its full explanation. For Sinaumed’s who want to study other Indonesian language materials, they can find information by reading Indonesian language learning books.

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Author: Khansa