Characteristics of Late Adolescents Getting Mature Towards Adults

Characteristics of Late Adolescence – Adolescence consists of three stages, namely early adolescence, mid adolescence, and late adolescence. The classification is based on age. Early adolescents are usually in the age range of 10-13 years, middle adolescents are between the ages of 14-17 years, and late adolescents are between the ages of 18-24 years.

Adolescence is also referred to as adolescence. According to Hurlock, the term youth or youth comes from the Latin, namely adolescene which has the noun adolescentia which means to grow or grow into adulthood. People in ancient times saw puberty and youth as no different from other periods in human life. They are considered mature when they are able to reproduce.

Currently, adolescence is interpreted more broadly, which includes mental, emotional, and emotional maturity. This is in line with Piaget’s view, psychologically, youth is the age of an individual who integrates with adult society.

Age of children who feel they are no longer below the level of older people but are at the same level of money. At a minimum, in terms of integration with adult society, it has an effective aspect, more or less related to puberty, including striking intellectual changes.

The unique intellectual transformation of adolescent thinking provides the possibility to achieve integration in adult social relations. This is a characteristic that is common knowledge in the teenage period.

Meanwhile, Jhon W. Santrock, adolescence (adolescence) is a developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood which includes biological, cognitive, and social-emotional changes.

Meanwhile, according to Monks and Haditono, a teenager is someone who is in the age range of 12-21 years. Adolescence is also a transition from childhood to adulthood. Therefore, the mindset will change and process towards adulthood.

In line with Monks and Haditono, King also formulated the definition of youth. For him, youth is a human development which is marked by the transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence usually begins around the age of 12 and ends at the age of 18-21 years.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), youth is interpreted as starting to mature; has reached the age to marry; young; youth. The Ministry of Health defines youth as a period of human life in which rapid physical, psychological and intellectual growth and development occurs.

He has the characteristics of high curiosity, tends to dare to take risks from his actions without considering them carefully, and likes things that smell of adventure. Meanwhile, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), adolescents are people in the age range of 10 to 19 years.

Meanwhile, according to RI Health Regulations Number 25 of 2014, youth is defined as residents in the age range of 10-18 years and according to the Population and Family Planning Agency (BKKBN) the age range of adolescents is 10-24 years and unmarried.

Characteristics of the Adolescent Period

This adolescent phase can be identified from several characteristics that have been formulated by Hurlock as follows.

1. Adolescence as an Important Period

When children begin to enter adolescence, it will be accompanied by rapid development. Thus, causing mental adjustments and the formation of attitudes, new interests, and intentions.

2. Adolescence as a Transitional Period

At this time, adolescents enter a phase where they are no longer a child or an adult. They are in a transitional stage of status and there is doubt or uncertainty within the adolescent.

3. Adolescence as a Time of Change

Physical changes develop in harmony or in tandem with changes in attitudes and behavior. There are several types of changes that occur in adolescents. First, the height of emotional intensity depends on the level of physical and psychological changes. Because, usually, emotional changes happen more quickly during the early teenage years.

Second, body changes, roles, and interests that are influenced by the social environment. Third, changes in values ​​that are influenced by changes in interests and behavior patterns of adolescents.

4. Adolescence as a Troubled Age

Each phase of development has its own main problems. However, when teenagers are faced with problems, it tends to be difficult to overcome them on their own. Because of this, many teenagers conclude that solving or solving problems is not always in accordance with expectations and in the way that has been planned.

5. Adolescence as an Age of Searching for Identity

Adolescents in this stage begin to search for identity or the essence of their lives. they start to fret, get restless, and feel dissatisfied in many ways. The search for identity is done in any way, for example reading, watching, joining communities, exchanging ideas with others, and other ways.

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6. Adolescence as an Age of Fear

Teenagers are considered as a group of humans who are untidy, difficult to trust, and often destructive. This causes adults who are responsible for supervising and guiding the lives of adolescents to be afraid to take on that responsibility. They are also reluctant to be sympathetic to adolescent behaviors that are considered abnormal.

7. Adolescence as an Unrealistic Period

Teenagers will be easily disappointed and hurt if plans or goals are not achieved. They tend to see life with pink glasses. In his view, self and others are seen according to his wishes. Not from what they are.

Hopes and ideals are cultivated unrealistically. For example dreams or ideals that are not in accordance with self-ability or economy. This raises high emotions which are one of the characteristics of the early phase of adolescence.

8. Adolescence as the Threshold of Adulthood

Approaching the age of maturity or adulthood, adolescents become anxious to show that they are almost adults. At the same time eliminating the impression of stereotypes that have been attached to the new dozen and replacing it with a new view as an adult human being.

Characteristics of the Adolescent Phase

Titisari and Utami formulated several characteristics of adolescents as follows.

  • Physical and sexual development which is characterized by the rate of development which usually occurs very rapidly and the presence of secondary and primary sex characteristics.
  • From a psychosocial perspective, adolescents tend to separate themselves from their parents and expand their relationships with peers.
  • From a cognitive perspective, adolescent mentality has been able to think logically about various abstract ideas.
  • In terms of emotional development tends to be high. This is because the sexual organs develop and affect the hormones that control emotions.
  • In terms of moral development, teenagers who are in a circle must continue to act and behave according to the norms and rules they believe in. This also causes teenagers to violate applicable rules and values, such as having sex outside of marriage, drinking alcoholic beverages, brawls, and so on.
  • Personality development is an important phase for the development and self-integrity of adolescents.

Adolescent Classification

The teenage period can be classified by age as follows.

1. Early Adolescent Period

Children enter the adolescent phase when they are 10 years old. The age range of 10-13 years is included in the early adolescent phase. At this stage, children experience the early stages of puberty and start growing faster. Both boys and girls experience significant physical growth and an increase in sexual interest.

Not only that, body changes are also a concern for teenagers. For example, starting to grow hair under the arms and around the genitals, breast development in girls, and enlargement of the testicles in boys.

Girls usually grow faster than boys. They are one or two years ahead of boys. In fact, some changes in women are also normal to experience from the age of 8 years and 9 years for boys.

Usually, teenage girls start menstruating at the age of 12 or an average of 2 to 3 years after their breasts start to grow. Physical changes and adolescent mindsets make parents feel anxious and worried. Especially if you don’t know what’s normal and what’s not.

Some children may also question their gender identity in their teens. Meanwhile, cognitively, adolescents at this stage have begun to experience increased intellectual interest. They also have concrete thoughts.

For example, start looking for the truth about something (it can be good or bad) from various sources. Not only that, at this time, adolescents focus more on themselves, which is known as egocentrism.

Early stage adolescents also often feel that their appearance is judged by their friends. So, try as much as possible to wear appropriate and up-to-date clothes. This has an influence on the majority of adolescents who think that all judgments and thoughts of people about themselves are important to pay attention to.

During the early adolescent phase, there is usually an increased need for privacy. Teenagers will start looking for ways to be independent from the family. Not infrequently, teenagers also set limits or react violently if parents seem to be too restraining or interfering in personal matters.

2. Middle Adolescent Period

Adolescents aged 14-17 years are included in the mid-adolescence phase. Changes occur in the body of girls. such as the pelvis, waist and buttocks begin to enlarge, menstruation begins regularly, increased sweat production, and the reproductive organs develop.

Meanwhile, in boys growth begins to run rapidly. The body becomes taller, the body weight increases, pimples appear, the muscles get bigger, the shoulders and chest get wider, the voice cracks, the penis gets bigger, the growth of cumin, sideburns, and so on.

At this time, the mindset of adolescents is based on logic, but not infrequently it is also driven by feelings or emotions. They also begin to be interested in having a romantic relationship, such as dating. Has a tendency to prefer or spend more time with friends. It is not uncommon for them to have disagreements and even fight with their parents because their emotions are not stable and they are sensitive.

3. Late Adolescence or Young Adult Period

Adolescents in the age range of 18-24 years are included in the late adolescent or young adult phase. In general, entering the late adolescent phase, the physique has developed to the maximum. Not only that, the ability to think is much more mature than middle adolescents.

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They are also more focused on realizing the planned goals. At the same time able to make decisions based on hopes and ideals. For example, teenagers will do things that are a priority in their lives such as schoolwork, or things that support the realization of their goals.

In friendship, romance, and family relations have been more stable. They have been able to make choices about discussing something or sharing stories with trusted people.

Characteristics of Late Adolescence

Launching from the Ada.co.id and Dosenpsikologi.com pages, adolescents can be categorized as late adolescents if they have shown some of the characteristics or characteristics below.

1. Social Development

One of the developments that is most difficult for adolescents to do is social adjustment. They have to adapt to a romantic relationship they have never had before. Not only that, they also have to adapt to adults apart from school and family.

Adolescents must adjust to social behavior problems, new friendship values, and new social groups to achieve the goals of the adult socialization model. New values ​​in the form of support and rejection can have a psychological impact on educational development.

In association outside the home, for example with friends, it has a big impact on attitudes, speech, interests, and behavior. The soul of teenagers who always want to move forward will affect the peer group to start decreasing due to the two factors below.

  • Teenagers want to be independent individuals by trying to find identity.
  • Occurs from the selection of friends so that teenagers no longer have interest in various activities related to childhood.

Not only that, there are some prominent characteristics of late adolescence as below.

  • Awareness of solitude develops which encourages adolescents to mingle. Adolescence is called the social period because throughout adolescence, social relations will be increasingly visible and more dominant. Awareness of loneliness makes teenagers try to find ways to relate to other people and start hanging out.
  • Efforts to choose social values. There are two possibilities that teenagers can take when dealing with certain social values, namely adjusting to some of these values ​​and also remaining in a position with all the causes and effects. This means that reactions to certain circumstances will take place based on certain norms. For idealistic adolescents who have full faith in their ideals, according to social norms, they are mutal, even though everything they have tried has failed. Whereas for teenagers who are passive in situations, it is easier to give up and even become apathetic.
  • Interest in the opposite sex. Adolescence is often referred to as the bisexual period. Although awareness with the opposite sex is related to physical development, in fact what is more developed is not the body but the growing interest in the opposite sex.
  • Start choosing a particular career. Entering late adolescence, teenagers will begin to choose a particular career even though in the process of choosing it they often experience difficulties. For this reason, adolescents need career insights along with the advantages and disadvantages of each of these careers.

2. Moral Development

Morality is a set of values ​​originating from various behaviors that must be respected and become the norm that regulates individual behavior in relation to social groups and society.

Morality is also a measure of the good and evil of an individual which is determined by socio-cultural values, in which the individual acts as a social member. The hope is that teenagers can replace some of the generally accepted moral concepts.

Then, continue with the moral code which will be used as a guide in behaving. The following are five moral principles that teenagers must follow in the future.

  • Individual moral views are increasingly abstract.
  • Moral beliefs will center on what is right and wrong and moral justice as the dominant moral force.
  • Moral judgments will be more cognitive.
  • Moral judgments are not too egocentric.
  • Psychologically moral judgments are increasingly expensive so that moral judgments become emotional material and cause emotional tension.

3. Sexual Development

Teenagers will find a self-identity in the form of sexual orientation that can be seen from emotional, romantic, sexual desire, and affection for the people they love. Therefore, teenagers will look for ways to express themselves sexually. One of them seeks his own way of relieving sexual tension through masturbation triggered by erotic behavior.

4. Emotional Development

Late adolescent emotions, generally accompanied by actions such as happy and unhappy. The feelings that accompany these actions are referred to as affective colors, which are often strong, weak, and unclear.

If the color is strong, it will be called emotion in psychology which in the future will result in some physical changes in someone in between.

  • The pupils of the eyes dilate when they are angry.
  • The electrical reaction on the skin will increase while being charmed.
  • Blood flows faster when you’re angry.
  • Take a deep breath when disappointed.
  • Your heart rate quickens when you’re shocked.
  • Saliva dries up when scared or tense.
  • Digestion is disturbed when strained.
  • Rome’s hair stands on end when he’s scared.