Definition of Phrases – In Indonesian, a sentence certainly consists of words, phrases, and clauses. Each of these elements has its own meaning. Likewise with the understanding of the phrase. Well, on this occasion, we will explore further about the phrase. So, see the review until it’s finished, Readers.
Definition of the Phrase
Phrases are one of the materials in Indonesian subjects. In addition, phrases can also be said to be the lowest syntactic units. Syntax is the study of sentences. However, the phrase is not the smallest unit in the group. Because, the word is still the smallest unit of syntax.
The phrase is used frequently in everyday speech, even though you may not realize it. Some opinions on the meaning of the phrase as follows:
- The definition of a phrase according to the book Translation Skill by Kadaruddin is a combination of two or more words that form a single unit. However, these words do not form subject-predicate and do not form new meanings. In other words, it can be said that the new form does not have a different meaning from the meaning of the previous word.
- In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), a phrase is a combination of two or more words that are non-predicative (for example, the high mountain is called a phrase because it is a non-predicative construction).
- According to several sources, a phrase is a unit consisting of two or more words that occupy one sentence function. Phrases cannot form a perfect sentence because they do not have a predicate or are non-predicative.
From the several meanings of the phrase that have been mentioned, it can be said that the phrase is a combination or grouping of two or more words, but cannot form a perfect sentence because it does not have a predicate.
After discussing the meaning of phrases, it feels incomplete if you don’t discuss the characteristics of phrases. Here are some characteristics of the phrase you need to know.
- Phrases must consist of at least two words or more.
- Occupy or have a grammatical function in a sentence.
- Phrases must have a grammatical meaning.
- Phrases are nonpredicative.
- Phrases always occupy one sentence function.
1. Verb Phrases
A verb phrase is a phrase that has a core verb in its formation and can also function as a substitute for the position of a verb in a sentence. Verb phrases have a core verb and other words as modifiers.
It should be emphasized that the elements that fill in the subject, object and complement are not included in the verb phrase. Syntactically, verb phrases can be given the word ‘is’ for active verbs and the word ‘already’ for conditional verbs.
Verb phrases can be grouped into three, namely:
- Modifying verb phrase
- Coordinating verb phrase
- Appositive verb phrases
Examples of verb phrases in the following sentences:
- Two students are reading a book in the classroom
- Two students reading a book in the classroom
The phrase is reading in the sentence is a combination of the word being and the verb reading. So, the phrase is reading is included in the category of verb phrases. An example of a verb phrase with more than two words but a unit of language with a verb as its core is as follows:
- The ship has sailed
- My mother is cooking
2. Nominal Phrases
A nominal phrase is a phrase that has a noun core in its formation and can also function as a substitute for a noun. Noun phrases can consist of several nouns, but there are also noun phrases consisting of nouns and words from other word classes.
The essence of a noun phrase is a noun, while other accompanying words are delimiters or explanations of these nouns. Noun phrases can consist of nouns with nouns or nouns with words from other word classes.
The following forms of noun phrases are as follows:
- Noun + Noun, namely all the words contained in a phrase in the form of words from the noun word class. For example:
- My sister doesn’t know where the fish pond is.
- Serena looks for blotting paper.
- Noun + Verb means that noun phrases are composed of nouns accompanied by verbs as modifiers. For example:
- Jodi brought a lunchbox.
- Andi is a new student in his class
- Noun + Adjective is a noun phrase formed from a noun followed by an adjective as a modifier. For example:
- Budi came with a beautiful girl.
- Santi studies diligently so she doesn’t become a stupid child.
- Noun + Numeral is a noun phrase formed from a noun followed by a number. For example:
- Dani brings three candies.
- Sintia is the second person to enter the final.
- The noun is preceded by the article si or sang. For example:
- Redhead is my favorite character
- The King has arrived.
3. Adjective Phrase
An adjective phrase is a phrase that has a core in the form of an adjective in its forming element. This phrase consists of a core and a delimiter. Adjective phrases have a core in the form of adjectives or adjectives and delimiters in the form of other word classes, usually adverbs or adverbs, verbs or verbs, and nouns or nouns.
The construction of adjective phrases can be distinguished as follows:
1) Coordinating adjective phrases
Coordinating adjective phrases are composed of two main words that complement each other.
Adjective + Adjective , this construction has a grammatical meaning of ‘choice’.
- good bad
- far near
Adjective + Adjective , this construction has a grammatical meaning ‘very’.
- old age
- young young
Adjective + Adjective , this construction has a grammatical meaning ‘set’.
- tall skinny
- safe and peaceful
Adjective + Adjective , this construction has the meaning of ‘opposite’ so that the word but can be inserted.
- hassle but fun
- cheap but good
2) Subordinating adjective phrases
Subordinating adjective phrases are composed of two words, each of which functions as a core and a delimiter.
Adjective + Noun , this construction has a grammatical meaning ‘like’. The first element has a meaning component (+color), while the second element has a meaning component (+comparison).
- blood red
- blue sky
Adjective + Verb , the first element has a meaning component (+inner attitude) and the second element has a meaning component (+action or event).
- embarrassed to ask
- dare to die
Adverb + Adjective , this construction has a grammatical meaning ‘deny’. The first element has a meaning component (+ denial), while the second element has a meaning component (+ inner state or attitude).
- not afraid
- not angry
Adverb + Adjective , this construction has a grammatical meaning of ‘degree’. The first element has a meaning component (+ degree or level), (+ necessity), (+ completion), (+ limitation, or (+ denial), while the second element has a meaning component (+ situation or nature).
- not good
- pretty good
- kinda smart
- getting fed up
- must recover
- not ready
- just sad
- do not like
Adjective + Adverb , this construction has a grammatical meaning ‘very’. The first element has a meaning component (+state), while the second element has a meaning component (+most), (+repetition), (+inclusion), or (+limitation).
- long time
- sick again
- not bad
- just lazy
The construction of adjective phrases in the form of idioms has neither lexical nor grammatical meaning. Some idioms of adjective phrases, among others:
- thick face
4. Adverb phrases
Adverb phrases are phrases that contain the core elements of adverbs and can be substituted for adverbs in a sentence.
The function of the adverb phrase syntax is to modify sentences or other expressions which include verbs or verbs, adjectives and adverbs or adverbs.
Adverb phrases are divided into two types, namely complementary adverbs and modifier adverbs. For example:
- He ran very fast, the adverb very fast is an adverb phrase that modifies the verb to run. If examined more deeply, the word very fast also consists of two adverbs, namely very and fast, where the word fast modifies the verb to convey information about how to run (for example, he runs fast or he runs slowly).
Meanwhile, words greatly change the degree of information conveyed, regarding the extent to which the act of running fast is achieved (for example, he doesn’t just run fast, he runs very fast).
5. Numeral Phrase
Numerical phrases are phrases formed from number words. This phrase expresses the amount, quantity, and order in a series.
6. Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional phrases are phrases that contain prepositions and prepositional objects that can act as adverbs in a sentence.
Basically, prepositional phrases show several meanings, including:
- ‘place’, as in the market, to the house and against the wall.
- ‘origin of direction’, such as from the village and from school
- ‘origin of materials, such as (rings) from gold, (cakes) from rice flour
- ‘destination’, such as to Lampung, to Campus
- ‘shows a turn’, as I say, (belief) in God
- ‘regarding’, such as about the economy, (remembered) the goodness
- ‘purpose’, as for you, for me
- ‘because’, such as because, since, because, because of (you)
- ‘becoming, as because of, for that
- ‘participation’, as with you’, with him
- ‘way, as well, with pleasure
- ‘tools’ such as with hoes and with tractors
- ‘continuation’, such as since yesterday, from earlier, until tomorrow, until later
- ‘equal’, as in tune with, in accordance with, in line with
- ‘comparison’, as like him, in comparison.
7. Conjunction Phrases
Conjunctional phrases are phrases that contain conjunctions or conjunctions.
8. Endocentric Phrases
Endocentric phrases are phrases that have the same distribution that have a relationship or equality, so that when one of the elements is omitted, the phrase will still be used.
The location or position of the core components can be located in front, for example in the phrases loyal husband, good house, fast runner, and diligent student; it can also be located at the back, for example in further phrases, very diligent, a memory, currently teaching, and really like it.
In addition, this phrase also has one part called the superior component and the subordinate component. These two components are due to the fact that endocentric phrases have the same distribution and one of them acts as a support or limit.
9. Coordinating Phrases
Coordinating phrases are phrases whose constituent components consist of two or more equal or equivalent components. Because of the equivalent form, this phrase can be connected with a single coordinating conjunction such as and, or, but, nor and other conjunctions.
Therefore, the elements can be connected by coordinating conjunctions, for example the word and, or, but (single conjunction) or divided conjunctions such as either…good, more…more, good…nor. For example husband and wife, education and training, parents, the sooner the better, and both now and in the future.
In general, there are three types of endocentric phrases, namely attributive, appositive, and coordinating endocentric phrases.
10. Attributive Phrases
Attributive phrases are phrases that consist of a main and a modifier. So, this phrase contains only one body which can be preceded or followed by a modifier. The core and the modifier can consist of one of the word classes, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.
So, there is only one central element or core element, while the other elements are unequal attributes because they cannot be connected by conjunctions and or. For example, diligent students, public libraries, good kids, beautiful girls, big houses.
11. Appositive Phrases
Phrases that have added or clarified information. This phrase is synonymous with a noun (noun). The interesting thing about phrases is that they always consist of free morphemes.
In a sense, when a word combination consists of a combination of free morphemes such as, the neighbor’s grass or has eaten, the word combination can be said to be a phrase.
The building blocks of a positive phrase have the same position so they can replace one another. For example:
- Siti Sunarsih, daughter of the Regent of Serang, yesterday afternoon gave birth to her fifth child at the Serang General Hospital.
- new teacher phrases on sentences,
“Mr. Ahmad is a new teacher at our school,”. The new teacher’s phrase serves to explain Pak Ahmad’s identity.
12. Exocentric Phrases
Exocentric phrases are phrases that do not have a core element. Because it does not have a core element, this sentence cannot be separated or differentiated.
In general, there are three forms of exocentric phrases that are commonly used in words. The three forms of these phrases are directive, non-directive, and connective exocentric phrases.
13. Equivalent Phrases
Equivalent phrases are phrases that have equivalent elements between them.
14. Stratified Equivalent Phrases
Equivalent multilevel phrases are phrases that have elements that are not equivalent or have certain levels.
15. Common Phrases
Ordinary phrases are phrases that are formed from denotative meanings (true meanings).
16. Idiomatic Phrases
Idiomatic phrases are phrases that have no real meaning or have certain connotations.
17. Ambiguous Phrases
Ambiguous phrases are phrases that have multiple meanings that can raise doubts. Therefore, ambiguous phrases generally require more explanation.
18. Subordinating Phrases
A subordinating phrase is a phrase whose elements do not have an equal position. This resulted in the elements being unable to replace each other and the word and or could not be inserted. For example, long short phrases can be inserted coordinating conjunctions into long and short and long or short.
From the definition of the phrase above, it can be concluded that the phrase is a part of the syntax that is written after the word. In other words, a phrase is a collection of words. Even so, phrases don’t have a predicate or are non-predicative, so sometimes phrases are only connected by conjunctions.
Thus the discussion about the meaning of the phrase to the types of phrases. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful for you and makes it easier for you to make phrases.