Understanding Compound Sentences – In Indonesian grammar, most people certainly know what compound sentences actually mean. A compound sentence itself is basically a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses that can stand alone as free sentences.
Knowing the meaning of compound words will be very useful for you when compiling a particular paper. In addition, the thing that also needs to be considered in writing activities is, a good piece of writing is composed of good paragraphs. Meanwhile, to compose a good paragraph, it is necessary to have neat and good wording.
Well, for those of you who want to know more deeply about the meaning of compound sentences. In this article, we will also discuss the types of compound sentences and various examples. Let’s review in full below!
A. Definition of Compound Sentences
As previously stated, compound sentences can generally be understood as a sentence consisting of two or more main clauses and can stand alone as a separate sentence.
Yendra in his book entitled Knowing Language (2018) states that a sentence can basically be interpreted as the smallest unit of language in the form of spoken or written. Compound sentences themselves are usually arranged to convey ideas or thoughts as a whole in accordance with syntactic units. Compilation of compound sentences based on basic constituents, such as clauses or arrangement of clauses that form a meaningful unit of speech.
Meanwhile, Dendy Sugono in his book entitled Indonesian Language Syntax: Analysis of Syntactic Functions (2019) reveals that compound sentences can actually be interpreted as several words that have sentence structures, and these sentences contain several basic sentences.
Therefore, the meaning of a compound sentence is a broad sentence form as a result of merging or expanding single sentences, thus forming a certain pattern or pattern of new sentences that are different from existing patterns.
Another thing that also needs to be considered in constructing compound sentences is the use of conjunctions or conjunctions. In a compound sentence, conjunctions have an important role in being a bridge between the base of the sentence and the other sentences in a compound sentence.
B. Types of Compound Sentences
After learning about the meaning of compound words, this section will explain the four types of compound sentences themselves. There are four types of compound sentences, which consist of equivalent compound sentences, compound compound sentences, multilevel compound sentences and mixed compound sentences.
1. Equivalent Compound Sentences
Equivalent compound sentences or also known as coordinating compound sentences can be interpreted as one of the clause sentences having an equal or equal status. Therefore, the two clauses in an equivalent compound are not dependent on each other, but both of them still have an intra-sentence relationship.
In equivalent compound sentences, there are several conjunctions that are commonly used to connect between sentences. Some of these conjunctions, namely like and, or, but, whereas, then, and then.
a. Compound sentences that express addition
This type of equivalent compound sentence can also be called a compound sentence that expresses addition or addition or addition. Compound sentences of this type usually use conjunctions or conjunctions in order to show the addition relationship of the basic sentence. Some conjunctions or conjunctions in this sentence, namely and, as well as, besides.
Examples of compound sentences that express addition include:
- I read a book of fairy tales and my younger siblings listened enthusiastically.
- Mom cleans the barn on holidays, dad organizes the garden, and I clean the bedroom.
- We just do assignments all day without oral lessons, after all the teacher is in a meeting.
- This question has been asked to the IT department, and has been confirmed many times.
b. Compound sentences that describe the sequence of events
One of the next types of compound sentences is a compound sentence that expresses a sequence of events, for example like conjunctions or conjunctions then, then, then, then, and so on.
Even though equivalent compound sentences already use conjunctions to connect the bases of sentences, a comma is still needed to be a delimiter of the two sentences that are combined.
Examples of compound sentences that state the sequence of events include:
- I live in Bandung, then my family moved to Yogyakarta.
- My classmate was riding a motorbike without wearing a helmet, then the traffic police stopped them.
- You pour the egg whites in a container, then you beat the egg whites using a mixer until fluffy.
- I paid the fare to the angkot driver, then he gave me the right amount of change.
c. A compound sentence denoting a choice
Then, one of these types of equivalent compound sentences can be marked with a conjunction or. The use of the word or in this compound sentence can be used to select two or more basic sentences. In addition, the selection relationship between these sentences can also be shown by the word apa (whether).
Examples of compound sentences that express election include:
- He wants to take part in basketball extracurricular activities, or other physical activities that can fill the void on weekends.
- I have sent the new book you ordered, has the package arrived at home?
- You are free to choose science, social studies, or language majors.
- Is it better for us to leave early in the morning when it’s not crowded, or catch up in the afternoon?
d. Compound sentences expressing opposition or resistance
This type of equivalent or coordinating compound sentence can also be used to express a sentence about contradiction or resistance. Even though the two sentences in this compound sentence have differences or contradictions, these sentences are able to connect one basic sentence with another basic sentence.
Some conjunctions or conjunctions that are often used in compound sentences that express opposition or resistance, include: but, but, and whereas.
Examples of compound sentences expressing opposition or resistance:
- I wanted to major in fine arts, but my parents didn’t have enough money to pay for college.
- Underage bullying is not entirely the fault of children, rather parents have a huge responsibility to educate their children.
- Doni was diligent in working on group assignments to get the best results, while Edwin played video games all day without helping us at all.
- The birthday celebration went ahead as planned, although not many invitees turned up.
2. Multilevel Compound Sentences
A multilevel compound sentence is a sentence that consists of one basic sentence that has a function as the core of the sentence (a sentence that does not depend on any sentence) and one or several basic sentences that function as a clause or filler for one of the sentence elements (a sentence that depends on the sentence). other).
In its use, the function of sentence elements that can be changed is like subject, object, or description. The thing that makes the difference between multilevel compound sentences and other compound sentences is the existence of clauses and the main clause.
In multilevel compound sentences, the main sentence has an important role as the main sentence or main sentence. Meanwhile, clauses in multilevel compound sentences fill one of the elements. Based on several different roles, clauses in multilevel compound sentences can be divided into eight, namely:
a. Adverb adverb of time
The first clause is usually placed in the initial, final position, between the subject and the predicate. In some cases adverbial clauses of time are placed between the predicate and the object of the main clause. Conjunctions or conjunctions that can be used in this clause, namely when, time, when, while, while, when, after, after, and before. Here’s an example sentence:
- When I visited him in the hospital, he was gone.
- The public transportation fare to my house was still 300 rupiah, when I was in elementary school.
- When mom and dad were teenagers, they often went on excursions to the lake.
- Don’t forget to lift the fried tempe, when the color of the tempe is brownish yellow.
- The judge banged the gavel loudly, all present in the trial was silent for a moment.
- After washing the clothes, Roni returned to doing his math assignment.
- After all this time I have been a writer, finally one of my published books has become a best seller.
- The two brides said their vows of fidelity, before the priest invited them to exchange rings.
b. Subordinate adverb of cause
This type of clause has the properties of a clause adverb of time, but this sentence is more focused on discussing causal relationships. These clauses can be marked with conjunctions, such as because, because, and due to. Here’s an example sentence:
- Due to excessive consumption of sugar, grandma got diabetes.
- He discouraged buying a PS 5, because he wanted to save the money.
- Because the price of land and buildings in the capital city is high, millennials choose house contracts.
c. Adverb adverb clause
This type of clause expresses the relationship as a result, so it is usually located at the end, after the main clause. This clause can be marked with conjunctions or conjunctions such as until, so, then, consequently, and finally. Here’s an example sentence:
- It rained all night, until the rice fields were submerged in water.
- Middlemen buy rice at low prices, causing losses to farmers.
- The mainstream media only becomes mouthpieces for politicians, so the quality of journalism is getting worse and worse.
- The government gave permission to hold face-to-face learning activities, resulting in the emergence of new clusters in schools.
- I no longer take care of the garden behind the house, in the end many plants in the garden wither.
d. Conditional adverb clause
This type of clause focuses on expressing conditional relationships. Some signs that can be seen from this sentence, namely if, if, if, if, and suppose. Meanwhile, the position of this clause can be placed anywhere in the sentence. Here’s an example sentence:
- If I don’t want to be late for school, I have to get up early.
- The pandemic will end soon, if everyone adheres to the protocol from the start.
- Father will not be angry, if you are honest from the start.
- If I pass into a public university, I treat classmates.
- Media editorial rooms in Indonesia would be more independent if media companies were not run by politicians.
e. Destination adverb clause
This type of clause is usually used to express objective relationships. Some signs that can be used for this clause are in the form of conjunctions, such as so, for, for, and for. Here’s an example sentence:
- Dinda rode her bicycle slowly, so that the chicken eggs she was carrying would not break.
- To avoid dehydration, you should drink lots of water.
- The boss put up billboards on the street to increase sales targets.
- Exercise regularly at home, to maintain body fitness.
f. Adverb clause of manner
This type of clause can be used to connect adverbs of manner. This clause can be marked with conjunctions such as, with, and in. The position of the adverb clause of manner can also be placed in any part of the sentence. Example:
- With the passing of the Job Creation Law, a number of parties are of the opinion that this has added to a bad record for Joko Widodo’s administration.
- The task force sends short messages to all Indonesian citizens, in order to prevent disinformation related to Covid-19.
g. Substitute clause of the delimiter
This type of clause has a function as a complement to object, subject, and predicate nouns. Substitute clauses of this delimiter can be seen with the conjunction that or the hint word. Here’s an example.
- She’s the new student council president, who was elected last week.
- We chose to take shelter in the building which was always filled with moss.
- h. Substitute clauses for nouns
- This type of clause can be seen with the conjunction that. Substitute clauses for nouns themselves can be subjects or objects in every transitive sentence. Examples as follows.
- Adik promised that he would never steal the neighbor’s mangoes again.
- The regional head gave an order that every house of worship must implement strict security protocols as long as there is still a danger of Covid-19
3. Mixed Compound Sentences
In contrast to equivalent and multilevel compound sentences, this type of compound sentence is a combination of equivalent sentences and multilevel sentences. Therefore, this type of compound sentence is usually called a mixed compound sentence.
One of the various types of compound sentences is known to have three clauses in one sentence. This is because a mixed compound sentence has two unequal clauses.
Examples of mixed compound sentences:
- This wish is always postponed because Dedi concentrates more on educational institutions abroad, while his parents choose education at home.
- When the night was getting scary, I pulled the blanket and I closed my eyes, but the fear didn’t leave my heart and mind.
- Because he never paid attention to the lessons at school, Bobi got bad grades and had to skip classes.
- After graduating from junior high school, Rina had to choose a public or private school.
- Before she died, my grandmother advised me never to leave my prayers even though I was busy working to earn money.
- As many as five people were reported killed in this accident, while the number of injured victims is still unknown because many have left the scene.
4. Meeting Compound Sentences
Finally, compound sentences can be interpreted as a compound sentence that has several single sentences which are then combined into one complete sentence. Compound sentences can be identified from the absence of mention of the same words in the sentence.
In compound sentences, a sentence will be joined or separated by using a comma. Some examples of conjunctions that are often used in compound sentences, namely and, also, as well as, and others.
Examples of compound compound sentences:
a. Diah buys fruit. He bought vegetables. He bought groceries.
Combined into a compound sentence: Diah buys fruit, vegetables and groceries.
b. Ani was sitting on the terrace. Ani is daydreaming.
Merged into: Ani was sitting on the terrace even lost in thought.
c. Refugees leave their flooded homes. Refugees go to refugee barracks and rest.
Merged into: Refugees leave their flooded houses and then head to the evacuation barracks and rest.