Understanding the Definition of Complex Sentences to Examples

Complex Sentences – Sentences in Indonesian lessons are divided into two, namely simplex sentences and complex sentences. Simplex sentences and complex sentences are two types of sentences that are often studied in grammar rules. In addition, simplex sentences and complex sentences are often used in everyday life.

However, sometimes there are still some people who do not know exactly what is meant by complex sentences and simplex sentences. For those of you who don’t know about complex sentences and simplex sentences, don’t worry, because on this occasion we will discuss more about complex sentences and simplex sentences.

So, watch this article till the end, okay, Sinaumed’s.

Definition of Complex Sentences

A complex sentence is a sentence that has two clauses, namely the main clause (main clause) and a subordinate clause (child clause). In sentence structure, the main clause can stand alone as a detached sentence and the subordinating clause cannot stand alone as an independent sentence.

Subordinating clauses (clauses) always depend on the main clause (main clause). The function of the subordinate clause is as a complement to the sentence, so that they are related to each other. Another term for a complex sentence is a multilevel compound sentence. The main clause can stand alone as a sentence, while the subordinate clause depends on the main sentence.

The subordinate clause (subordinate clause) functions as the development of the sentence. So, the relationship between these two clauses is not equal or not parallel. The function of the subordinate clause is that it is used as a complement to the object, subject, and description function. This sentence is usually used in composing essays and fantasy stories. Complex sentences consist of two clauses, three clauses, up to seven clauses.

Characteristics of Complex Sentences

To understand complex sentences, we need to know their characteristics first. Following are the characteristics of complex sentences.

  1. In one sentence there are two events or incidents.
  2. There are two subjects and predicates in one sentence.
  3. Use a comma between the main clause and the subordinate clause.
  4. Structures in complex sentences are separated using commas or conjunctions (conjunctions).

From the characteristics above it can be said that this complex sentence is a sentence in which there is a main clause and also a subordinate clause. Therefore, there must be conjunctions in complex sentences.

Types of Complex Sentences

After knowing the characteristics of complex sentences, the next discussion is the types of complex sentences. There are two types of complex sentences, namely paratactic and hypotactic complex sentences. Here’s the difference between the two:

1. Paratactic Complex Sentences

Paratactic complex sentences are sentences that consist of two or more clauses that have an equal relationship. The equivalent relationship here means that the relationship between the clauses is coordinative.

So, one of these clauses can stand alone as a complete sentence. The relationship between clauses in this complex sentence is connected by conjunctions and, or, but, as well as, while, whereas, and but.

Examples of Paratactic Complex Sentences

To provide further understanding, here are some examples of paratactic complex sentences, namely:

  1. I bought new shoes, but they are too big.
  2. Wati went to the market, while Andi went to the repair shop.
  3. Egi is a smart kid, but his arrogant nature makes him disliked by many people.
  4. You can enjoy it for free or choose a paid subscription.
  5. Tania really wants to be a doctor, but she doesn’t like biology.
  6. Vira is studying at a public university, while Elita is studying at a private university.
  7. Rima is a diligent child, but her younger sister is lazy.
  8. Chef Arnold cooks fried chicken and boils meat in the kitchen.
  9. Nana always wakes up early, while Wanwan always wakes up late.
  10. He is not a poet, but a broadcaster.
  11. Mother cooked fried chicken and boiled cassava in the kitchen.
  12. My father works as a lecturer, while my mother works as a high school teacher.
  13. Auntie just bought beef and mutton at the old market.
  14. My sister went to school this morning, but her father didn’t accompany her.
  15. I’ve been trying to do math homework, while my friend wants to copy it.
  16. Aunt buys beef and mutton at the impromptu market.
  17. Linda was confused to choose between tongseng or young goat satay.
  18. Mom was shopping at Alfamart this afternoon, but not with dad.
  19. Saiful is always eager to help his mother, while his younger brother prefers to play.
  20. Arya has learned to save, while Shafira is good at washing.
  21. I’ve tried very hard, while he just silent.
  22. Latif went to school, while Reno went to the fields.
  23. Nanda had a great effort, but the result was still the same.
  24. Coffee shops are popping up everywhere, but Bu Trinil’s coffee shop is everyone’s favourite.
  25. Aunt sells beef and mutton at the supermarket.
  26. You can go shopping with dad tomorrow, but mom isn’t coming.
  27. We tried so hard to win, but other teams are stronger in football.
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2. Hypotactic Complex Sentences

A hypotactic complex sentence is a sentence that has two clauses but the meaning is not equivalent or not equal. One of the clauses occupies the main function or main clause, while the other clauses act as subordinate clauses or clauses.

Hypotactic complex sentences consist of explanatory or complementary sentences. These sentences are interrelated, so meaning and information complement each other. Conjunctions that connect these sentences include so, even though, so, then, without, that, if, however, when, if.

Examples of Hypotactic Complex Sentences

To understand more about hypotactic sentences, then you need to know some examples. The following are examples of hypotactic complex sentences:

  1. Brother was watching television, while mother was cooking.
  2. If I had a cat, maybe I’d buy a cat cage too.
  3. Anya was sleeping, when dad was finishing his work.
  4. You need additional dough so that the cake is more chewy
  5. Don’t take out the trash.
  6. When my brother came home, I was reading a book.
  7. My father wanted to go on a pilgrimage if he had enough money.
  8. Mother will give me a prize, if I become the overall champion in this school.
  9. Dina would like to see a movie at the cinema if she had the money.
  10. You can buy a new motorbike because you have enough savings.
  11. Saskia was not at home when the earthquake was in progress.
  12. Ibu Gusti is busy at the shop, so.
  13. Gusti went to help his mother.
  14. I want to buy a new cellphone, if my savings are enough.
  15. Rere watched a horror movie in the cinema with her friends tonight, so she didn’t do her school work.
  16. I want to go to America, if I have enough money.
  17. Rayhan still goes to school, even though it’s raining heavily.
  18. Eat and drink a lot to be healthy and stay strong.
  19. Mother diligently watered the rose plants in the garden, so that the flowers flourished.
  20. The patient was allowed to go home when his condition improved.
  21. Aunt turned on the light, when it was getting dark.
  22. Fachri was able to get good grades in Mathematics tests, even though he didn’t study last night.
  23. I want to go to Saudi Arabia if I have enough money.
  24. Fina didn’t go to school today because she was being treated in the hospital.
  25. Nisa was not at home when the earthquake was in progress.
  26. Eat and drink a lot to be healthy and stay strong.
  27. Do not throw garbage anywhere, including in the river because it can cause flooding during the rainy season.
  28. Erna watched a horror movie at the cinema with her friends tonight, so she didn’t do her schoolwork.
  29. Mother closed all the windows when it got dark.

Conjunctions in Complex Sentences

Conjunctions are often used in complex sentences, you could say a lot. In addition, also adapted to the conditions of use. The following are conjunctions for complex sentences, namely:

  1. since, since
  2. when, while, during
  3. after, before, after, done
  4. provided, if, if, if, when, when
  5. if, suppose
  6. in order to
  7. even though, even though, although, though
  8. so, until, then
  9. with, without, that, that

Complex Sentence Structure

Complex sentence structure consists of one main clause and one subordinate clause. In the main clause, at least have a subject and predicate (SP). Meanwhile, the minimum subordinate clause consists of subordinating conjunctions, subjects, and predicates (Conj-SP).

However, in this sentence, the subordinating clause only represents one sentence function, such as adverb, object, or subject.

Definition of Simplex Sentences

A simple sentence is a sentence that has only one sentence function. In accordance with its simple name. So, simplex sentences only consist of one clause or one predicate element. Well, this simplex sentence is also commonly known as a single sentence. In a simplex sentence, there are all the required elements.

There are several types of sentence functions, namely subject (s), predicate (p), object (o), adverb (k), and complement (pel). So, in simplex sentences or single sentences, there is only one function of each type.

Simple Sentence Characteristics

Simplex sentences have characteristics that distinguish them from complex sentences. Including the following:

The sentence is simple because it consists of one clause. It can be in the form of Subject (S)-Predicate (P), SP-Object (O), SPO-Description (K) or SPOK-Complementary. Generally, simplex sentences contain only one incident or event. Simplex sentences do not use conjunctions or conjunctions and comma punctuation.

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Simple Sentence Examples

To understand more about simplex sentences, we need to understand examples of simplex sentences. Here is an example of a simplex sentence that you can see.

  1. Dad sweeps in the yard.
  2. Meita buys vegetables at the market.
  3. I am sleepy.
  4. Mrs. Nia teaches English at SMAN 1 Ruangguru.
  5. Syifa cleans up the trash behind her house.
  6. The beast pounced on its prey fiercely.
  7. Rais wears a new uniform on the first day of school.
  8. Mbak Dira is making a cake.
  9. Uncle is reading the newspaper.
  10. Mother is watching television.
  11. Efira is doing her math homework.
  12. Mother planted roses in the garden.
  13. Dad fishing in the river.
  14. Brother fell off the bike.
  15. Hani wears a headscarf to school.
  16. The police caught a gang of thieves.
  17. I throw trash in its place.
  18. Ica burst into tears.
  19. Teddy plays ball in the field.
  20. Tien’s mother sells fruit in the market.
  21. Elfina is playing volleyball on the field.
  22. Nurwanto kicked the ball.
  23. Pina’s mother is a teacher at SMAN 21 Jakarta.
  24. Dhea washes the dishes in the kitchen.
  25. Mother sweeps in the yard.
  26. The teacher teaches his students to write
  27. Juventus signed Cristiano Ronaldo from Real Madrid.
  28. Erna watched a horror movie at the cinema with her friends tonight.
  29. Cinta cleans up trash behind her house.
  30. Ikhsan wears a new uniform on the first day of school.
  31. Said observed the plants around his house.
  32. The hunter shoots his quarry on target.
  33. The tiger pounced on its prey with gusto
  34. Arman is going on vacation to Malaysia.
  35. Dina read the Whatsapp chat from Suci.
  36. Pambudi describes his younger brother a natural landscape.
  37. Pak Embo signed the agreement yesterday afternoon.
  38. PLN officers climbed the tower without any equipment.
  39. Mother bought her daughter story books.
  40. Meta was successful with his swimming championship in Karanganyar Regency.
  41. Nabila planted roses and she watered them every day.
  42. The research isn’t over yet and the report submission is only one day away.
  43. The deadline for submitting reports and Mrs. Sri has completed her research.
  44. Fikri still went to work even though it was raining.
  45. Raffi was confused about choosing between chocolate or vanilla flavors.
  46. Dinda wakes up after being awakened by her mother.
  47. Rino did not go to school today because he was being treated at the hospital.
  48. Mother cooked fried fish and cut vegetables in the kitchen.
  49. Rina will buy a new bag if she has a lot of savings.
  50. Nabila is always eager to help her mother while her sister prefers to be lazy.

Difference between Simplex and Complex Sentences

Simplex sentences consist of one clause, while complex sentences are composed of two clauses, namely the main and subordinate clauses. Apart from that, there is also another difference between these two sentences, which is in their function. Aside from being an adverb function, a subordinate clause can also take the form of an object or a subject.

So, in simple terms, the difference in the sentence is in the main clause and also the subordinate clause. After knowing the difference, don’t make a mistake in writing those two sentences, okay, Sinaumed’s.


Basically, this complex sentence can be said as a sentence which contains a main sentence and a subordinate sentence. In other words, this sentence has a main clause and a subordinate clause. Therefore, complex sentences are often referred to as compound sentences which have the same characteristics.

In addition, this type of sentence also often uses conjunctions. This conjunction aims to connect the main sentence with the subordinate clause. That way, sentences in complex sentences will be easier to understand. The connecting words used, such as, although, but, then, and many more.

Meanwhile, simplex sentences are sentences that only consist of a main sentence or main sentence. In general, this simplex sentence does not use conjunctions. This is because the simplex sentence only has one main sentence.

Thus the discussion of complex sentences, starting from their meaning, characteristics to examples, along with the meaning of simplex sentences and also the differences between the two sentences. Hopefully all the discussion above can be useful as well as add insight to you.

If Sinaumed’s wants to deepen his knowledge of the Indonesian language and also sentence patterns, then he can do this by reading books. You can get books about Indonesian sentences at sinaumedia.com .

As #FriendsWithoutLimits we always try to give the best. To support Sinaumed’s in adding insight, sinaumedia always provides quality and original books so that Sinaumed’s has #MoreWithReading information.