Global Warming: Definition, Causes, Impacts and How to Anticipate

Global Warming – What do you know about global warming? Did you know that scientists are currently anxious to observe weather patterns at the North Pole. In the Siberian region, the temperature of the city of Verkhoyansk, one of the cities in Siberia, was detected at 38 degrees Celsius on Saturday (20/6/2020).

This temperature became the highest temperature of all time in the history of temperatures throughout the Arctic.
Verkhoyansk is a city that has the most extreme temperature range on earth, where the lowest point of winter reaches an average of -49 degrees Celsius.

Meanwhile, when it had the highest temperature the previous summer, it was only perched at 37.2 degrees Celsius. Can you imagine if the area around the poles could be that hot, how are we far from there?

The condition of the city around the North Pole, which we all know is as cold as our ex’s heart, oops! could heat up like this allegedly as a result of global warming.

A. Definition of Global Warming

What is Global Warming? Don’t you know it’s just “Warm Up?” Duh, bad if so! Global warming is a form of ecosystem imbalance on earth due to the process of increasing the average temperature of the atmosphere, sea and land on earth.

Global warming is a process characterized by rising temperatures of the atmosphere, sea and land. For your information, the global average temperature at the surface of the Earth has jumped 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) in the last hundred years. So, fix our earth is getting warmer.

B. Causes of Global Warming

1. The Greenhouse Effect

Carbon dioxide or CO2 produced by activities on this earth, such as breathing and the results of burning fuel, covers the earth. Because the levels are excessive, CO2 is like glass that covers the surface of the earth.

In addition to carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and methane are also the same as CO2 covering the earth. Like the nature of glass, the gases that coat it will reflect infrared from the sun which should be returned to space. Infrared trapped in the earth. What if infrared is everywhere on this earth?

You see, infrared light has a wavelength between 760 nm to 1000 µm and a frequency of 30 GHz to 40,000 GHz. You know, hot objects due to atomic and molecular vibrations are considered to emit heat waves in the form of infrared rays. Hence, infrared rays are often referred to as heat radiation.

Actually the greenhouse effect is useful for our earth in terms of giving heat. If there was no greenhouse effect, the earth would be covered in cold. Can you imagine if the earth is cold? With an average temperature of 15 °C (59 °F), Earth is actually 33 °C (59 °F) hotter than it was before.

If there was no greenhouse effect, the earth’s temperature would only be -18 °C so that ice would cover the entire surface of the Earth. Because of this effect, the earth warms up, but if the levels are excessive, the result is what is called global warming.

2. Feedback Effect

Apart from the greenhouse effect, the feedback effect also contributes to global warming. Duh feedback feels like watching football. The feedback here is an example of evaporation of water.

The heating process besides producing carbon dioxide also produces water vapor. An example of a hydrocarbon burning reaction is as follows: CxHy + O2 → CO2 + H2O

So, there is H2O, aka water produced. The more warming that occurs due to the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide, the more abundant water vapor rises into the atmosphere. Water vapor itself turns out to give a greenhouse effect, like CO2 gas.

The heating that continues to occur continuously increases the amount of water vapor until finally an equilibrium concentration of water vapor is reached. The greenhouse effect of water evaporation is allegedly greater than the greenhouse effect of CO2 gas that produces it. Isn’t it weird that a lot of water feels damp?

Yes indeed humidity increases, but even though humidity increases because there is a lot of water content, the relative humidity of the air is almost constant and even decreases because the air actually warms up. The feedback duration is slow considering that CO2 in the atmosphere is at home and long lived.

The second feedback is due to cloud evaporation. When viewed from below, it seems that the clouds are reflecting radiation back to the surface, as a result there will be an increase in the heating effect.

But it’s different if we peek at it from above. From above the clouds are seen reflecting infrared radiation back into space thereby reducing heat and there is a cooling effect. So remember Ariel Noah’s song “I saw behind the clouds, I saw behind the rain!”

Wow, this song is perfect for feedback on the effects of cloud and water evaporation. Maybe Ariel made a song after learning about the causes of global warming. Let’s continue the serious conversation, so whether what will be produced by evaporation of clouds is in the form of heating or cooling, it depends on several things such as cloud type and height.

The next feedback is the disappearance of the ability of ice to reflect light. When global warming occurs, the ice in the polar regions melts. Ironically the longer the disbursement the faster. When the ice melts, the land or water below will be exposed.

If when covered with ice, it is ice that reflects light, but when land or water is open, then both land and land are only able to reflect less light than ice. The two halves are even more likely to absorb heat from the sun, as a result the warming increases and the ice melts and melts again.

Feedback is not always negative. There is also a positive. Positive feedback occurs due to the release of CO2 and CH4 or methane gas from the softening of the frozen ground (permafrost).

This process is another mechanism that also has an effect on heating. In addition, melting ice will also release CH4 which turns out to cause a positive feedback.

The ability of the oceans to absorb carbon is less than optimal if the temperature rises, why? This is caused by reduced nutrient levels in the mesopelagic zone so that the growth of diatoms is limited compared to phytoplankton which is a low carbon sink.

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3. Variation of the sun

Let’s get acquainted first with variations of the sun, variations of the sun are changes in the amount of radiant energy released by the sun. Solar variation is influenced by the 11-year solar cycle (red spot cycle) in addition to other fluctuations that are not periodic

It has been suggested that solar variations caused by feedback from clouds have contributed to the current warming. The cause of global warming due to solar variations with warming due to the greenhouse effect is that in solar variations there is an increase in solar activity.

This activity is able to increase the temperature of the stratosphere otherwise the greenhouse effect will reduce the temperature of the stratosphere. Since the 1960s, this stratospheric cooling has actually been observed. This event is unlikely to occur if the contributor is solar activity,

The depletion of the ozone layer also contributes to the cooling. The combination of solar variations with volcanic activity seems to have had a warming effect from pre-industrial times to the 1950s, and a cooling effect since the 1950s.

It is estimated that the sun may have contributed to a 45-50% increase in global average temperature over the period 1900-2000, and about 25-35% between 1980 and 2000. Scientists conclude that despite this increase in the sensitivity of the climate to solar influence.

But most of the warming that has occurred in recent decades has been caused by greenhouse gases. Some scientists think the Solar Cycle has only given it a small increase of about 0.07% in the level of brightness it has produced over the last 30 years.

With this small number it seems that this effect is too small to contribute to global warming. In fact, a study by Lockwood and Fröhlich found that there has been no global warming with solar variations since 1985, in fact there is no relationship at all, either through variations in solar output or variations in cosmic rays.

As we now know that there are various processes that make global warming happen which can have an impact on the life of living things on earth. This is also presented in the book Global Warming – Business Solutions and Opportunities.

C. How to Measure Global Warming

How do we know the size of global warming that we are currently experiencing, is it still normal, is it or is it already worrying? In 1896, scientists actually suspected that burning fossil fuels would change the composition of the atmosphere and could cause global warming.

In 1957 when researchers working on a global research program namely the International Geophysical Year then took atmospheric samples from the top of Mount Mauna Loa in Hawaii to prove their hypothesis.

The result turns out that CO2 levels increase in concentration in the atmosphere and cause global warming. Actually, scientists also suspected that the Earth’s climate was getting warmer, but at that time they did not have enough evidence to support their suspicions. They don’t want to be seen as “haluful”

It takes years to make climate observations. It wasn’t just a day or two.
It was only in the late 1980s that they managed to record statistical data showing that the earth was warming, but even then they felt it was still inconclusive.

In areas near urban areas then established weather stations. Location of weather stations in urban areas with the aim of getting a lot of data from heat generated from vehicle and building activities. The data collected turned out to be more accurate.

These results match their hypothesis so far, the warming of the earth is not just a figment of the imagination. In the late 20th century, it was noted that the ten warmest years over the last hundred years followed 1980, and the three warmest years followed 1990, with 1998 being the hottest.

In 2001, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made a conclusion stating that global air temperatures had increased by 0.6 degrees Celsius (1 degree Fahrenheit) since 1861. They agreed that the warming was mainly caused by human activities which contributed to gases greenhouse to the atmosphere.

The IPCC even predicts that the increase in global average temperature will increase by 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) between 1990 and 2100. If the emission of greenhouse gases continues to increase, experts predict, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could soar.

Even up to three times as much at the beginning of the 22nd century when compared to the period before the industrial era. What are the consequences? Yes, of course there will be dramatic climate change, it’s sad to make you hysterical! Although indeed this climate change event has occurred throughout Earth’s history several times from the time of the living dinosaurs maybe.

But this time humans will face this problem at much greater population risk. The number of people on this earth is getting bigger and bigger.

D. Climate models

The results show that the addition of greenhouse gases has an effect on a warmer climate. Even though the same assumptions are used for greenhouse gas concentrations in the future, the climate sensitivity will still be within a certain range.

The climate models that have been formulated are also used to find the causes of the current climate change. The trick is to compare the changes that have been observed with the results predicted by the model for various causes, whether natural or human activities.

Currently, existing climate models are similar to global temperature changes observed over the last hundred years, but do not simulate all aspects of climate. Indeed, these models do not directly state that the warming that existed between 1910 and 1945 was caused by natural processes or human activities, but the results show that warming since 1975 has been monopolized by the emissions of gases that are present in human daily activities.

E. Impact of Global Warming

What are the real effects of global warming? Have you started to feel? What panic? or just normal because it considers normal?

1. Unstable Climate

One of the impacts of global warming is that the climate is starting to become unstable. Eits, first check whether you know what climate is? What is the difference between climate and weather? Climate is the average weather situation over a large area over a long period of time. While the weather Weather is the state of the air at a time in a relatively narrow area.

Factors that affect climate and weather are sunlight, temperature, air pressure, air humidity, wind, clouds and precipitation. Back in the 1980s or 1990s, the climate was so predictable. Usually from October to March, the rainy season will occur but now it often misses, do you realize that?

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In some areas the drought has hit violently because of the drought. The existence of global warming causes the northern part of the northern hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere) to heat up more than other areas on Earth. As a result, the icebergs are now starting to melt so that the land will narrow. Not many more lumps of floating ice.

Areas that used to experience light snow are now not experiencing it anymore. In the mountains of the subtropics, the areas covered with snow will be less and will melt more quickly. The growing season will be longer in some areas. Temperatures in winter and at night tend to increase.

Warmer areas will become more humid as more water vaporizes and escapes from the oceans. Rainfall worldwide has increased by 1 percent in the last hundred years. The storms will turn out to be more frequent. In addition, water will quickly escape into steam from the ground. As a result, some areas will become drier than before.

The wind will blow harder and have a different pattern than before. Hurricane (hurricane) that obtain power from the evaporation of water, will become more intense. Weather patterns are becoming more unpredictable and more extreme.

2. Rising sea levels

The melting of ice in the polar regions has caused the volume of seawater to increase, resulting in an increase in sea level. Sea levels worldwide have risen 10 – 25 cm (4 – 10 inches) during the 20th century, and IPCC scientists predict a further increase of 9 – 88 cm (4 – 35 inches) in the 21st century wow!

What happens if the sea level rises? Of course the area around the beach will be submerged. Like the Netherlands which lost 17.6% of its area because it was sunk by a 100 cm rise in sea level. Erosion of cliffs, beaches and dunes will increase. When the sea level reaches the mouth of the river, flooding due to high tides is unavoidable.

3. Global temperatures tend to increase

If we imagine that, with the heat of the earth, a lot of food will be produced, then the image is wrong. Maybe in an area it will be profitable because it experiences a longer rainy season, but areas in other parts of the world, on the contrary, experience a prolonged summer.

If it snows in the desert areas, desert farms that bring in irrigation water from distant mountains may suffer if the winter snowpack, which thus functions as a natural reservoir, melts before the peak growing months. . Not to mention that food crops and forests can experience more severe insect and disease attacks.

4. Ecological disturbance

When the earth’s temperature heats up, we as humans are uncomfortable, as well as other living things. The heating effect interferes with life. Animals will migrate looking for cool places, plants change their direction of growth looking for places that support their growth

Humans who are gifted with reason might do things to minimize the heat that appears, but other creatures certainly don’t. Animals and plants may end in extinction because they are unable to adapt.

5. Social and political impact

Erratic weather conditions cause the emergence of various diseases. For farmers, rainy conditions that don’t stop can frustrate their harvests, while if the heat is prolonged it also makes it difficult for them to start farming because of the difficulty in water supply.

Heat also causes forests to catch fire easily. Many hotspots have the potential to catch fire. Forests in Indonesia are often burned. The problem of forest fires was complicated and it was difficult to find a solution.

F. Due to global warming in Indonesia

How are you doing in Indonesia, to what extent will global warming have an impact on this country? According to the Meteorology and Geophysics Climatology Agency, in 2030 there will be an increase in temperature of 0.5 degrees Celsius. 2030 is only 9 years away guys!

In addition to rising air temperatures, cases of drought will also increase in the southern part of Sumatra, most of Java, Madura, Bali, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB), and East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) in 2030. Meanwhile, the rainy season will also be heavy to extreme. tends to increase by up to 40 percent compared to today.

Even though the rain is actually just a drop of water, for those who are sensitive to rain it is a drop of longing. Continuous rain besides causing puddles, which can also cause catastrophic flooding in various areas. You can read a deeper understanding in the book Global Warming; Floods & Logging Tragedy by Hadi S. Alikodra.

Another thing that is happening due to global warming is decreasing oxygen levels in equatorial regions, including Indonesia. The impact is more severe, compared to the four seasons country. So far, in the ocean there are differences classified based on its depth, the sea makes its own stratification.

This stratification process makes a lot of oxygen concentrated at the top so as to produce a lot of biomass in the form of fish and algae. As a result, the food chain and marine biota that need oxygen are clearly disrupted. There is an uneven amount of difference.

This hot temperature also absorbs oxygen on the surface. Well, this change actually disrupts the food chain that has been formed so far. The food chain on which human life is based is the food chain. If the food chain is disrupted, life processes will be disrupted.

Global warming will also have an impact on rising temperatures so that if this happens, what is feared is the lack of consistency in biomass productivity due to rising temperatures. The condition that is feared is that farmers should be harvesting so they don’t harvest.

The income that they should have immediately let go of because of crop failure. The strong become weak, then the food chain will be more lame. Various things can also happen during global warming. This was made in animated form by Son Yeong Un in his book entitled Magic Thousand Character Series: Global Warming Threat.

G. How to Anticipate Global Warming

Here are some steps that can be taken to participate in minimizing the impact of global warming:

  1. Environmental conservation such as reforestation, planting trees and reforesting critical land.
  2. Using energy sourced from alternative energy (water, solar, wind, bioenergy) to reduce the use of fossil fuel energy (petroleum and coal).
  3. Recycling and energy efficiency.
  4. Educational efforts to the wider community by providing understanding and application to prevent global warming.