Impact of Earth Revolution – Sinaumed’s, do you know what Earth revolution is? Earth’s revolution is the movement of the earth around the sun. Not only does the earth revolve around the sun, but the planets in the solar system all revolve around the sun, only at different times.
The solar system is a collection of celestial bodies that interact with each other and have a center, namely the sun. Each planet interacts with other celestial bodies or is called a satellite. If the planets revolve around the sun, the satellites also evolve, that is, they revolve around their respective planets.
The earth around the sun has its own orbit, this orbit is an ellipse. Orbit is a fixed and regular path on an object that surrounds another object. In its revolution, the earth will not be able to go off track because each planet has its own orbit. The orbit is also one of the determinants of the length of time it takes to evolve. The farther from the sun, the longer it takes for the planet to evolve.
In its revolution, the earth also causes impacts on life on earth. The resulting impacts include the change of seasons, the difference in the frequency of day and night, the formation of constellations, the apparent annual motion of the sun, and the existence of the Gregorian calendar. Here is the impact of the earth’s revolution.
Impact of the Earth Revolution
1. Change of Seasons
This revolution of the earth has an impact with the change of seasons and differences in seasons in each part of the world. The northern and southern hemispheres have four seasons that change each year, namely spring, summer, autumn and winter. However, it is different in the hemisphere where the equator passes, in this part it only has two seasons, namely the dry season and the rainy season.
The seasons change based on certain dates. The change of seasons in the northern and southern hemispheres has differences because of course the sun cannot illuminate all parts of the earth.
From March 21 to June 21, the sun begins to appear to the north. The northern hemisphere gets more sunlight. At that time the northern hemisphere experienced spring. Meanwhile, the southern hemisphere gets less sunlight. At that time the area experienced autumn. Both occur at the same time, but the seasons are different.
Then when it enters June 21 to September 23, the sun begins to be located in the northernmost part of the earth. Sunlight in the northern hemisphere is starting to increase. At that time the northern hemisphere was experiencing summer. Conversely, the sun, which begins to move to the northernmost part of the earth, makes the southern part of the earth get less sunlight. That’s when the southern hemisphere experiences winter.
Then from September 23 to December 22, the sun returns to the equator towards the southern part of the earth. At this time the sunlight in the northern hemisphere begins to decrease. Then autumn occurs in the northern hemisphere. While the southern hemisphere gets more sunlight. At that time the southern hemisphere experienced spring.
Finally, from December 22 to March 21, the sun is in the southernmost part of the earth and begins to move north. This causes the northern hemisphere to get less irradiation. At that time the northern hemisphere experienced winter. While the southern hemisphere gets more sunlight, then at that time the southern hemisphere experiences summer. This season continues to rotate into the following years.
The following is a brief explanation of the changing seasons during the earth’s revolution.
- Spring (21 March – 21 June)
- Summer (June 21 – September 23)
- Autumn (September 23 – December 22)
- Winter (22 December – 21 March)
- Spring (September 23 – December 22)
- Summer (22 December – 21 March)
- Autumn (21 March – 21 June)
- Winter (June 21 – September 23)
2. Day and Night Time Frequency Differences
The impact of this revolution of the earth makes a difference in the frequency of day and night. Day and night in the northern and southern parts of the earth will be different from the part of the earth at the equator. In the middle part of the earth or the equator, it has day and night which are evenly divided, 12 hours each.
The combination of the revolution and the tilt of the earth’s axis causes natural phenomena at the time frequency of day and night. The more northerly the time frequency of day or night will feel longer, the southernmost part also feels that way.
Between March 21 and September 23, the sun begins to move toward the north pole and away from the south pole. At this time the northern hemisphere receives more sunlight. This causes the frequency of time during the day in the northern hemisphere to be longer than in the southern hemisphere.
From the equator the sun appears to move north by 23.5 degrees on June 21. Some areas of the northern hemisphere experience 24 hours of day, and some areas of the southern hemisphere experience 24 hours of night.
Then between September 23 and March 21, the opposite occurred. Where the south polar region experiences more sunlight than the north pole.
The frequency of daylight hours in the southern hemisphere is longer than that of the northern hemisphere. On December 22, the sun moves to the southernmost earth by 23.5 degrees. This causes the south pole to experience 24 hours of day, and the north pole to experience 24 hours of night.
Then only on March 21 and September 23 the sun is at the same distance between the north pole and the south pole. The northern and southern hemispheres receive the same amount of sunlight. This results in the length of day and night in all countries being the same. At the equator the sun is directly overhead at this time.
3. Annual Apparent Motion of the Sun
This apparent annual motion of the sun is the backdrop for the changing seasons and the differences in the frequency of day and night that exist on Earth. All the phenomena that occur are due to the position of the sun which changes every month. This revolution of the earth that makes the position of the sun change.
The part of the earth that gets more sunlight experiences day and summer. Likewise happens on the contrary, if the part of the earth that is not exposed to sunlight will experience night and winter. This will happen again and again every year.
As seen in the picture above, the motion of the sun always occurs every three months. From March 21 to June 21, the sun is at the equator and begins to move towards the Tropic of Cancer (GBU) at 23.5 degrees. Then, from June 21 to September 23, the sun returns to the equator.
From September 23 to December 22, the sun moves from the equator to the Tropic of Cancer (GBS) by 23.5 degrees. Then, from December 22 to March 21, the sun returns to the equator.
Why can there be an annual apparent motion of the sun? This happens because the earth revolves around the sun or revolution, and rotates on its axis. Because the earth’s axis has a tilt of 23.5 degrees, each part of the earth has a difference in solar radiation.
When observing this phenomenon continuously, it looks as if the sun is moving from north to south and vice versa to illuminate the earth. This is why it is called the annual apparent motion of the sun. The sun doesn’t really move, but because of the Earth’s revolution, the sun looks like it’s moving. The trajectory of the sun’s apparent motion is called the ecliptic.
There are several terms related to the apparent annual motion of the sun, including solar declination, equinoxes and solstices .
The sun’s declination is the angular distance between a celestial body and the celestial equator. The celestial equator is simply a projection of the earth’s equator onto the sky. It is assumed that the sky has a round shape like the earth.
The sun’s declination changes periodically every day, it can increase or decrease. This declination increases and decreases by about 0.9856 degrees per day. Thus the time it takes for the sun to declinate from +23.5 degrees to -23.5 degrees occurs for 182.6211 days.
Then the equinoxes are the equal length of time between day and night in all parts of the earth. For people who live on the equator, the frequency of days and nights is the same, which is 12 hours. But not for people who live in the northern and southern parts of the earth.
For example, people who live in Europe experience long nights in winter, while people who live in Australia experience longer days in summer. Once entered at the time of the equinoxes , all parts of the earth have the same time frequency.
Then the solstices if translated from Greek means the sun remains. It is called fixed because on certain dates the sun does not move much to the north or south. Usually the sun goes from +25.3 degrees to -23.5 degrees and back again to +23.5 degrees.
Equinoxes and soltices occur twice a year, namely on March 21 and September 23 are called equinoxes , then June 21 and December 22 are called soltices .
4. Formation of Constellations
A constellation is a group of stars that form a certain pattern. Actually the constellations that we see are not close to each other. The location between one star and another is far apart, when we observe it from the earth it looks close together and is arranged in a pattern.
Because of the earth’s revolution, the constellations in each part of the earth will look different. The northern part of the earth can only see the constellations in the north, the southern part of the earth can only see the constellations in the south, as well as the rest of the earth.
According to the International Astronomical Union in 1992 there are 88 constellations. Some of the famous ones are Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Scorpius, and Leo. Of course, these constellations have their own history.
Are you interested in getting a deeper look at these mysterious stars ? This book reviews the use of stars and constellations in depth.
5. There is a Gregorian calendar
This Gregorian calendar was created because of the earth’s revolution. Based on the division of longitude, the limit of the international calendar is at 180 degrees. If in the eastern hemisphere 180 degrees is on the 6th, then in the western hemisphere 180 degrees is still the 5th, this incident seems to have jumped a day. The Gregorian calendar counts one year with 365.25 days.
This Gregorian calendar was originally used by Julius Caesar or known as the Julian calendar. The Julian calendar is calculated based on the time interval between spring and the following spring in the northern hemisphere. This time interval is exactly 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 46 seconds.
In later calculations, Julius Caesar determined the calculation of the Gregorian calendar as follows:
- There are 365 days in a year, and 24 hours in a day.
- Since the 365 days are a quarter more days each year, it exceeds one day every four years to 366 days. The logic is like ¼ multiplied by 4 which results in 1. This year which has 366 days is called a leap year. Usually occurs in February.
- To remember easily, leap years are years that are divisible by four, such as 2000, 2004, 2008, and so on.
Conclusion Impact of Earth Revolution
Earth makes revolutions without stopping. The earth makes revolutions in a long time, which is 365 days or it can be called a year. That is, the earth takes one rotation around the earth with 365 days, one rotation means a year.
At the time of evolution, the earth continues to walk according to its orbit, this makes the earth’s position not always fixed. This results in an annual apparent motion of the sun where on March 21 the sun is at the equator, then on June 21 the sun is at the Tropic of Cancer (GBU) 23.5 degrees, then on September 23 it returns again at the equator, and on December 22 the sun is at the Tropic of Cancer (GBS) 23.5 degrees.
From the daily apparent motion of the sun it also causes the change of seasons and the frequency of day and night. In the northern hemisphere, which is exposed to more sunlight, it will experience summer and longer daylight hours. Meanwhile, the southern hemisphere will experience winter and longer nights.
This revolution of the earth also allows us to see different constellations every month. This constellation will also look different in other parts of the earth. The constellations in the northern hemisphere will be different from the southern hemisphere, as well as in other parts.
With the earth’s revolution, we also know the Gregorian calendar. This Gregorian calendar is divided by 180 degrees. Between one part of the earth to another as if it would be a day different. The existence of this Gregorian calendar also makes us know that every four years there is a leap year, where in February there will be more than one day.
Sinaumed’s, you already understand what the earth’s revolution is and its implications for life on earth. If you want to learn more about the solar system and its contents, you can buy books at sinaumedia.
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Author: Ricky Atthariq