Magnetic Properties – Sinaumed’s must be familiar with magnets because many objects take advantage of magnetic properties to carry out their functions. The study of physics proves that the nature of magnets has many benefits for humans to meet the needs of everyday human activities.
Actually, how does the concept of magnet work? The following is an explanation of the properties of magnets, starting from the meaning, types, and forms that Sinaumed’s needs to know.
Definition of Magnets
Magnets are materials that have special properties to produce attractive and repulsive forces if found with other special materials or materials. Initially magnets were found from metal mining which found metals with the ability to attract other metals, although not all metal materials can be attracted. From this discovery, there are metals that attract strongly, weakly, and are not attracted at all.
The term magnet comes from the Greek word magnitis lithos which means magnesia stone. The Magnesia region in Greece is an area that contains a lot of magnetic stones. Currently the area is named Manisa.
If the magnetic material is between the iron filings, a lot of iron filings will appear sticking to the two magnets. The closer to the center, the less iron filings will stick to it because the magnet has two angles, namely the part where it has the strongest pulling force. So that the middle has a weaker tensile force and tends to be neutral.
In practice, a magnet has characteristics or magnetic properties that other objects or materials do not have. Magnetic properties indicate that a material can carry out its function and purpose in the concept of magnetic work according to the understanding of magnets above. Following are the properties of magnets that Sinaumed’s needs to know in order to be able to distinguish which materials are magnetic and which are not:
1. Can Attract Certain Objects
Magnets are attracted to certain objects that have special properties around them. That means that a magnet cannot attract all the material objects around it, but only those that have special properties related to magnetism. Materials or materials that can be attracted by magnets are for example metal types, although not all types of metals can be attracted by magnets perfectly.
This depends on the type because there are differences in these special materials from the level of strength attracted by the magnet. There are materials that can be attracted strongly, but there are also materials that are very weakly attracted by magnets. This can also be related to the magnetic field which is also one of the properties of magnets.
2. Has Two poles
Magnets must have two poles, namely the positive and negative poles which are located at the end of the magnet. It is in that part that the magnetic force can carry out its function of attracting special materials. We can also call the positive and negative poles the north and south magnetic poles, even though there has never been a naming marker on a magnet. Then how do you know where the north and south poles are?
Sinaumed’s needs to know that the magnet will always face the north side of the earth, and the south pole of the magnet will face the south side of the earth. Why can the magnetic poles follow the direction of the earth like that? This happens because of the influence of a very strong mummy field. The magnetic field was first discovered by a prominent British scientist named William Gilbert in 1600.
William Gilbert revealed the theory that the earth functions as the largest magnet or a giant magnetic rod that can affect all magnetic objects on Earth. Earth has an electromagnetic field surrounded by a liquid core or molten iron and nickel in which electricity also flows. This flow causes the earth’s magnetic field to be so strong that it covers all parts of the earth and outer space around it. The north magnetic pole of the earth is around the south pole of the earth, whereas the south magnetic pole of the earth is around the pole of the earth.
The north pole in the magnetic field can freely move north due to the attraction of the earth’s magnetic south pole which is located around the earth’s north pole. Furthermore, the south pole of the magnetic field can freely move south because of the attraction of the north pole of the earth which is around the south pole of the earth. So the concept of the field is the direction of the magenta line in the earth’s magnetic field from the south pole of the earth to the north pole of the earth.
How could that happen? So the location of the earth’s magnetic poles is not exactly at the location of the earth’s poles. Sinaumed’s could pay attention to the concept of a magnet with the earth’s magnetic field on a compass. The compass needle will show the angle to the north-south currents and the horizontal plane of the earth. The direction of the magnetic axis will make the compass needle form an angle to the north and south of the earth which is then called the declination angle.
The declination angle is a way of storing the direction of a compass needle given the actual north and south directions of the earth. The magnitude of the declination angle in various places is not the same and every year this angle will experience significant changes. In addition to the declination angle, a magnet also has an inclination angle, which is the angle formed by the magnetic axis of the compass needle with the earth’s flat direction. So the magnetic compass needle forms an angle over the horizontal line or the horizontal line of the earth.
Examples of the use of the magnetic properties that have two poles can also be found in the form of navigation used by ships and airplanes. Captains and pilots can find out which is north and south when running their mounts, namely by using the direction of the magnetic poles on a compass needle. They would read the angles of the declamation to determine ship and aircraft movements.
The angle of declamation that continues to change every year makes the compass less accurate when used for directions. Moreover, the development of current technology is able to show a more precise and accurate direction. Such as Radio Beacons which later replaced the compass as a means of confirming the direction of north and south of the earth, including the precise and accurate direction of the wind.
3. Different Poles Will Attract Each Other And Will Repel Each Other If They Meet The Same Pole
Magnets that have two poles make them have special properties in practice in a magnetic field. If Sinaumed’s brings two of the same type of pole closer, there will be a repulsive force.
Conversely, if Sinaumed’s brings together two different poles, there will be an attractive force between the two magnets. So the north pole must meet the south pole in order to produce an attractive force. In the discovery of natural magnets, if Sinaumed’s encounters two opposite magnets, it means that they have the same pole, conversely, if they attract each other, it means that the poles meet are different. The nature of this magnet can provide clues where the poles are the same and which are different.
Sinaumed’s needed to know that if a magnet was then cut into small pieces, it would still have magnetic properties. Although it may only be cut at certain angles. So it can be concluded that magnets consist of small magnets that are located in a row from the north pole facing the south pole and vice versa with the south pole facing the north pole. These small magnets are then referred to as elementary magnets.
4. Magnetic Force Can Penetrate Barriers
Magnets have the strength of an attractive force that can penetrate barrier materials, even with certain categories. The obstacle in question is, for example, if there is metal that is blocked by glass or paper, the metal can still be attracted by a magnet. The category of barrier that the magnet can pass through cannot be too thick. Sinaumed’s was able to prove this magnetic property by sprinkling iron powder on the paper and placing a magnet under the paper, so that the iron can still be attracted by the magnet in the direction of the magnet’s movement.
5. Has a Magnetic Field
Because magnets produce both attractive and repulsive forces, they also have a magnetic field to generate the strength of the magnetic force. Does the magnetic force strengthen or weaken according to the level of density in the magnetic field. Then what is a magnetic field? The magnetic field is a space that is formed around a magnet which still has a magnetic attraction force other than in the magnetic material itself.
The magnetic field can be described as curved lines which are called magnetic lines of force outside the shape of the magnet. To see an illustration of the lines of magnetic force, Sinaumed’s can try sprinkling iron powder on white paper. Take a look, there will definitely appear an order of the iron powder according to the magnetic force in the magnetic field.
This regularity forms a pattern of magnetic lines of force of the same kind if they are brought close to the lines of force that are formed away from each other. So it will appear as if there is empty space in the magnetic field between the north pole and the south pole.
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How to Remove Magnetic Properties
After knowing the meaning of magnets above, Sinaumed’s needs to know that magnetic properties can actually be removed. There are several ways that Sinaumed’s can do to eliminate the properties or characteristics of these magnets so they don’t function like magnets properly. in the following way:
- Beaten to destroy the magnetic material
- Heated to destroy the magnetic material
- Alternating current flows to apply a magnetic force pattern so that it doesn’t work
Types of Magnets You Need to Know
Based on the origin of the material, magnets have various types, namely natural and artificial magnets. The following are the types of magnets that Sinaumed’s needs to know:
1. Natural Magnets
Natural magnets are stone materials that were first discovered in the Magnesia region, Greece long ago. This natural magnet already has magnetic properties from its origin without being processed in a certain way. Usually natural magnets are in the form of rocks with permanent characteristics. That is why natural magnets are difficult to remove their magnetic properties. This magnet was found to already have the ability to attract objects around it without human intervention, which is formed naturally.
2. Artificial Magnets
Artificial magnets were created because they were adapted to human needs by functioning the magnetic properties. Not all materials can be used as magnets where materials or materials that have elementary magnets can be used as magnets. The magnet consists of dominant or elementary magnets. Artificial magnets are also categorized into several types, as follows:
- Artificial Magnets Based on the Duration of Magnetic Strength are divided into permanent magnets and temporary magnets which have their functions and properties. A permanent magnet has a fixed magnetism if its domains or elementary magnets are also regular. For example steel whose elementary magnetism is regularly regular. Meanwhile, temporary magnets are magenta which has elements that are easily messy or scattered. For example, iron, which is elementary, is easy to control, but it’s also easy to lose its magnetic power and scatter it.
- Magnet Based on Material is divided into three, namely ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic. These three types of magnets have different magnetic strengths. The strongest magnetic materials are ferromagnetic, while the weakest are paramagnetic materials. Diamagnetic materials are materials that cannot be made into magnets at all because the material properties of the material do not have elementary magnetic properties.
Because it is artificial, there are ways to make these magnets, such as by rubbing, electric current, and induction. How to make a magnet is also adjusted to the needs of a particular material, including the strength of the resulting magnetic force. For example, the magnetic force on small industrial machines will be weaker than the magnetic force made for large industrial equipment, for example to lift iron and so on.
Based on the nature and type of magnet, Sinaumed’s can find different forms of magnets that still have the same magnetic properties. The following are the forms of magnets that Sinaumed’s needs to know in order to maximize the function of magnets that can be used for daily activities.
A bar magnet is a magnet that looks like a small block or cube in appearance. This form of bar magnet is usually used for glass or wooden cabinet door locks. This magnetic shape can also be used for small items such as pencil cases, gift boxes, bags, shoes, watches, bracelets, and so on.
The shape of the horseshoe magnet is a magnet which is also commonly called a horseshoe because of its shape which resembles a horse’s sole. This form of magnet is usually used to lift magnetic objects.
This needle-shaped magnet is like a pea, elongated, and has a sharp end. This form of magnet is usually used as a material for making compasses that function as compass directions.
Cylindrical magnets have a cylindrical shape that is round and flat. This form of magnet is usually used like bar magnets such as to lock glass or wooden cabinet doors.
A ring magnet has a ring-like shape with a circle in the middle like a hole. This form of magnet is commonly used in loudspeaker, radio, cinema, and cell phone materials. There are also electric motors that use this form of ring magnets.
Book & Article Recommendations
Well, that’s an explanation of the nature of magnets, starting from their understanding, types, and forms. Is Sinaumed’s still having trouble understanding the material about magnets above? If you still have trouble understanding and need references to learn about magnets, you can visit sinaumedia’s collection of sinaumedia books at www.sinaumedia.com. Sinaumed’s can find many references that are in accordance with the curriculum at school. The following is a recommendation for sinaumedia books that you can read about the properties of magnets, especially in physics at school: Enjoy studying. #Friends Without Limits