How to Make Your Own Magnets with Simple Tools and Materials – Magnets are objects that have the ability to attract other objects around them. Magnets have magnetic properties that can attract other objects around them. A magnet is an object in which there is a magnetic field.
Magnet itself comes from the Greek, namely magnítis líthos which means Magnesian stone. The area contains magnetic stones, and Magnesia itself is an area in Greece in the past at this time called Manisa. The material on a magnet has a form in which there is a permanent magnet or a non-permanent magnet.
The magnets that we often encounter today are artificial magnets. Objects that can be attracted more strongly by a magnet, namely metal materials. Examples of objects that have high attractiveness are iron and steel, while materials that have low attractiveness are liquid oxygen.
The appearance of a magnetic phenomenon in a nail or piece of iron that is attracted by an iron rod is one example of the nature of magnetism. The magnetic properties of this bar magnet are known as permanent magnets.
The nation that first used magnets was China by using magnets as a compass. The magnetic field is a vector quantity that has units of Tesla. The properties of the magnetic field around a magnet are that the direction of the magnetic field is the same as the direction of the lines of magnetic force and the magnitude of the magnetic field is proportional to the density of the lines of magnetic force.
Magnetic flux is the number of invisible lines of magnetic force surrounding a magnet. The strength of a magnetic field is determined by the flux field density or the number of lines per cm². If there are many lines of magnetic force, this can determine the strength of a magnetic field.
In a magnet, there are two opposite poles, namely the north pole and the south pole. If a magnet is cut into small pieces, the north pole and south pole will remain. There is compatibility with the geographic north pole of the earth, so that the name is given to the pole where the south pole leads to the geographic south pole of the earth while the north pole leads to the geographic north pole of the earth.
The properties of magnets include:
- Not all objects can be attracted by magnets, so magnets can only attract certain objects around them.
- Magnets have a magnetic force that is able to penetrate objects, which if the magnetic force is large then the magnetic force can penetrate thick objects.
- If there are two magnets that have different poles, and are brought closer to each other, they will attract each other.
- When poles of the same kind are brought closer to each other, they will repel each other.
- The magnetic field will form a magnetic force, which if an object is brought closer to the magnet, the magnetic force generated by the magnet will be greater and vice versa.
- If a magnet continues to fall and burn, then the magnetic properties can be reduced and even lost.
The following are the properties of the magnetic field based on the atoms, namely:
1. Ferromagnetic Material
Ferromagnetic materials can cause great induction, and these ferromagnetic materials are very easily affected by magnetic fields. Because ferromagnetic materials have a large atomic magnetic field resultant. The electrons present in a ferromagnetic material will generate an atomic magnetic field if given an external magnetic field. This material is easy to make permanent magnets.
Ferromagnetism can occur in materials with atoms having atomic magnetic moments in random directions about one another. The magnetic moments become regular and align in the presence of an external magnetic field. After the external magnetic field is removed, the magnetic moments on the atoms of the material will cancel each other to form a magnetic moment with a small amount.
Ferromagnetism is utilized in the material for making hard disks which contain magnetic discs. The ferromagnetic materials used are iron, cobalt, and nickel. The combination of cobalt and nickel results in a strong magnetic arrangement and a large anisotropic magnetic value. Cobalt Nickel produces a magnetic value of 6.69 x 10-24 J/atom with a Curie temperature value of 1388 Kelvin and a coercivity of 512 Oe at a material diameter of 550 nm. Meanwhile, nickel has a strong structure, a coercivity of 426 Oe at a material diameter of 750 nm, and is corrosion resistant. High anisotropy values can be produced by alloying nickel with other metals.
2. Paramagnetic Materials
Paramagnetic materials cannot be made permanent magnets because they are affected by an external magnetic field. A small part of the material will resist if given an external magnetic field. Parametric materials can cause a large induction in a magnetic field, but the induction is smaller than ferromagnetic materials.
Paramagnetic materials are attracted by magnetic fields, and therefore have a relative magnetic permeability greater than unity (or, in other words, positive magnetic susceptibility). However, unlike ferromagnets which are also attracted by magnetic fields, paramagnets do not retain their magnetism when an external magnetic field is no longer applied.
3. Diamagnetic Material
Diamagnetic materials resist magnetism from the outside so they are difficult to be affected by an external magnetic field. A diamagnetic material will cause a small magnetic induction if a diamagnetic material is put into a magnetic field by a magnetic field.
Materials that are called diamagnetic are generally objects that are called non-magnetic, including water, wood, organic compounds such as petroleum and some types of plastics, and some metals such as copper, mercury, gold, and bismuth. Superconductors are an example of a perfect diamagnetic.
Types of Magnets
1. Fixed Magnets
A permanent magnet is a magnet whose magnetic properties remain unless it is subjected to significant external disturbances, for example heating to a high temperature or beating hard enough. Permanent magnets do not require external force or assistance to produce magnetic power (electromagnetic).
The types of permanent magnets known so far are found in:
- Neodymium magnets are the strongest permanent magnets. Neodymium magnets (also known as NdFeB, NIB, or Neo magnets), are a type of rare earth magnet, made of an alloy of neodymium metals.
- Samarium-cobalt magnets are one of two types of rare earth magnets. These magnets are strong permanent magnets made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt.
- Ceramic magnets are magnets whose manufacturing materials are composed of non-metallic inorganic compounds whose processing uses high temperatures. Its use is to make various technical design needs, especially in the fields of electricity, electronics, and mechanics by utilizing ceramic magnets as permanent magnets. This material can produce a magnetic field without having to be given an electric current flowing in a coil or selonoida to maintain its magnetic field.
- Plastic magnets are non-metallic magnets made from organic polymers. One example is PANiCNQ, which is a combination of emeraldine- and tetracyanoquinodimethane- based polyaniline .
- AlNiCo magnet is the earliest developed permanent magnet material, which is an alloy of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron and other trace metals. The Alnico permanent magnet material was developed in the 1930s. At that time, the best magnetic properties, temperature coefficient and small, so it is most widely used in permanent magnet motors. Since the 1960s, with the advent of ferrite magnets and rare earth permanent magnets, the application of AlNiCo magnets in electric motors has gradually been replaced and their proportion has decreased.
2. Non-Fixed Magnets
A non-fixed magnet is a magnet that appears only when it is given external influence. If the influence is given to the magnet, then the magnetic properties will be lost. For example, a nail that is wrapped around a wire is then given an electric current, then the nail will have magnetic properties. However, if the nail is not electrified, its magnetic properties will be lost.
Permanent (remanent) magnets depend on an electric field to produce a magnetic field. Examples of non-fixed magnets are:
- Induction magnets.
- Magnets stick.
3. Artificial Magnets
Artificial magnets cover almost all magnets that exist today. Forms of artificial magnets include:
- U magnets
- Horseshoe magnet.
- Bar magnets.
- Circle magnets.
- Needle magnet (compass).
How to Make Your Own Magnets
Today, magnets have a variety of shapes. There are magnets that are in the shape of needles, cylinders, rods, horseshoes or horseshoes, and rings. Usually the name of the magnet is adjusted to its shape. So how do you make a magnet? For those who are curious, continue to pay attention to the following article because it contains an explanation of how to make magnets in a simple way.
If grouped based on how they are made, magnets are divided into two, namely natural magnets and artificial magnets. Natural magnets are usually formed due to natural processes in nature, for example, earth magnets and magnesian stones which form naturally without human intervention. The artificial magnets are magnets that are made intentionally by humans for various needs. For example for electronic devices, dynamos, measuring devices, and so forth.
Homemade magnets come in many shapes, such as rods, tubes, u-shaped needles, and horseshoes or horseshoes, and each has its own purpose. In general, the magnets that are now widely used in everyday life are artificial magnets. Materials that can be used as artificial magnets are iron, steel, and a mixture of the two.
Quoted from the book Easy to Master Physics of Class 3 Middle School published by the Editors of Kawan Pustaka, there are three ways to make magnets, namely by touch, induction, or electro-magnetic. The following describes the three ways.
1. How to Make a Magnet with a Touch
The simplest way to make a magnet is to touch iron or steel with a bar magnet. Iron is the material that will be made into a magnet. While bar magnets are permanent or fixed magnets. There are two ways of touch that can be done.
First, a single touch, in which an iron bar is rubbed or touched with a permanent magnet from end to end. This scrubbing is done repeatedly. After each rubbing, the bar magnet is lifted high above the iron bar. The goal is that the magnetic properties of both do not weaken. This method has a weakness because the resulting magnetic power is not the same.
Second, the touch of the branch, namely the iron rod rubbed synchronously from the middle to the ends with two opposite magnetic poles. With this method, the resulting pole at the end of the rod is always opposite the pole that the magnet is rubbing against it. This method is better than the single touch method.
Tools and materials:
- One piece of iron or steel.
- One fixed magnet.
- Hold the magnet still, then rub the end of the magnet along the surface of the iron bar.
- Rub the iron with the magnet in one direction and do it repeatedly for about five minutes.
- Next, bring the iron closer to the needle. If the needle can be pulled, it means the iron has become magnetic.
To note, an iron bar rubbed with a fixed magnet for a few minutes will turn into a magnet.
2. How to Make Magnets by Induction
Making a magnet by means of induction is quite easy, namely by bringing an object closer to or attaching it to a magnet so that the object turns into a magnet. If a magnetic object is brought closer to a magnet, it will change its properties to become a magnet, but its nature is only temporary and its magnetism can be lost.
One example that can be done is to place an iron bar near a magnet. The iron will be able to attract iron filings, nails, or small pieces of iron or steel. This shows that the iron rod is magnetic. However, after the iron is further removed from the magnetic poles, the magnetic properties of iron are almost completely lost. The magnetism of an iron bar that is temporary as long as it is brought close to the magnetic poles is called induced magnetism.
Tools and materials:
- One strong magnet.
- One static.
- One iron ingot.
- A few small needles or nails.
- Place the iron rod on the stative in a vertical position.
- Place some needles under the iron bar.
- Place a strong magnet on top of the iron bar and clamp it firmly to prevent it from changing position.
- Observe the needle under the iron. If the needle is attached to an iron rod, it means that the iron has magnetic or magnetic properties.
3. How to Make a Magnet with Electromagnetic
You can also make a magnet by passing an electric current to a magnetic object, this electric current will create a magnetic field. Magnets that are formed due to an electric current are called electromagnetic. The magnetic properties of objects that carry an electric current are temporary. When the electric current is cut off, the magnetic properties of the object will be lost.
Making magnets with electromagnetism can be done by wrapping enameled wire or transformer wire on a magnetic material. Then the ends of the wire are connected to a source of electric current. If the electric current in the wire is strong enough, within a few moments the material has become a magnet.
If the magnetic material is made of steel, you will get a permanent magnet. However, if the magnetic material is made of iron, the magnetic properties will only exist when the wire is electrified. Making a magnet with an electric current is better than the touch or induction method. Therefore, the magnetic power obtained will be greater.
The advantages of electromagnetic magnets are as follows:
- Magnetism can be strengthened by increasing the number of turns.
- The strength of the magnet can be varied by changing the current strength.
- Its magnetic properties are only temporary, namely when current flows. If the current is cut, the magnetic properties will be lost.
- Both poles can be exchanged, that is by changing the direction of the current.
- The way to store it is also very easy, unlike storing permanent magnets.
Tools and materials:
- One iron nail with a length of 5 cm.
- Two batteries of any size (can be AAA, AA, C, or D).
- Coil wire or iron wire.
- Several needles.
- Wrap the coil wire or iron wire around the iron nail.
- Peel the two ends of the coil cable or iron wire using scissors.
- Connect both ends of the cable to the positive and negative terminals of the battery.
- Bring the needles close to the iron nails that have been wound.
- Next, make observations. When it becomes a magnet, the iron nail will attract needles that are nearby.
Those are three ways to make simple magnets that you can try at home. I hope this information is helpful.